Mastery Learning Integrated Method or Interdisciplinary Teaching Team Teaching Programmed Instruction Learner-Centered Constructivist Approach Modular Approach Online/Distance Education
What is Mastery Learning? Based on Benjamin Bloom’s Mastery of Learning, mastery learning is a teacher paced group instruction, one-to-one tutoring or self paced learning with programmed materials. Mastery Learning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. Specifically, mastery learning is a method whereby students are not advanced to a subsequent learning objective until they demonstrate proficiency with the current one.
Role of the Teacher: directs group-based instructional techniques. Regularly correcting mistakes of students along learning paths. Evaluates students using diagnostic or formative test.
Desired Outcome Students must show evidence of understanding of material before moving to the next lesson Evidence of high achievement
Interdisciplinary teaching is a method, or set of methods, used to teach a unit across different curricular disciplines. The basic building block of interdisciplinary teaching is known as a theme, thematic unit, or unit. Interdisciplinary teaching is all about simultaneous application of knowledge, ideas, and/or values of a domain in multiple academic domains. Impart knowledge using integration of content and skills from several disciplines to teach one particular discipline. Interdisciplinary methods work to create connections between traditionally discrete disciplines such as mathematics, the sciences, social studies or history, and English language arts.
The seventh grade Language Arts, Science and Social Studies teachers might work together to form an interdisciplinary unit on rivers. The local river system would be the unifying idea. The English teacher would link it to Language Arts by studying river vocabulary and teaching students how to do a research report. The science teacher might teach children about the life systems that exist in the river The Social Studies teacher might help students research the local history and peoples who used the river for food and transport.
Answers educational problems like fragmentation and isolated skill instruction Train students on thinking and reasoning Help us handle knowledge transfer
Team teaching involves a group of instructors working purposefully, regularly, and cooperatively to help a group of students learn.
Different Formats of Team Teaching Teams comprise staff members who may represent different areas of subject expertise but who share the same group of students and a common planning period to prepare for the teaching. two or more teachers teach the same group at the same time a team shares a common group of students, shares planning for instruction but team members teach different sub-groups within the whole group planning is shared, but teachers each teach their own specialism or their own skills area to the whole group
Encourages innovations and experiments Improved quality of teaching Spread responsibilities, encourages creativity, deepens friendship, builds community among teachers. Team teaching can lead to better student performance
Some teachers are rigid personality types or may be wedded to a single method. Some dislike the other teachers on the team. Team teaching makes more demands on time and energy.
Programmed instruction, method of presenting new subject matter to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step, test their comprehension by answering an examination question or filling in a diagram. They are then immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information. Computers and other types of teaching machines are often used to present the material.
The teaching machine is composed of mainly a program, which is a system of combined teaching and test items that carries the student gradually through the material to be learned. The "machine" is composed by a fill- in-the-blank method on either a workbook or in a computer. If the subject is correct, he/she gets reinforcement and moves on to the next question. If the answer is incorrect, the subject studies the correct answer to increase the chance of getting reinforced next time.
Teachers Role Monitor student progress on programmed materials Assess the effectiveness of all programs Provide individualized tutoring Motivate students to participate in programmed activities
Benefits Immediate knowledge of results Individualized learning Expert instruction
Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction rather than passively receiving information.
Learner always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows. This prior knowledge is called schema
Teacher leads through questions and activities to discover. Discuss, appreciate and verbalize the new knowledge. Prompts and facilitate discussion
According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows: the learners are actively involved the environment is democratic the activities are interactive and student- centered the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous
Examples of constructivist activities Experimentation Research projects Field trips Films Class discussions
Students learn how to learn by giving them the initiative for their own learning experiences.
What is a module? Module is a unit of work in a course of instruction that is virtually self-contained and a method of teaching that is based on the building up skills and knowledge in discrete units.
STRUCTURE OF MODULE : The title The Introduction. The overview. The objectives The instruction to the users. The pre-test evaluation and feedback. The learning activities. The formative test, evaluation and feedback The summative evaluation and feedback.
ADVANTAGES Learning became more effective. Users study the modules in their own working environment. Users can study without disturbing the normal duties and responsibilities Modules can be administered to single use, small group or large group. Modules are flexible so that implementation can be made by a variety of patterns. It is more appropriate to mature students It enables the learner to have a control over his learning Accept greater responsibility for learning.
Distance education or distance learning, is afield of education that focuses on teachingmethods and technology with the aim ofdelivering teaching, often on an individualbasis, to students who are not physicallypresent in a traditional educational settingsuch as a classroom.
Technologies used in deliveryThe types of available technologies used in distance education are divided into two groups: Synchronous Asynchronous
Synchronous technology is a mode of deliverywhere all participants are "present" at thesame time. It resembles traditional classroomteaching methods despite the participantsbeing located remotely. It requires atimetable to be organized.
The asynchronous mode of delivery is whereparticipants access course materials on theirown schedule and so is more flexible.Students are not required to be together atthe same time.
Benefits: Expanding access Alleviate capacity constraints Making money from emerging markets Catalyst for institutional transformation