Research assignment on Communication


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Research assignment on Communication

  1. 1. MSE 608BOLManagement of Engineering Professionals Spring 2012 Communication Professor: Dr. Mark Rajai Prepared by: Rijul Dhruv Riyanka Daga Kia Vakili Abdul Aziz
  2. 2. INDEXTable of contents:1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….....32. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION…………………………………………..43. 7C’S OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION………………………………...54. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION…………………………………65. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION……………………………………….. 86. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………107. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………10 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from theLatin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication is the only means by which humans can channeltheir thoughts and expressions. Various categories of verbal and non-verbal communication exist such aseye contact, body language, paralanguage, sign language, haptic communication and chronemics. It alsoincludes communication in the form of media such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing. ManipulativeCommunication is one of the advanced categories studied recently. Intentional and unintentional ways ofmanipulating words using sarcasm, criticism and rude gestures to "get what we want", by being demeaningand disrespectful are a part of Manipulative communication. Based on the categorization, there are four different types of communication: 1. Verbalcommunication is the basis of interaction between people. It could include speaking, language, sounds andwords. 2. Non-verbal communication involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of the voice,touch, smell and body motion. Singing, music, dancing and sculpturing also symbolizes as a part of creativenon-verbal communication. Symbols and sign language are also a part of non-verbal communication. 3.Written communication is more elaborative and detailed which is the most essential form ofcommunication for business purposes. It is exercised in lots of different languages. Business articles, projectreports, e-mails and memos are few examples of written communication in business. 4. Visualcommunication is visual display of information, like topography, photography, signs, symbols and designs.Television and video clips are the electronic form of visual communication. For any communication to be successful and meaningful it has to be effective. The articulate form ofcommunication cannot originate overnight. It is a learning process incorporated with your skills to improveeffective communication. Effective communication plays a significant role in corporate world especiallywith the diversity found in every company along with globalization. Interpersonal skills and Crosscultural differences are the biggest challenges faced in corporate communication. It is very important formanagers in today’s world to overcome all cultural and personal barriers for the growth of their companies.They can strategize and make informed decisions only if they are influential and capable of expressing theirdesires and needs to employees. This article will interpret not only ways to alleviate effective communication and overcome its barriersbut also discuss ways to improve interpersonal skills, cross cultural communication and communication incorporate world. 3
  4. 4. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION The art of effective communication skills lies within every individual. Some of those skills include: 1. The Art of Communication  Always be confident  A good practice of listening skills  Always think before you speak  Being updated with current issues and participating in intellectual conversations  Not being a gossip monk and rather staying away from it  Don’t pretend as there is no shame in acknowledging something you are unaware of  The most important aspect is to “Be Yourself” 2. The Art of Listening  Being attentive  Strong grasping power  Delivering positive reflection of your views after the end of conversation 3. The Art of Expressing  The most important attribute here is ‘Honesty’  Coherent and clear verbiage use 4. The Art of taking Criticism Positively It is a natural tendency of human beings to defend their stand when criticized. Use a constructive and positive way to deal with criticism. 5. The Art of avoiding arguments Most controversial, egoist and healthy conversations turn into an argument. We all know “Time is money”. An argument has no solution and is a waste of time and money. Once we realize this fact, a constructive way to mild heated situations is the only alternative. 6. The Art of Understanding the Audience Understanding your audience is the key, as you ultimately speak for them. Knowing the perception of your audience helps you to plan your actions for deliverance. 7. The Art of taking Feedback “A colleague doing exactly the opposite of what you asked him to do?”. This is most common scenario at most workplaces. The best thing for you to do is take a feedback. Without taking proper feedback, you wouldnt know the perspective of the person in front of you.. 4
