THE KIDNEY Organ of osmoregulation and excretion © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
The urinary system © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Kidney Ureter Aorta Renal vein Bladder Renal artery Vena cava Urethra
The Kidney © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Pelvis Ureter Medulla organised in pyramids Cortex Outer membrane Renal Vein Renal ar...
The blood supply © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
The cortex (view x100) Tubule Malpighian or renal corpuscles © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
The Malpighian corpuscle (view x400) Glomerulus – a ball of capillaries Bowman’s capsule © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
Medulla (view x400) Tubules Capillaries © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
The nephron In the cortex In the medulla © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS
The nephron © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus Proximal convoluted tubule Capillary Loop of Henlé Colle...
Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>Blood enters the glomerulus from a branch of the renal artery </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>A membrane surrounds each capillary of the glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>The blood pla...
Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>The filtration membrane is held in place by specialised podocytes </li></ul>© 2008 Pa...
Blood plasma v Filtrate © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS 0 8.00 Proteins 0.72 0.72 Salts 0.05 0.05 Amino acids 0.10 0.10 Glucose ...
The nephron functions Variable permeability to water Impermeable to water Freely permeable to water © 2008 Paul Billiet  O...
The nephron osmoregulation Na +  Na +  Na + Active reabsorption H 2 O H 2 O Passive osmosis 80% of water reabsorbed Ultraf...
The nephron osmoregulation Collecting duct Loop of Henlé © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Variable permeability to water Impermea...
The nephron osmoregulation <ul><li>The blood concentration is monitored by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul...
The nephron osmoregulation <ul><li>The urine released into the pelvis is more or less concentrated depending upon the bloo...
Kidney reabsorption © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS 0 0 Proteins 1.50 0.72 Salts 0 0.05 Amino acids 0 0.10 Glucose 2.00 0.03 Ure...
Reabsorption Microvilli on cuboidal epithelial cells Kidney tubule with brush border © 2008 Paul Billiet  ODWS Dr Millet U...
The proximal tubules reabsorb: <ul><li>80% of water </li></ul><ul><li>All of the glucose </li></ul><ul><li>All of the amin...
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Powerpoint Presentation: The Kidney

  1. 1. THE KIDNEY Organ of osmoregulation and excretion © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  2. 2. The urinary system © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Kidney Ureter Aorta Renal vein Bladder Renal artery Vena cava Urethra
  3. 3. The Kidney © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Pelvis Ureter Medulla organised in pyramids Cortex Outer membrane Renal Vein Renal artery Urine Nephrons (2 million)
  4. 4. The blood supply © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  5. 5. The cortex (view x100) Tubule Malpighian or renal corpuscles © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  6. 6. The Malpighian corpuscle (view x400) Glomerulus – a ball of capillaries Bowman’s capsule © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  7. 7. Medulla (view x400) Tubules Capillaries © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  8. 8. The nephron In the cortex In the medulla © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  9. 9. The nephron © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus Proximal convoluted tubule Capillary Loop of Henlé Collecting duct Distil convoluted tubule Branch of renal vein Branch of renal artery
  10. 10. Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>Blood enters the glomerulus from a branch of the renal artery </li></ul><ul><li>This blood is under high pressure </li></ul><ul><li>The capillary walls are one cell thick </li></ul><ul><li>They are pierced with openings (fenestrations) </li></ul><ul><li>The plasma filters though the membrane under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins do not pass </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Southern Illinois School of Medicine
  11. 11. Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>A membrane surrounds each capillary of the glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>The blood plasma is filtered at about 150 litres per day </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Southern Illinois School of Medicine
  12. 12. Filtration in the glomerulus <ul><li>The filtration membrane is held in place by specialised podocytes </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Auer Lab Life Sci Div Lawrence Berkley National Lab Southern Illinois School of Medicine
  13. 13. Blood plasma v Filtrate © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS 0 8.00 Proteins 0.72 0.72 Salts 0.05 0.05 Amino acids 0.10 0.10 Glucose 0.03 0.03 Urea Filtrate / mg 100cm -3 Plasma / mg 100cm -3 Component
  14. 14. The nephron functions Variable permeability to water Impermeable to water Freely permeable to water © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  15. 15. The nephron osmoregulation Na + Na + Na + Active reabsorption H 2 O H 2 O Passive osmosis 80% of water reabsorbed Ultrafiltration under pressure © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Variable permeability to water Impermeable to water Freely permeable to water
  16. 16. The nephron osmoregulation Collecting duct Loop of Henlé © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Variable permeability to water Impermeable to water Freely permeable to water More and more salty H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O Na + Na + Na +
  17. 17. The nephron osmoregulation <ul><li>The blood concentration is monitored by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>If the concentration rises the hypothalamus releases ADH </li></ul><ul><li>ADH makes the collecting duct walls more permeable </li></ul><ul><li>More water is reabsorbed from the filtrate as the ducts pass through the salty tissues of the medulla </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  18. 18. The nephron osmoregulation <ul><li>The urine released into the pelvis is more or less concentrated depending upon the blood concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive sweating and eating salty food will produce concentrated urine </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking and cold weather will produce dilute urine </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
  19. 19. Kidney reabsorption © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS 0 0 Proteins 1.50 0.72 Salts 0 0.05 Amino acids 0 0.10 Glucose 2.00 0.03 Urea Urine / mg 100cm -3 Filtrate / mg 100cm -3 Component
  20. 20. Reabsorption Microvilli on cuboidal epithelial cells Kidney tubule with brush border © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS Dr Millet USC Med schooll
  21. 21. The proximal tubules reabsorb: <ul><li>80% of water </li></ul><ul><li>All of the glucose </li></ul><ul><li>All of the amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pH is regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Blood salt levels are regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is left behind and even secreted into the tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorbed molecules pass into the surrounding capillaries </li></ul>© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
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