BestPortal and BestMapLessons Learned in Lightweight Semantic Access to Court Proceedings<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />Rinke H...
Overview<br />Open Government Data<br />Bridging the Gap<br />InformationServing<br />BestPortal<br />VocabularyMapping<br...
Open Government Data<br />Variety of information types<br />Recently: Paradigm shift<br />Public Services<br />Open Data<b...
Question<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />“Does my case stand a chance in court?”<br />
BestPortal<br />BEST Project<br />“BATNA Establishment using Semantic Web Technology”<br />Best Alternative to a Negotiate...
Step 1: Open Up!<br />Make court proceedings publicly available<br />(http://www.rechtspraak.nl)<br />But: Full text searc...
Step 2<br />Semantic annotation of meta and data<br />Embedded RDFa<br />Direct publication as RDF<br />Examples:<br />CEN...
Step 3: Back to services, then?<br />Knowledge Intensive services<br />Given a ‘commonsense’ description of a case,<br />…...
Problems<br />Too expensive!<br />Requires complete and coherent case descriptions<br />Significant, if not insurmountable...
Best Horsesehoe in 2005<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />Case is inferred to be of some type of liability(articles 6:163-6:197 BW)...
Search (some statistics)<br />“Fingerprints”<br />Vector of weighted terms<br />Article-based<br />Relevance, 0%-40%<br />...
So, what next?<br />`Qualification’ of a case is:<br />Too expensive<br />Theoretical overcommitment<br />and<br />Not nec...
Eureka!<br />Given an annotation task:<br />A layman will describe the facts<br />A legal professional will describe the q...
BestPortal: Requirements<br />Translate layman description to legal terms<br />Search using fingerprints of legal terms<br...
… and some necessary technical improvements</li></ul>Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Vocabularies<br />Cultural Heritage<br />Museums, libraries<br />Huge repositories of (rich) information<br />Annotated us...
EuropeanaDatacloud<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Why Vocabulary Mapping<br />Integrated access?Vocabulary mapping!<br />Format (XML to RDF)<br />e.g. via XSLT one-way tran...
Mapping in SKOS<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Information retrieval perspectivevs. lightweight semantics<br />No many-to-many mappings<br />Mapping only between pairs o...
Extensional View<br />SKOS relations<br />“Resources annotated by some concept should be retrievable via its broader conce...
BestMap: Requirements<br />Extensional perspective<br />Concepts as annotations on resources<br />Compatibility<br />Integ...
Connecting to SKOS (3)<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Mappings as OWL Classes<br />A mapping class:<br />Classifies resources annotated using one vocabulary, and<br />Infers an...
Example<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Rinke Hoekstra<br />
BestMap: Discussion<br />Extensible<br />Any OWL axiom may be used in a mapping (e.g. someValuesFrom etc.)<br />Reusable (...
BestMap in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
Quick Demo (1)<br />BestMap in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
… but now the mappings<br />Problem<br />The Good Ol’ Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck<br />BestMap provides little struct...
Quick DEMO (2)<br />BestMap-based Case Frames in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
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20091210 Best Portal Leibniz Meeting

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20091210 Best Portal Leibniz Meeting

