Blood vessels of head and neckPresentation Transcript
BLOOD VESSELS OF HEAD AND NECK…
The Structure of Blood Vessels
• A Comparison of a Typical Artery and a
Common carotid Subclavian
ascending pharyngeal a.
sup. Thyroid a.
post. Auricular a.
superficial temporal a.
sup. Thyroid vein
ARTERIES OF HEAD AND NECK
COMMON CAROTID ARTERY
AND TERMINATION : It is a
branch of brachiocephalic trunk on
right side and a direct branch of
arch of aorta on the left side. The
artery runs upwards along the
medial border of
muscle enclosed within the carotid
sheath. The artery ends by dividing
into internal carotid and external
carotid at the upper border of the
AREA OF DISTRIBUTION:
This artery has only two terminal
branches. These are internal
carotid and external carotid.
In fr ont
• Sterno-mastoid > thyroid,
Exter nall y
• Sympathetic nerve
• Inferior thyroid artery
• Recurrent laryngeal
INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
• The internal carotid arteries begin at the upper border of the thyroid
cartilage and ascend to reach the base of the skull where it enters the
• Like latter it is surrounded by carotid sheath along with the internal
jugular vein and the vagus nerve.
• Ophthalmic artery is a branch of internal carotid. It is further divided into
Central artery of retina- first branch of ophthalmic
Lacrimal artery- largest branch
Supraorbital- supplies skin of forehead
Ant $ post. Ethmoidal- supplies ethmoidal sinus
Medial palpebral- supplies eyelids
Dorsal nasal- to part of nose.
EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
COURSE AND DISTRIBUTION: The external
carotid artery, arises opposite the upper border of the
thyroid cartilage, and taking a slightly curved course,
ascends upwards and forwards, and then inclines
backwards, to the space b/w the neck of the condyle of
the lower jaw, and the external meatus, where it divides
into the temporal $ internal maxillary arteries.
Diag rams showing str uctures cr ossing
Extenal Car otid Ar ter y
Landmarks of external carotid
artery and its branches
COURSE: it arises
from anterior aspect of
ECA forms a typical loop
which is crossed by XII
nerve. Its 2nd part lies
deep to the hyoglossus.
The 3rd part runs along
the ant. Border of
hyoglossus $ 4th part
runs forwards under the
surface of tongue.
COURSE: this tortuous artery
from ant. Side also arises a lil
higher to lingual artery. It runs
in the neck as cervical part $
in the face as facial artery.
part gives off ascending
palatine, tonsillar, glandular
branches, for the
submandibular $ sublingual
salivary glds. The facial part
gives branches to the muscles
of face $ skin.
COURSE: it arises from
post. Aspect of ECA $
runs upwards along the
lower border of post. Belly
of diagastric muscle. It
runs deep to mastoid
process $ the muscle
attaches to it. Crosses
suboccipital triangle $
gives 2 branches to SCM
muscles $ branches to
neighbouring muscles. It
also gives a meningeal $ a
SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY:
COURSE: it arises from
the anterior aspect of ECA
close to its origin. It runs
downwards and forwards
deep to the infrahyoid
muscles to the upper pole of
superior pharyngeal branch
which pierces thyroid
membrane to supply
supply the thyroid gland.
COURSE: It is smaller terminal
branch of ECA. Begins behind the
neck of the mandible, runs
upwards $ crosses the
preauricular point, where its
pulsations can be felt. It ends by
dividing into ant. $ post. Branches.
DISTRIBUTION: supply layers of
scalp $ superficial temporal
region. It also supplies parotid
gland, facial $ temporalis muscles.
branch of ECA. It
is given off behind
the neck of the
course is divided
into 1st, 2nd $ 3rd
parts acc. to its
COURSE: It the chief
artery of upper limb. It
also supplies part of
neck $ brain.
The artery arches from
joint to the outer border
of the first rib where it
continues as the axillary
artery. It is divided into
3 parts by the crossing
of scalenus ant. Muscle.
Veins from Head and Neck
INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
This is the larger of two vessels that drain
blood from the head and neck into the
it is a direct continuation
of sigmoid sinus. Begins at jugular
foramen, $ ends behind the sternal end of
the clavicle by joining the subclavian vein
to form the branchiocephalic vein.
The origin is marked is marked by a
dilation, the superior bulb which lies in
jugular fossa of temporal bone.
PETROSAL SINUS 2. COMMON FACIAL
VEIN 3. LINGUAL VEIN 4. PHARYNGEAL
VEINS 5. SUP. THYROID VEIN 6. MID.
EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
and post. Auricular
from face and scalp.
This is the smaller of the
two vessels that drain
blood from the head and
neck into the subclavian.
It is lateral to the
• ATHEROSCLEROSIS- it is a
condition in which the
artery wall thickens as a
result of accumulation of
fatty materials such as
cholesterol. It is commonly
referred to as hardening or
furrowing of arteries.
• VARICOSE VEINS- veins that have become
large and tortuous. It generally refers to veins
in the leg. Veins have valves to prevent the
blood from flowing backwards. Leg muscles
pump the veins to return the blood to the
heart, against the efect of gravity. When the
valves don’t work properly the blood flows
backwards and this results in further
enlargement of the vein. This usually occur in
parts like leg which are subjected to high
pressure due to long standing.
• LUSORIA- dysphagia caused
by compression of
esophagus by an aberrant in
• BRAIN HAEMORRAGEthe middle meningeal artery is of great
surgical importance because it can be torn
in head injuries resulting in extradural
haemorrage. The haematoma presses on
the motor area, giving rise to hemiplegia of
the opposite side. The anterior division can
be approached surgically by making a hole
in the skull over the pterion, 4 cm above the
midpoint of the zygomatic arch.
• CAROTID ARTERY
BRUITS- is a systolic
sound heard over the
carotid artery during
term for listening to
internal sounds of the
is a surgical procedure used
to prevent stroke by
(narrowing) in common
Endarterectomy is removal
of material from the inside
end of the artery.