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WHAT IS SCM? Revision control, also known as version control and source control is the management ofchanges to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. ~ Wikipedia
COMMANDS YOU SHOULD KNOWls List the contents of a directoryls -la List ALL the contents of a directory (hidden files, times, sizes)cd xx Change to the directory “xx”cd .. Change to the directory above this onecd ~ Change to your home directorycd / Change to the directory at the root of your computermkdir Make a directorypwd -P Show the full path of the current directory[letter][tab] Autocomplete or show all possibilities[up-arrow] Use the last command in your history
OTHER USEFUL COMMANDS[Ctrl]+R Search for a previously used commandhistory List the last 100 or so commands you usedalias l="ls -la" Assign the command “l” to do “ls -la”mv xx yy Rename/move the file “xx” as “yy”rm xx Delete the file named “xx”rmdir xx Delete the empty directory named “xx”
LET’S MAKE A FILEStep 1 Step 2• Change to the user directory • Find the directory you created in• Make a directory for this class Finder/Explorer• Change to the class directory • Create a file called “contributors.txt”• Create a directory called “names” • Edit that file in your editor• Change to that directory • Add your name to the file Do not create the directory using Finder/Explorer/your editor!
CREATE A REPOConfigure Git Global Settings• Set your git username git config --global user.name "github-user-name"• Set your git email address git config --global user.email "github-email“• Set your git editor Mac: git config --global core.editor "nano" Windows: Use GitPadProcedure• Change to the working directory• Initialize the repo git init
GIT STATUSFiles can have (in general) 4 states: • Untracked • Tracked • Changed • Staged
GIT ADD/STAGE We need a way to stage things to be committed. Committing is an “all at once” action.Procedure• Add the contributors.txt file to stage it. git add contributors.txt• Check the status of the working directory. git status
COMMIT Commit changes to the repo. All staged changes are committed at once. Every commit is stored in the repo with a “hash”.Procedure• Commit all staged changes git commit
LET’S MAKE A CHANGEProcedure• Get neighbor’s name and why they’re here• Add neighbor’s name to your editor (It’s still open, right?)• Save the file with the added name• Check the status of your working directory git status• Add the file to be staged git add contributors.txt• commit the changes to your repo git commit
GIT STASH Stash is the coolest feature ever. Stash allows you to make other changes mid-change.Procedure• While you still have changes… DO NOT COMMIT!• Instead, stash your changes git stash• Then make your change, add, and commit as normal git add; git commit• Then pop your change off the stash git stash pop
GIT DIFF For when you ask yourself, Hey, wait a minute, what did I change? ?Procedure• Use Diff to see what is currently changed, but not yet staged git diff• Use Diff to see what is staged, but not yet committed git diff –cached• Use Diff to see the differences between your working copy and the last commit git diff HEAD
GIT LOG Use the log to see what you and others have been adding to your repo.Procedure• Use git log to see all changes in your current branch git log• Use --oneline to see each change in the log on one line git log –oneline• Use the hashes shown in the log to get the diff between two commits git diff
GIT REBASE This is the “What the heck?” git command. Rebase allows you to combine a bunch of commits into one that makes you look less like a freakish commit-crazy idiot.Procedure• Use rebase to interactively select from the last 5 small commits to combine into one big commit git rebase –I HEAD~5
BRANCHING Branching allows you to get experimental. You can leave the state of master alone, and work solely on your branch.Process• Create a new branch git branch markdownlist• Checkout the branch you want to work on git checkout markdownlist• OR Create a new branch and switch to using it all in one step git checkout -b markdownlist• Then list the branches that are available git branch git branch -v
SWITCHING BETWEEN BRANCHES Branches track their own change history. Switching between branches changes only the unmodified, tracked files in your working copy.Procedure• Check with branch you are on git status• Checkout the master branch git checkout master• Verify that you’re on the master branch git status
REINTEGRATING BRANCHES If the changes in a branch need to be copied into the master branch, they should be merged. Merging is usually a scary word.Procedure• Checkout the branch that the new code should be moved to git checkout master• Merge the branch into the current branch git merge markdownlist
FEATURE BRANCHESDevelopment teams use Feature Branches for different purposes.
TAGGING Tagging marks a specific commit with a name, and optionally annotates it.Procedure• Use git tag to create a lightweight tag of the current branch at HEAD git tag version1• OR, Use the -a flag to annotate the tag git tag -a version 1 -m "My message"• Use git show to see the commit of the tag git show version1
INITIALIZE A REPO FROM SCRATCH ON GITHUB Using the instructions to get a repo from Github.Procedure• Create the repo on Github• Follow the instructions to create an empty repo git init; git add; git commit• Connect the repo to Github git remote add origin email@example.com:ringmaster/scm.git• Push the repo to Github git push –u origin master
GIT PUSH After you’ve completed a commit that you want to share, push your commits to the remote repository.Procedure• Finalize any commits (modified or untracked files won’t be pushed!)• Execute git push on your repo git push origin master
GIT PULL When you want to update your working copy from the remote repository, use git pull.Procedure• Commit or stash any changes (git won’t let you pull over modified files!)• Execute git pull on your repo git pull origin master
ADDING A NEW REMOTELet’s try creating a new repo on Github for our contributors.txt file repo, and then pushing to that remote.Procedure• Create a new repo on Github• Add the repo URL (ssh) as a remote on the existing working copy git remote add origin firstname.lastname@example.org:ringmaster/contrib.git• Push the repo to Github git push –u origin master
CLONING When there is an existing repo on Github that you would like to work on as your working copy, you clone it.Procedure• Copy the git URL from the Github page (use the ssh version)• Execute git clone where you want to create your new working copy git clone email@example.com:ringmaster/fob.git
HERE WE GO…https://github.com/ringmaster/gdiscm
OWEN’S IMMUTABLE LAWS OF SCM• If you run blame, you’re most likely to find that you’re the one at fault. • Commit whenever you feel like you’ve reached a point that you’re complete, even (especially) if you might immediately rewrite the whole thing.