By Group OneMd Shahrol Yoga(presenter)Muhammad faidzal Bin Sani Norlaila mohd samli Sarina mohamed zamri Suzyanna othman Rohana Mydin
Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Psychologist John Bowlby (1907- 1990)was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" . According to psychologist Mary Ainsworth(1913- 1999), attachment "may be defined as an affectional tie that one person or animal forms between himself and another specific one – a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time."
The theory was firstly developed by John Bowlby in 1969. Bowlby believed that an individuals attachment style was developed during childhood and was influenced by the child’s relationships with their primary care givers. He also held the belief that the attachment style would be durable into adulthood and would influence the way that individual related to others throughout their lifespan (Bowlby, 1969) Mary Ainsworth was another influential attachment theorist who is known for her ‘strange situation’ experiments. Ainsworth would observe the attachment styles of children by placing the child in a new environment and record their reactions to their primary care givers exiting the room and then returning (Tracy & Ainsworth, 1981).
John Bowlby (1907-1990) Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed bychildren with their caregivers have a tremendous impactthat continues throughout life. According toBowlby, attachment also serves to keep the infant close tothe mother, thus improving the childs chances of survival
Ainsworth was a Bowlby’s colleague who expanded theattachment theory. She said attachment is not just a connectionbetween two people; it is a bond that involves a desire forregular contact with that person and the experience of distressduring separation from that person.
There are four key components of attachment: Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing. Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world. Proximity Maintenance: The child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe. Separation Distress: When separated from the caregiver, the child will become upset and distressed.
Bowlby also suggested the quality of this attachment relationship is strongly influenced by experiences and repeated interactions between the infant and the primary caregiver. The success of the attachment bond depends on the caregivers ability to understand and respond to the infants physical and emotional needs. When caregiver and baby are in sync with each other, a secure attachment is formed. Baby feels safe knowing the caregiver will always be there when needed. It was found, through studying children raised in institutions prior to being doubted that after the sensitive period, this first attachment relationship can develop, but with greater difficulty. Hazan and Shaver have also produced evidence that securely attached infants go on to have stable, secure adult relationships, as Bowlbys theory predicts.
In her 1970s research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlbys original work. Her groundbreaking "Strange Situation" study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behaviour. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers. Based upon the responses the researchers observed, Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment and avoidant- insecure attachment.
Secure Attachment Securely attached children exhibit distress when separated from caregivers and are happy when their caregiver returns. Remember, these children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. When the adult leaves, the child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return. When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need.
Ambivalent Attachment Ambivalently attached children usually become very distressed when a parent leaves. This attachment style is considered relatively uncommon, affecting an estimated 7- 15% of U.S. children. Research suggests that ambivalent attachment is a result of poor maternal availability. These children cannot depend on their mother (or caregiver) to be there when the child is in need.
Avoidant Attachment Children with an avoidant attachment tend to avoid parents or caregivers. When offered a choice, these children will show no preference between a caregiver and a complete stranger. Research has suggested that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. Children who are punished for relying on a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help in the future.
What happens to children who do not form secure attachments? Research suggests that failure to form secure attachments early in life can have a negative impact on behaviour in later childhood and throughout the life. Children diagnosed with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently display attachment problems, possibly due to early abuse, neglect or trauma. Clinicians suggest that children adopted after the age of six months have a higher risk of attachment problems. While attachment styles displayed in adulthood are not necessarily the same as those seen in infancy, research indicates that early attachments can have a serious impact on later relationships. For example, those who are securely attached in childhood tend to have good self- esteem, strong romantic relationships and the ability to self-disclose to others. As adults, they tend to have healthy, happy and lasting relationships.
In conclusion, the attachment theory has been found to be an influential theory used in explaining interpersonal relationships throughout an individuals life. The latest attachment theory states that individuals can be classified into four attachment styles based on the two dimensions of anxiety and avoidance. Anxiety refers to attitudes towards the self and avoidance refers to attitudes towards others (Cassidy, 2000). The four attachment styles are the secure, preoccupied, dismissing avoidant and fearful avoidant attachment styles . The four proposed attachment styles, secure, preoccupied, dismissing and fearful avoidant have been explored, examining the impacts on the individual of being each style. Finally the durability of attachment styles throughout the lifespan has been questioned, with theories opposed and theories for the idea that attachment styles are stable. Due to the contradictory and solid research conducted by each opposing argument, no clear theory is more accurate.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. London: The Hogarth Press. Cassidy, J., & Maryland. U. (2000). Adult romantic attachments: A developmental perspective on individual differences. Dept of Psychology, Review of General Psychology, 4(2), Special issue: Adult attachment: 111-131. Fraley, C. R. (2002). Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-Analysis and dynamic modeling of development mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 123-151. Harlow, H. F., & Suomi, S. J. (1970). Nature of love: Simplified. American Psychologist, 25(2), 161-168. Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes, 52, 511-524. http://www.simplypsychology.org/mary-ainsworth.html http://www.reference.com/motif/science/summary-of-bowlbys-attachment-theory
From Group OneMd Shahrol Yoga(presenter)Muhammad Faidzal Bin Sani Norlaila Mohd Samli Sarina Mohamed Zamri Suzyanna Othman Rohana Mydin