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Universal declaration of human rights


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  • 1. Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2United Nations Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, with- out distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, prop- erty, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self- governing or under any other limita- tion of All human beings are born with equal and inalienable rights sovereignty. and fundamental freedoms. Article 3 Everyone has the right to life, liberty and The United Nations is committed to upholding, promoting and protecting security of person. the human rights of every individual. This commitment stems from the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the faith of the peoples of the world Article 4 in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; person. slavery and the slave trade shall be prohib- ited in all their forms. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has Article 5 stated in clear and simple terms the rights which belong equally to every No one shall be subjected to torture or to person. cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. These rights belong to you. Article 6 They are your rights. �amiliari�e yourself with them. Everyone has the right to recognition every- Help to promote and defend them for yourself where as a person before the law. as well as for your fellow human beings. Article 7 All are equal before the law and are entitled Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 without any discrimination to equal protec- Preamble have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity human rights, in the dig- nity constantly in mind, shall strive by teach- ing and and of the equal and inalienable rights of and worth of the human education to promote respect for these rights and all members of the human family is person and in the equal rights freedoms and by progres- sive measures, national the foundation of freedom, justice and of men and women and have and international, to secure their universal and peace in the world, determined to promote social effective rec- ognition and observance, both Whereas disregard and contempt for among the peoples of Member States themselves human rights have resulted in barbarous progress and better standards of life and among the peoples of territories under their acts which have outraged the conscience in larger freedom, jurisdiction. of mankind, and the advent of a world in Whereas Member States have pledged which human beings shall enjoy freedom tion of the law. All are entitled to equal pro- themselves to achieve, in cooperation of speech and belief and freedom from tection against any discrimination in violation with the United Nations, the promotion fear and want has been proclaimed as the of this Declaration and against any of universal respect for and observance of highest aspiration of the common incitement to such discrimination. human rights and fundamental freedoms, people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to Whereas a common understanding of these Article 8 rights and freedoms is of the greatest Everyone has the right to an effective be compelled to have recourse, as a last importance for the full realization of remedy by the competent national tribunals resort, to rebellion against tyranny and this pledge, for acts violating the fundamental rights oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Now, therefore, granted him by the constitution or by law. Whereas it is essential to promote the The General Assembly Article 9 devel- opment of friendly relations Proclaims this Universal Declaration of No one shall be subjected to arbitrary between nations, Human Rights as a common standard of arrest, detention or exile. Whereas the peoples of the United Nations achieve- ment for all peoples and all
  • 2. Article10Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fairand public hearing by an independentand impartial tribunal, in thedetermination of his rights and obligationsand of any criminal charge against him.Article11(1) Everyone charged with a penaloffence has the right to be presumedinnocent until proved guilty according to lawin a public trial at which he has had all theguarantees neces- sary for his defence.(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penaloffence on account of any act or omission
  • 3. which did not constitute a penal offence, to seek, receive and impart information and (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled tounder national or international law, at the ideas through any media and regardless special care and assistance. All children,time when it was committed. Nor shall of frontiers. whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy thea heavier penalty be imposed than the one same social protection.that was applicable at the time the penal Articleoffence was committed. 20 Article 26 (1) Everyone has the right to education. Edu-Article (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of cation shall be free, at least in the elemen- peaceful assembly and association.12 tary and fundamental stages. Elementary (2) No one may be compelled to belong to education shall be compulsory. Technical andNo one shall be subjected to arbitrary inter- an association. professional education shall be made generallyference with his privacy, family, home or available and higher education shall becor- respondence, nor to attacks upon his Article equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.honour and reputation. Everyone has theright to the protection of the law against 21 (2) Education shall be directed to the fullsuch interfer- ence or attacks. (1) Everyone has the right to take part development of the human personality and to in the government of his country, directly the strengthening of respect for human rightsArticle or through freely chosen representatives. and fundamental freedoms. It shall pro- mote13 (2) Everyone has the right to equal access to understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of public service in his country. further the activities of the United Nations for themovement and residence within the borders (3) The will of the people shall be the basis maintenance of peace.of each State. of the authority of government; this will shall (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind(2) Everyone has the right to leave any be expressed in periodic and genuine elec- of education that shall be given to their children.coun- try, including his own, and to tions which shall be by universal andreturn to his country. equal suffrage and shall be held by secret Article 27 vote or by equivalent free votingArticle procedures. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the14 Article arts and to share in scientific advance- ment(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to and its benefits.enjoy in other countries asylum from 22 (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of thepersecution. Everyone, as a member of society, has moral and material interests resulting from any the right to social security and is entitled to(2) This right may not be invoked in the scientific, literary or artistic produc- tion of which reali- zation, through national effort andcase of prosecutions genuinely arising from he is the author. interna- tional cooperation and innon-political crimes or from acts contrary tothe purposes and principles of the United accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, Article 28Nations. Everyone is entitled to a social and interna- social and cultural rights indis- pensable for tional order in which the rights and freedoms setArticle his dignity and the free develop- ment of his forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. personality.15(1) Everyone has the right to a Article Article 29 (1) Everyone has duties to the community innationality. 23 which alone the free and full development of his(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of (1) Everyone has the right to work, to personality is possible.his nationality nor denied the right to free choice of employment, to just andchange his nationality. favourable conditions of work and to (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, protection against unemployment. everyone shall be subject only to such limi-Article tations as are determined by law solely for the (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has purpose of securing due recognition and16 the right to equal pay for equal work. respect for the rights and freedoms of others(1) Men and women of full age, without any and of meeting the just requirements of morality, (3) Everyone who works has the right to justlimitation due to race, nationality or public order and the general wel- fare in a and favourable remuneration ensuring forreli- gion, have the right to marry and to democratic society. himself and his family an existence worthyfound a family. They are entitled to of human dignity, and supplemented, if (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case beequal rights as to marriage, during necessary, by other means of social exercised contrary to the purposes andmarriage and at its dissolution. protection. principles of the United Nations.(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with (4) Everyone has the right to form andthe free and full consent of the to join trade unions for the protection of Article 30intending spouses. his interests. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as(3) The family is the natural and fundamental implying for any State, group or person any rightgroup unit of society and is entitled to pro- Article to engage in any activity or to perform any acttection by society and the State. 24 aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.Article Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of17 working hours and periodic holidays with(1) Everyone has the right to own alone as well as in association withothers. Article(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of 25his property. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the healthArticle and well- being of himself and of his18 family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary socialEveryone has the right to freedom of services, and the right to security in thethought, conscience and religion; this right event of unemployment, sickness,includes freedom to change his religion or disability, widowhood, old age or otherbelief, and freedom, either alone or in lack of livelihood in circumstancescommunity with others and in public or beyond his control.private, to manifest his religion or belief inteaching, practice, wor- ship andobservance.
  • 4. United Nations Department of Public InformationArticle19 For more information has the right to freedom ofopinion and expression; this right includes tm to hold opinions withoutinterference and
  • 5. United Nations Department of Public InformationArticle19 For more information has the right to freedom ofopinion and expression; this right includes tm to hold opinions withoutinterference and
  • 6. United Nations Department of Public InformationArticle19 For more information has the right to freedom ofopinion and expression; this right includes tm to hold opinions withoutinterference and
  • 7. United Nations Department of Public InformationArticle19 For more information has the right to freedom ofopinion and expression; this right includes tm to hold opinions withoutinterference and