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Diabetes
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  • 1. Diabetes Melissa Bess Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS 07/2007
  • 2. Overview
    • Statistics
    • What is diabetes?
    • Blood glucose
    • Types of diabetes
    • Diabetes pyramid/nutrition
    • Relation to other chronic diseases
    • Prevention
    • Are you at risk?
    • Myths about diabetes
  • 3. Statistics
    • 20.8 million children and adults
    • 7% of the population
    • 14.6 million = diagnosed
    • 6.2 million = unaware
    • About equal in men and women
    • 2 to 4 times higher in non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific than non-Hispanic whites
    • 5 th deadliest disease in U.S., no cure
  • 4. What is diabetes?
    • Carbs digested into glucose
    • Glucose = energy for cells
    • Insulin (hormone) “unlocks” cells for glucose
    • In diabetes:
      • Not enough insulin
      • Insulin doesn’t work properly
    • Exact cause is mystery but genetics and environment plays a role
  • 5. When things work correctly Glucose enters the cell
  • 6. What goes wrong in diabetes (Slide depicts insulin resistance – Body can’t use insulin)
  • 7. Blood glucose
    • Hypoglycemia
      • Low blood glucose
    • Hyperglycemia
      • High blood glucose
    • Fasting blood glucose
      • Healthy = under 100
      • Pre-diabetes = 100-125
      • Diabetes – 125 or higher
  • 8. Types of diabetes
    • Type I
      • Body does NOT produce insulin
      • 5-10% of Americans
      • Used to be called “juvenile-onset”
    • Type II
      • Insulin resistance – body doesn’t use insulin properly
      • May be combined with insulin deficiency
      • Larger percentage of people
      • Used to be called “adult-onset”
  • 9. Types of diabetes
    • Gestational diabetes
      • 4% of pregnant women in the U.S. each year
      • Usually goes away after pregnancy
    • Pre-diabetes
      • Higher blood glucose levels than normal, but not high enough for diagnosis
      • 54 million Americans
      • Proper steps can delay or prevent diabetes
  • 10. Symptoms of developing diabetes
    • Extreme thirst
    • Frequent urination
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Contact a doctor if you exhibit these symptoms
  • 11. Diabetes pyramid/nutrition Source: American Diabetes Association
  • 12. Diabetes pyramid/nutrition
    • Carbs
    • What food groups are higher in carbs?
    • Differences from Mypyramid
    • Serving sizes
    • Heart-healthy eating
    • Fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc.
  • 13. Chronic diseases
    • Those with diabetes:
      • 2x higher risk for heart disease
      • 4x higher risk for stroke
    • Other complications:
      • Foot problems
      • Eye problems
      • Kidney problems
      • Teeth/gum problems
    • People with diabetes must take care of themselves!
  • 14. Prevention of diabetes
    • Healthy eating
    • Exercise
      • Exercise helps cell uptake glucose more effectively
    • Lose extra weight
    • Monitor blood glucose
  • 15. Are you at risk?
    • Let’s take the quiz
  • 16. Myths about diabetes
    • Eating too much sugar causes diabetes
    • You should never eat carbs if you have diabetes
    • If you have pre-diabetes, there is nothing you can do to prevent Type II diabetes
    • You can catch diabetes from someone else
    • Sugar raises blood glucose/blood sugar more than other carbs do
    • Herbs and natural supplements can help prevent or treat diabetes
  • 17. For more info
    • American Diabetes Association
      • www.diabetes.org
    • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
      • http:// diabetes.niddk.nih.gov /