Выполнил :Фаткуллин Ринат 08-08-08 Direct and Indirect Speech.
Contents.TheoryExamples.Exercises.Origin of Direct and Indirect Speech.Singly work.Final test.The Internet sources.
1. TheoryIf we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct and indirect speech (reported speech).The direct speech: "I like it," he said. "Irene is late," he thought. "I will pass the exam," she hoped.The reported speech: He said he liked it. He thought that Irene was late. She hoped she would pass the exam.The reported speech is typically introduced by verbs such as say, tell, admit, complain, explain, remind, reply, think, hope, offer, refuse etc. in the past tense.He said (that) he didnt want it.She explained that she had been at the seaside.If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following:a) verb tenses and verb forms,b) pronouns,
If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.StatementsWhen transforming statements, check whether you have to change:pronounspresent tense verbs (3rd person singular)place and time expressionstenses (backshift)TypeExample direct speech“I speak English.”reported speech (no backshift)He says that he speaks English.reported speech (backshift)He said that he spoke English.→QuestionsWhen transforming questions, check whether you have to change:pronounspresent tense verbs (3rd person singular)place and time expressionstenses (backshift)Also note that you have to:transform the question into an indirect questionuse the interrogative or if / whetherTypeExamplewith interrogative direct speech“Why don’t you speak English?”reported speechHe asked me why I didn’t speak English.without interrogative direct speech“Do you speak English?”reported speechHe asked me whether / if I spoke English.RequestsWhen transforming questions, check whether you have to change:pronounsplace and time expressionsTypeExample direct speech“Carol, speak English.“reported speechHe told Carol to speak English. Additional Information and ExeptionsApart from the above mentioned basic rules, there are further aspects that you should keep in mind, for example:main clauses connected with and / buttense of the introductory clausereported speech for difficult tensesexeptions for backshiftrequests with must, should, ought to and let’s
ExamplesHe announced, “there will be no classes tomorrow”He announced that there would be no classes next dayHe asked, “can we stay a bit longer today?”He asked if we could stay a bit longer that dayHe shouted, “Stop complaining all the time”He ordered us to stop complaining all the timeHe requested, “could you please open the window?”He kindly requested us to open the windowHe said, “you should stop smoking”He advised me to stop smoking More examples
Theory ExersisesChange the following sentences from direct speech to reported speech:3. Direct speech : David : "There is an excellent band playing later on."4. Direct speech : Christine : "I saw Amy at the bank on Monday.5. Direct speech : The driver : "Im going to turn right at the traffic lights.«6. Direct speech : Jonathan: "Ive returned the dictionary to the library".7. Direct speech : The doctor : "Ill send you the results as soon as they arrive.«8. Direct speech : Caroline : "Will you come to my party on Saturday?«9. Direct speech : Shop assistant: "Are you looking for something special?«10. Direct speech : Jack : "Ill lend you my grammar book if you think it will help. Answers
Origin of Direct and Indirect SpeechIndirect speech, also called reported speech or indirect discourse, is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech. For example, He said "Im coming" is direct speech, whereas He said he was coming is indirect speech.In terms of grammar, indirect speech often makes use of certain syntactic structures such as content clauses ("that" clauses, such as (that) he was coming), and sometimes infinitive phrases. References to questions in indirect speech frequently take the form of interrogative content clauses, also called indirect questions (such as whether he was coming).In indirect speech certain grammatical categories are changed relative to the words of the original sentence. For example, person may change as a result of a change of speaker or listener (as I changes to he in the example above). In some languages, including English, the tense of verbs is often changed – this is often called sequence of tenses. Some languages have a change of mood: Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (for statements) or the subjunctive (for questions).When written, indirect speech is not normally enclosed in quotation marks or any similar typographical devices for indicating that a direct quotation is being made. However such devices are sometimes used to indicate that the indirect speech is a faithful quotation of someones words (with additional devices such as square brackets and ellipses to indicate deviations or omissions from those words), as in He informed us that "after dinner [he] would like to make an announcement".
Singly work Theory Highlight Direct Speech and Reported Speech:About ten minutes later, the bell rang for dinner, and, as Virginia did not come down, Mrs Otis sent up one of the servants. After a little time he returned and said that he could not find Miss Virginia anywhere. So, the whole family started looking for her.The hours passed, but they could find no trace of Virginia. So, after dinner, Mr Otis ordered them all to bed, saying that nothing more could be done that night, and that he would contact Scotland Yard in the morning. Just when everybody was about to leave the dining-room, the clock struck midnight, and when the last stroke sounded, a secret door opened in the wall and in that door stood Virginia with a little box in her hand. Everybody ran up to her.“Good heavens! child, where have you been?” said Mr Otis, rather angrily, as he thought she had been playing a trick on them.“Papa,” said Virginia quietly, “I have been with the ghost. He is dead, and you must come and see him. He had been very nasty, but he was really sorry for all that he had done, and he gave me this box of beautiful jewels before he died.”
Theory Final Test• Test 1• Report the following: 1. "Will you help me with my homework?", Mary asked Bill. 2. "How long have you been studying here?", Tim asked Sarah. Conversation in school, reported in the pub. 3. Tom said "I went to England 10 years ago". 4. Harriet said "Im getting married tomorrow" Reported 3 days after the conversation. 5. Simon said "I like photography and collecting stamps". Answers• Turn the following direct questions into indirect using the introductory clauses given.1. (I would like to know) ‘What are your plans?’2. (He wants to know) ‘Why do the French eat frogs’3. (I wonder) ‘Why don’t you listen to me?’4. (I still can’t figure out) ‘What does she want?’5. (Can you tell me whether) ‘Is that true?’ Answers
The Internet sourcesTheory-http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/ grammar/reported-speechExamples.-http:// www.perfect-english-grammar.com/ reported-speech.htmlOrigin of Direct and Indirect Speech.- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indirect_speech