  5. 5. 7C’S OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION There are 7 C’s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows:1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It must be full of facts, figures and pictures to convey an appropriate message based on the receiver’s mindset. Important features include:  Strategic cost saving approach due to completeness of all the necessary information in corporate business  Completeness of the data leaves no doubt in the audience/ receivers’/ readers’ mind as all the desired crucial information is received  Helps to be in a much better decision-making position2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, direct or to the point. It has following features:  A very comprehensive approach which makes it more appealing to the crowd or the audience.  A more time-saving and economic path  Usage of short and limited verbiage underlining key elements by being non-repetitive3. Consideration - Consideration means “stepping into the shoes of others”. Modify your words in message to suit the audience’s needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows:  Being Empathetic is necessary to stimulate positive reaction from your listeners  Showing optimism and stressing on positive words to influence the audience  Modification of words to suit your listeners/ customers/ readers’ needs4. Clarity - Clarity emphasizes on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than looking at the overall scenario. Clarity in communication has following features:  Clear understanding  Increased grasping power and clarity of thoughts enhancing the meaning of message.5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies strengthening your confidence by being particular rather than general. Concrete message has following features:  It is supported with specific facts and figures.  A vivid, definite message rather than being vague, obscure makes up for a good reputation  It reinforces confidence6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies empathetic message along with respect for the receiver. Courteous message has following features:  Consideration of viewpoints by being sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic  It is an unbiased, positive and customer centric message  Courtesy builds goodwill and strengthens relations7. Correctness - Correctness in communication includes no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:  The message is exact, correct and well-timed.  Correct information boosts up the confidence level. 5
  6. 6. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Communication and culture mutually influence each other. Communication is interactive; therefore animportant influence on its effectiveness is our relationship with others. Do they interpret our sayingcorrectly? Are they listening well? In their responses do they really distinguish the correct meaning that wehad asked? Is our communication is and effective one or not? The answers to these questions would give ussome ideas and clues as regarding the effectiveness of our communication and will ease the conflict thatcould potentially happen across cultures. Understanding Cultural Diversity Understanding the cultural differences create a challenge to the work environment. This is still couldoccur when all the piers speaks the same language but live in a different country for example the peoplefrom U.S, Australia, and U.K .Knowing all these differences would help us have successful businessexperience. Therefore an effective communication for both parties is needed. All it takes is to have astrategy in order to understand and respect both parties’ requirements. Case Study: This case study talks about the failure of PR campaign due to lack of understanding the importance ofcultural communication. Pepsodent tried to penetrate in Southeast Asia selling its toothpaste product. Theykept on emphasizing on “whitens your teeth “advertising. They found out that the people from that area tryto blacken their teeth by chew betel nuts as they believe that darken teeth are more attractive. As a result ifPR Company had analyzed this behavior their failure could have been avoided. Communication and Misinterpretation "Communication is successful if the person interpreting the saying conveys a meaning to the messagethe same way what was tried by the person transmitting it". People’s cultural background disposes them tolook at the world in a particular way. By enculturation we would have expectations in communication. Ifwe use our expectations in regards to communication, interpret using our symbolic systems, ineffectivecommunication well occur. Misunderstandings in communication could cause some cultural conflicts andmostly it occurs internationally. Some of these misunderstandings are including:  The message transmission may not be understandable by others.  Differing communication rules throughout the cultures.  One side may not be able to speak and understand the language being used properly and effectively.  People may not be able to attribute due to their group identity intergroup expectations. Causes of cross-cultural conflict Misunderstandings/conflict across the cultures may happen when there are cultural differences. Somemajor causes that could generate cultural conflicts or misunderstandings are including:  How to use words: Words can have different meanings across the cultures for instance some cultures may use emotions for emphasis whereas others may use language. 6
