Objective: To examine the Indian Wars of the 19 th century. Do Now: p. 560 Geography Skills #2 - 3 Colonel John Chivington General George Custer Lakota Chief Crazy Horse Lakota Chief Sitting Bull
Chivington Massacre 1851 - Fort Laramie Treaty: Native American’s agreed to stay within a limited area in exchange for money , animals , and tools. 1858 – Gold is discovered in Pikes Peak, CO · Miners trespass on Native American land 1860’s – Native Americans are forced to sign a new treaty giving up land around Pikes Peak. Some Native Americans refused and began attacking and killing soldiers and miners.
"After several years of fighting against the U.S. Army, which was itself beleaguered by the Civil War, the Cheyenne were forced to surrender in September 1864. Meeting with Colonel John M. Chivington at Camp Weld in September, Black Kettle and his tribe assumed a peace agreement had been reached, and they camped at Sand Creek, forty miles away.” Col. John M. Chivington at Camp Weld with Black Kettle and his men, Courtesy of Colorado Historical Society.
November, 1864 – Two months later, on November 29, 1864, Chivington led a surprise attack on the Cheyenne, killing 105 women and children and 28 men, as well as mutilating the dead and wounded. · This became known as the Chivington Massacre. September, 1864 – The Cheyenne were forced to surrender to Colonel John M. Chivington.
Battle of Little Bighorn 1867 – Plains Indians were forced off their land onto reservations in Oklahoma and South Dakota . 1874 – Gold is discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota on the Lakota reservation. 1876 - Lakota Chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse fought back in the Sioux War of 1876 . · In the Battle of Little Bighorn , General George Custer and all 225 of his men were killed by Crazy Horse and his Lakota warriors.
(above) George Armstrong Custer's Camp prior to the Battle of Little Bighorn , photo courtesy Library of Congress. (left) The Battle of the Little Bighorn , painting by Charles Russell, 1903 (above) Soldier and non-human remains. Soldier’s bodies were stripped and mutilated.
<ul><li>In an attempt to force the Plains Indians to become “more American”, the government sponsored the slaughter of the buffalo , which the Plains Indians depended on. </li></ul>- Buffalo population in 1900: approximately 400 End of the Buffalo Examples: <ul><li>Buffalo population in 1860: approximately 13 million </li></ul>Buffalo skulls, mid-1870s, waiting to be ground into fertilizer.
Hide yard with 40,000 buffalo hides Dodge City, Kansas, 1878 Slaughtered buffalo, 1872
"Wanton Destruction of Buffalo" in W. E. Webb, Buffalo Land, 1872
Native American Schools In an attempt to make Native Americans “live as white men”, special schools were set up by the U.S. government for Native Americans. Apache children on arrival at the Carlisle Indian School (Pennsylvania) wearing traditional clothing. The same Apache children four months later.
Cheyenne woman named Woxie Haury in ceremonial dress… … and in wedding portrait with husband.