  1. 1. BestPortal and BestMapLessons Learned in Lightweight Semantic Access to Court Proceedings<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Open Government Data<br />Bridging the Gap<br />InformationServing<br />BestPortal<br />VocabularyMapping<br />BestMap<br />Case Frames<br />Discussion<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  3. 3. Open Government Data<br />Variety of information types<br />Recently: Paradigm shift<br />Public Services<br />Open Data<br />“It’s the data, stupid!”<br />Pro-active information disclosure<br />… open formats, (user) interface, unique ids<br />But… is `just the data’ enough?<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  4. 4. Question<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />“Does my case stand a chance in court?”<br />
  5. 5. BestPortal<br />BEST Project<br />“BATNA Establishment using Semantic Web Technology”<br />Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement<br />Unlawful Act (Tort)<br />Improve access to court proceedings<br />Netherlands Council of the Judiciary http://www.rechtspraak.nl<br />50 thousand verdicts<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  6. 6. Step 1: Open Up!<br />Make court proceedings publicly available<br />(http://www.rechtspraak.nl)<br />But: Full text search is not enough<br />Laymen<br />Lawyers<br />Lawyers have their own language: <br />legalese<br />Bridge the gap between common sense and legal knowledge<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  7. 7. Step 2<br />Semantic annotation of meta and data<br />Embedded RDFa<br />Direct publication as RDF<br />Examples:<br />CEN MetaLex<br />http://data.gov.uk<br />http://data-gov.tw.rpi.edu (http://data.gov in RDF)<br />But: these still do not bridge the gap<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  8. 8. Step 3: Back to services, then?<br />Knowledge Intensive services<br />Given a ‘commonsense’ description of a case,<br />… provide the legal qualification<br />Examples<br />LKIF Core + HARNESS<br />… original approach of BEST (van Laarschot, 2005)<br />(In case you’re wondering, it could not deal with exceptions)<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  9. 9. Problems<br />Too expensive!<br />Requires complete and coherent case descriptions<br />Significant, if not insurmountable modelling effort<br />Maintenance costs<br />… especially in case law<br />Quality assurance<br />Legal theoretical commitment<br />Mappings are definitions<br />Specified using subsumption or equivalence axioms<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  10. 10. Best Horsesehoe in 2005<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />Case is inferred to be of some type of liability(articles 6:163-6:197 BW)<br />
  11. 11. Search (some statistics)<br />“Fingerprints”<br />Vector of weighted terms<br />Article-based<br />Relevance, 0%-40%<br />Based on prototypical cases<br />Relevance, 10%-83%<br />… added some ‘indicative phrases’<br />Relevance, 47%-83%<br />Concept-based fingerprints<br />Clear vs. Open-Textured<br />Relevance, 58%-83%<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  12. 12. So, what next?<br />`Qualification’ of a case is:<br />Too expensive<br />Theoretical overcommitment<br />and<br />Not necessarily useful for search (!)<br />But then… how should the gap be bridged?<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  13. 13. Eureka!<br />Given an annotation task:<br />A layman will describe the facts<br />A legal professional will describe the qualification<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />Mappings should hold between descriptions of court proceedings, not concepts.<br />
  14. 14. BestPortal: Requirements<br />Translate layman description to legal terms<br />Search using fingerprints of legal terms<br />Context in which layman concepts co-occur in a case determines the applicability of a legal concept<br /><ul><li>A mapping is not the definition of a concept
  15. 15. … and some necessary technical improvements</li></ul>Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  16. 16. Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  17. 17. Vocabularies<br />Cultural Heritage<br />Museums, libraries<br />Huge repositories of (rich) information<br />Annotated using many different vocabularies (knowledge organization systems)<br />Concept-based information retrieval<br />Europeana portal (http://www.europeana.eu)<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  18. 18. EuropeanaDatacloud<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  19. 19. Why Vocabulary Mapping<br />Integrated access?Vocabulary mapping!<br />Format (XML to RDF)<br />e.g. via XSLT one-way transformation<br />Structure (VCard:Given + VCard:Family to foaf:name)<br />e.g. via SPARQL++, one-way transformation<br />Concepts (foaf:Person to lkif:Person)<br />Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)<br />Lifting existing KOS’s to the Semantic Web<br />Every skos:Concept is an OWL individual<br />Lightweight semantic relations: broader, narrower, and related.<br />Lightweight mapping relations between skos:ConceptSchemes.<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  20. 20. Mapping in SKOS<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  21. 21. Information retrieval perspectivevs. lightweight semantics<br />No many-to-many mappings<br />Mapping only between pairs of concepts<br />Required for re-indexing and search across collections (Isaac et al. 2007)<br />… fundamental issue<br />SKOS concepts and relations are ‘intensional’<br />What does a mapping then mean?<br />Implicit assumption of extensionality<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  22. 22. Extensional View<br />SKOS relations<br />“Resources annotated by some concept should be retrievable via its broader concept.”<br />SKOS mappings<br />“Resources annotated by some concept should be retrievable via the concepts it is mapped to.”<br />… only means to assess quality<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  23. 23. BestMap: Requirements<br />Extensional perspective<br />Concepts as annotations on resources<br />Compatibility<br />Integrated with SKOS<br />Hierarchic mappings<br />Exploit skos:broader and skos:narrower<br />Many-to-many mappings<br />Granularity<br />Context determines whether a mapping holds<br />Flexible and Lightweight<br />A mapping is not the definition of a concept<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  24. 24. Connecting to SKOS (3)<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  25. 25. Mappings as OWL Classes<br />A mapping class:<br />Classifies resources annotated using one vocabulary, and<br />Infers annotations using the other vocabulary<br />… it may be directed<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  26. 26. Example<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  27. 27. Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  28. 28. BestMap: Discussion<br />Extensible<br />Any OWL axiom may be used in a mapping (e.g. someValuesFrom etc.)<br />Reusable (partial) mappings<br />Exclude resources annotated with a particular concept<br />Negative property assertions<br />Novel<br />“Reification” wrt. normal OWL ontologies<br />Overcomes limitations of SKOS semantics<br />Makes explicit the extensional perspective that underlies SKOS semantics<br />Non-intrusive<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  29. 29. BestMap in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  30. 30. Quick Demo (1)<br />BestMap in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  31. 31. … but now the mappings<br />Problem<br />The Good Ol’ Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck<br />BestMap provides little structure<br />Solution<br />Case Frames (!)<br />Focus on the Unlawful Act<br />Thematic Roles<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  32. 32. Quick DEMO (2)<br />BestMap-based Case Frames in BestPortal<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />
  33. 33. Future Work<br />Apply BestMap to other domains<br />Legal assessment based on spatial plans<br />…<br />Further development of BestPortal<br />Case Frames<br />Do the mappings actually work?<br />Does BestPortal really improve access to court proceedings?<br />Connect to the linked data cloud<br />Rinke Hoekstra<br />

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