Laboratory 9: Organs 1 (presentation)

574 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
574
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Laboratory 9: Organs 1 (presentation)

  1. 1. Liver, spleen; Circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems Principles of Anatomy ANSC 2202 Fall 2006
  2. 2. Kidney diseases <ul><li>Bacterial infection in a trout </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella  green kidneys in pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Polycystic kidney disease (PKD): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple cysts in the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start out very small but they grow larger  eventually severely disrupt the kidney  kidney failure </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Kidney diseases <ul><li>Kidney stones (calcium or potassium – any cation) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic renal failure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disorders (i.e. lupus glomerulonephritis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acute renal failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Excretory system: kidney = ‘filtering factory’ <ul><li>Humans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of fist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ lb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remove toxins, waste products, and extra water from entire body  urine  bladder (200 quarts of blood/d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate the production of red blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain normal chemical balances in your body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate bone calcium content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Excretory system: kidney = ‘filtering factory’ <ul><li>Nephron = functional unit of kidney </li></ul>Urethra
  6. 6. Excretory system: kidney = ‘filtering factory’ <ul><li>‘ Loaded blood’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent arteriole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus (twisted mass of tiny tubes, main filter of nephron) for water + soluble wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of Bowman's capsule  proximal convoluted tubule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting duct (urine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureter  bladder  urethra. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Filtered blood’ (clean): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the glomerulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent arteriole </li></ul></ul>Loop of Henle
  7. 7. Spleen diseases <ul><li>Enlarged spleen possibly caused by recurrent malaria, pneumonia/pulmonary edema </li></ul><ul><li>Tumors </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spleen <ul><li>Long ‘tongue-shaped’ organ (pigs, humans) </li></ul><ul><li>3 roles/3 tissues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticuloendothelial tissue: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytosis of erythrocytes and cell debris from the blood stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RBC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venous sinusoids + power of contraction of the spleen: expulsion of the contained blood (for increased circulatory demands in certain animals). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White pulp: lymphocytes (antibodies) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Liver diseases <ul><li>Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenovirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting, diarrhea, fever, coughing, swelling of the head and neck due to lymph node enlargement, abdominal tenderness and even central nervous system signs (like poisoning). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clotting factors disrupted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If minimal symptoms: ocular lesions during the convalescent phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copper Toxicosis (Copper Storage Disease) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper accumulates in hepatocytes instead of being excreted with bile  inflammation and scarring, ultimately leading to liver failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bedlington, West Highland white terriers, some Dobermans and Skye terriers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute: lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting - death can occur in 2-3 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic: anemia (pale mucous membranes), depression, lethargy, and anorexia (weak, underweight). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Liver diseases <ul><li>Cirrhosis : atrophy of the liver parenchyma + hypertrophy of the connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice : accumulation of bile pigment in the blood stream (obstruction of the duct system) </li></ul><ul><li>Liver: great vascularity  often secondary metastasis of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Roundworms and parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C (picture) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Liver = ‘energy and detoxifying factory’ <ul><li>Hepatocyte = functional unit of the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the liver: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of the water and blood distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxification (drugs, alcohol,…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% lymph production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood clotting factors </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Liver = ‘energy and detoxifying factory’
  13. 13. Liver = ‘energy and detoxifying factory’ <ul><li>Organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left lobe: smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right lobe: on the side of the gallbladder fundus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly vascularized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food/alcohol  intestines  diffuses to blood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatocytes charged in toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bile  bile duct (branches with duct from pancreas)  small intestines (emulsify fats) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Circulatory system and heart = ‘body pump’ <ul><li>Heart diseases: numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Heart = cardiac muscle (not smooth, not skeletal) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system control </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of the heart: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria + 2 ventricles (left is the most powerful) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries and veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection with lungs and rest of the body </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Circulatory system and heart = ‘body pump’ <ul><li>Definition: not based the level of oxygenation of the blood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artery = vessel through which blood exits the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vein = vessel through which blood goes into the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artery: tough, elastic; no valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vein: thin wall because exposed to less pressure; valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Circulatory system and heart = ‘body pump’ VEIN Thin wall-less pressure ARTERY Tunica intima Tunica intermedia Tunica adventitia lumen lumen
  17. 17. Circulatory system and heart = ‘body pump’ <ul><li>Vena cava (superior and inferior) ( deoxygenated blood ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular valve </li></ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary valve </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary arteries ( deoxygenated blood ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs: oxygenation of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary veins ( oxygenated blood ) </li></ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral valves </li></ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta ( oxygenated blood ) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Circulatory system
  19. 20. Dissected blood vessels
  20. 21. Lung diseases <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary edemas </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Other respiratory problems (brucellosis,…) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Respiratory system and lungs: ‘oxygenating factory’ <ul><li>Heart and lungs: intertwined system </li></ul>
  22. 23. Respiratory system and lungs: ‘oxygenating factory’ <ul><li>Alveoli = functional unit of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Air  Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 from the breathed-in air diffuses through the capillary and charges the blood (coming from pulmonary arteries) in O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 from blood diffuses out of the capillaries and charges the air in CO 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thin epithelium: simple squamous !! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Dissection views Heart and lungs Liver, spleen, kidney

×