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my report on ethnicity in the school setting

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  1. 1. EthnicityEthnicity Erika Tanaka AB Psych - 4
  2. 2. DefinitionDefinition  Shared pattern of characteristics such as cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.  Full of bias and discrimination all over the world.
  3. 3. Ethnicity ≠ RaceEthnicity ≠ Race  Race refers to the classification of people or other living things according to specific physiological characteristics.  It is no longer recognized as an authentic scientific concept because of the diversity of people.  Social Psychologist James Jones points out that thinking in racial terms has become embedded in most cultures. ◦ People often stereotype others because of their supposed race and inappropriately classify them as being more or less intelligent, competent, responsible, or socially acceptable on the basis.
  4. 4. Ethnicity and SchoolsEthnicity and Schools  Educational segregation is still a reality for children of color in the United States.  School experiences of students of different ethnic groups differ in other ways.  Schools of students from ethnic minority backgrounds have fewer resources.
  5. 5.  Jonathan Kozol, in his book The Shame of the Nation (2005), described his visits to 60 U.S. schools in low-income areas of cities in 11 states. ◦ Many schools were consisted of 80 to 90 percent minority population. ◦ Untidy classrooms, restrooms and hallways ◦ Inadequate textbooks and supplies ◦ Lack of resources ◦ Teachers would ask students to merely memorize for tests rather than engage in higher learning. ◦ Teachers using threatening disciplinary tactics to control the classroom.
  6. 6. Prejudice, Discrimination and BiasPrejudice, Discrimination and Bias  Prejudice ◦ Unjustified negative attitude toward an individual because of his/her membership in a group (defined by: ethnicity, sex, age, or any other detectable difference).  American anthropologist John Ogbu (1989; Ogbu & Stern, 2001) ◦ Ethnic minority students are placed in a position of subordination and exploitation in the American educational system. ◦ Students of color are treated badly.
  7. 7.  Educational psychologist Margaret Beale Spencer (Spencer, 2006; Spencer & Dornbusch, 1990) ◦ Well-meaning teachers fail to challenge children of color to achieve. ◦ They prematurely accept a low level of performance from these children.
  8. 8. Diversity and DifferencesDiversity and Differences  Recognizing and respecting the differences among other cultures is an important aspect of getting along in a diverse, multicultural world.  When differences are emphasized between ethnic minority groups and the White majority, it’s the ethnic minority groups who take the damage.
  9. 9. Bilingual educationBilingual education  Teaches academic subjects to immigrant children in their native language while slowly teaching English.  Helps children from ethnic minority groups learn to properly speak English.  Immigrant children vary in their ability to learn English. ◦ Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have more difficulty than those from higher socioeconomic backgrounds.
  10. 10. Multicultural EducationMulticultural Education  Values diversity and includes the perspectives of a variety of cultural groups on a regular basis.  Goal: equal educational opportunities for all students.  Includes issues related to socioeconomic status , ethnicity and gender.  Prejudice reduction and equity pedagogy are core components.
  11. 11.  Prejudice reduction ◦ Activities teachers can implement in the classroom to eliminate negative and stereotypical views of others.  Equity pedagogy ◦ Modification of the teaching process to incorporate materials and learning strategies appropriate to both boys and girls and to various ethnic groups.
  12. 12. Empowering studentsEmpowering students  Providing students with the intellectual and coping skills to succeed and make this a more just world.  Important theme in multicultural education.  Schools should give students opportunities to learn about the experiences, struggles, and visions of many different ethnic and cultural groups.
  13. 13. Culturally relevant teachingCulturally relevant teaching  Seeks to make connections with the learners personal background.  Good teachers are aware of and integrate culturally relevant teaching into the curriculum.  Funds of knowledge approach  Teachers need to have high achievement expectations for students from ethnic minority and low-income backgrounds and engage them in rigorous academic programs.
  14. 14. Issues-centered educationIssues-centered education  Students are taught to systematically examine issues that involve equity and social justice.  To clarify values  Learn to examine alternatives and consequences if they take a particular stance on an issue.
  15. 15. Strategies of improving relationsStrategies of improving relations among children from different ethnicamong children from different ethnic groupsgroups  Jigsaw classroom ◦ Developed by social psychologist Eliot Aronson (1986) ◦ Involves having students from different cultural backgrounds cooperate by doing different parts of a project to reach a common goal.
  16. 16.  Positive personal contact with others from different cultural backgrounds ◦ Relations improve when students talk with each other about their personal life. ◦ Helps break down group/out-group and we/they barriers.  Perspective taking ◦ Exercises and activities that help students see other people’s perspectives can improve interethnic relations. ◦ “putting oneself in the other’s shoes” ◦ Help students understand the culture shock that comes from being in a cultural setting different from their own.
  17. 17.  Critical thinking and emotional intelligence ◦ Thinking critically and deeply about interethnic relations can decrease prejudice and stereotyping of others. ◦ Learn to ask questions, think first before responding, and delay judgment until information is complete. ◦ Emotional intelligence skills can help students’ interethnic relations.
  18. 18.  Reducing bias ◦ Louise Derman-Sparks and the Anti-Bias Curriculum Task Force (1989) recommended anti-bias strategies for teachers:  Display images of children from a variety of ethnic and cultural groups.  Choose play materials and activities that encourage ethnic and cultural understanding.  Talk with students about stereotyping and discriminating against others.  Engage parents in discussions of how children develop prejudice and inform them to help reduce it.
  19. 19.  Increasing Tolerance ◦ “Teaching Tolerance Project”  Resources and materials to improve intercultural understanding and relations between White children and children of color. ◦ Teaching Tolerance is a biannual magazine which is distributed to every public and private school in the U.S.  Share views on and provide resources for teaching tolerance.