Leibniz Meeting 20070405

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Leibniz Meeting 20070405

  1. 1. A quick ‘n easy intro to LKIF Core Rinke Hoekstra
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The LKIF Core Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Design, Requirements & Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic-level modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal modules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
  3. 3. LKIF-Core <ul><li>Core ontology of basic legal concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions by UvA, UNIBO, Liv, FOKUS </li></ul><ul><li>Specified using OWL-DL (SHOIN(D)) </li></ul><ul><li>14 modules, 205 classes, 99 properties </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Available online at http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation at http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core/doc </li></ul>
  4. 4. Principled Design <ul><li>Separation Frames & Ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements & contexts of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practitioners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal theoreticians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize & Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning & Problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic annotation & Search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic integration/interoperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of a domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul>
  5. 5. Middle-out Methodology <ul><li>Identification of clusters of basic concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Top-20 of legal concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Term scoring on 5 aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abstractness, relevance, commonsense vs. legal, common legal vs. domain specific, importance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation and integration of existing top ontologies (LLD, DOLCE-CLO, LRI-Core) and theories </li></ul>
  6. 6. LKIF-Core Scores <ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissive right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abstractness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deontic operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligative right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissive right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anancastic rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existential initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existential termination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potestative right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive characterisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute obligative right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoricy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deontic operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LKIF-Core Modules (1) <ul><li>14 modules </li></ul><ul><li>Top </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top, mereology, place, time, process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>action, expression, role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm, legal-role, legal-action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary & Frames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification, rules </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Top level <ul><li>5 modules define the ‘canvas’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top, mereology, place, time, process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largely based on the top-level of LRI-Core but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less ontological commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less restrictions on subclasses of the top categories. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mereology (1): Concepts
  10. 10. Mereology (2): Relations
  11. 11. Time (1): Concepts <ul><li>Based on Allen (1984) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Time (2): Relations
  13. 13. Place (1): Concepts <ul><li>Based on Donnelly (05) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Place (2): Relations
  15. 15. Process (1): Concepts
  16. 16. Process (2): Relations
  17. 17. Basic level <ul><li>Defines concepts ‘basic’ to commonsense, communication and reasoning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents, Actions and Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social roles, Functions and Epistemic Roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propositions and Propositional Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentions, Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressions, Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action, role, expression </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Action (1): Agent
  19. 19. Action (2): Action
  20. 20. Role (1): Three types <ul><li>Epistemic Role </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define the use of mental objects in reasoning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Played by physical objects (artifacts) to a certain purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Played by an actor ‘as a member of’ an organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Played by an actor independent of organisational context </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Role (2): Overview
  22. 22. Expression (1): Proposition and Medium <ul><li>Proposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluative proposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Something which is evaluated, ‘judged’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluatively comparable to some other eval. Proposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated by some evaluative attitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Externalised through some medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stated by some communicated attitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Document: bears expressions stated by some statement in writing </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Expression (2): PA’s and Qualifications <ul><li>Held towards a proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Propositional Attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief, Desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicated Attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assertion, Declaration, Promise, Statment in Writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created through a Speech Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addressed to and uttered by some agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluative Attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses a judgment concerning some proposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualification vs. Qualified </li></ul>
  24. 24. Expression (3): Epistemic Roles <ul><li>Evidence, Fact, Assumption, Expectation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation is played by some P towards which a belief is held. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence is played by some P (towards which a belief is held) which also plays some Observation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>played by some PA which is observed by an Agent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reason, Argument, Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason is played by some P, Argument by some E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exception </li></ul>
  25. 25. Expression (4): Relations
  26. 26. Legal level <ul><li>Legal action defines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public acts, public bodies, legal person, natural person etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal-role defines legal concepts related to roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal professions etc. (more work needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norm module defines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms as qualifications (D1.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal sources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. legal documents, customary law etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typology of rights and powers (Sartor (2006), Rubino et al. (2006)) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Norm (1): Norms <ul><li>A Qualification which qualifies some Normatively Qualified </li></ul><ul><li>Permission allows some/all Allowed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation = Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows some/all Obliged and disallows some/all Disallowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sartor: the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recogition in civil society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability, Liberty, Obligative, Exclusionary and Permissive rights. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Norm (2): Normatively Qualified
  29. 29. Norm (3): Legal Sources
  30. 30. Legal Action
  31. 31. Frameworks <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary of Tom Gordon’s LKIF rule language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistemic Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of modifications of legal texts (Monica Palmirani) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Modification
  33. 33. Rules (& Epistemic Roles)
  34. 34. Problematic Things <ul><li>Inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Class Inclusion axioms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debugging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entanglement of modules did not really help </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. TODO’s & Conclusions <ul><li>Connection Norms & Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Action & Role are underspecified </li></ul><ul><li>Connect MetaLex OWL model to LKIF-Core </li></ul><ul><li>Try and use it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcello’s Traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raad van State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontology URL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core/lkif-core.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core/doc </li></ul></ul>

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