  7. 7.  Eye contact: eye contact can be interpreted differently across the cultures. it can be the sign of respect, encouragement, challenge, attention, or even disrespect.  Distance between communicators: While for some people like to be close to each other while talking, some others prefer to keep a certain distance. ( commonly around two and half inches)  Starting and ending a conversation: In some cultures it is important that who and how should be opening a conversation and not paying attention to that may result in being disrespectful.  Being interactive during conversations: some cultures accept to have an interactive conversation meaning you can response immediately and accordingly whereas in some others this could be interpreted as a rude reaction and listener should be quiet throughout the speech.  Unawareness of informal rules: some cultures have informal and unwritten rules.  Silence/ Pause: in some cultures, silence may mean withdrawal. For others silence is emptiness that has to be replaced with conversation.  Topics of Conversation: In some cultures speaking of sex, drugs, and etc. is not appreciated.  Humor: Although in some cultures sense of humor is common and is not in some culture.  Understanding how much to talk: some people take ales amount of talking more respectful than talking a lot on the contrary some other want to hear an extended version of speech.  Facial gestures, Physical contact, and volume of Voice: can all be interpreted differently in various cultures. Case Study: While speaking to young Cree-Canadian student he /she might not look at your eyes, this behavior hasnothing to do with being dishonest, or rude. That should be a nonverbal cue. “Assumptions often made inEuropean-Canadian culture. Rather, a lack of eye contact may simply relate that in Cree culture eye contactis not made with those in authority”. For most Native North Americans, looking into someone’s eyes is nota respectful behavior, and it is not acceptable on the contrary looking down or away shows respect. Cross-cultural conflict resolution 1. Tendency and importance of solving the conflict  Developing Awareness of Cultures  Understanding different cultural factors contributing to cultural differences  Be welcoming and appreciate immigrants and welcome other cultures 2. Understand the possible resistances  Resistance to try our own values, believe and accept our Cultural bias  Denial of the existing conflict and not taking responsibility, blaming others  Interest in finding out the problems and barriers and looking for a way to shrink the resistance 3. Methods that would lead us to resolve of conflicts  Distinguish the differences and similarities between both sides  Understand the differences and try to balance you and the other person that has conflict with you 7
  8. 8. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Scope and definition: In order to better define the term of cooperate communication, it is important to take a deep look onhow the company is functioning from inside. Until the mid of 1970s, the term ‘public relations’ was used todescribe the communication channel between the company and their stakeholders. In fact, at that time, theinformation shared by the companies was not satisfactory to the public and stakeholders. That is, otherstakeholders started to demand more data and reports about the performance of the company. Hence, themanagements began to modify their functionality by sharing a bigger picture of what is happening inside thecompany. To fulfill this demand, new specialized discipline, labeled as corporate communication, wasapplied to provide a holistic and a more integral form of the company to its stakeholders, both internally andexternally. Precisely, cooperate communication is “A management function that offers a framework forthe effective coordination of all internal and external communication with the overall purpose ofestablishing and maintaining favorable reputations with stakeholder groups upon which the organizationis dependent”. Integrated Corporate communication functions: The corporate communication profession, which is more like a commitment from the corporation to itsstakeholders, helps protecting the company’s reputation; however, in the contemporary organizations,corporate communication discipline is manifested by accomplishing four primary functions.  Media Relations: It is considered the main function, and, takes into account the writing and broadcasting of the company’sreports and news to the media. Particularly, the mangers are responsible for the planning of all types ofconferences, including what information should be displayed, or even, shared. Besides, the arrangementrequired for the spokespersons to appear on television and radio.  Public Relations: The way in which a company raises the level of customers trust is considered as public relations. As apart of Corporate communication role, it is important to respond to all of the customers inquires, includingpreparing newsletters and brochures that answer the public questions. Not only this, but also, manage thecompany’s website and social networking media to take the advantage of the feed-backing.  Crisis Communication: The notion behind crisis communication is that when the company faces a major disaster that couldthreaten the public safety or a company’s reputation, the corporate communicators must respond to controlthe situation. In fact, the special training, which the corporate communicators practice, will help them to actprofessionally under these circumstances such as, the chemical spills, violence at workplace, and accidentaldeath on the job.  Employee communication: In addition to “broadcasting” the company’s messages the external stakeholders, the corporatecommunication managers must provide a kind of communication to its internal stakeholders. In fact, the 8
  9. 9. corporate communicators are responsible to design and print some internal publications, announce thecompany’s news through the email. Moreover, they are acquired to advise the first-line managers on how tolead a group of employees. Case Study - The Tragedy of Barclays’s Communication team The poor the corporate communication function is, the less successful and, therefore, the less reputablethe company would be. To illustrate that, in 2003, Barclays, a UK based bank and financial services group,declared their contracting with a new advertising agency, to perform some “humane ads”. In fact, the adshave met the customer satisfaction for a while, until it suddenly turned into a communication disaster whenthey simultaneously accompanied that with the news of closing 170 branches. Moreover, Barclays startedlosing their reputation especially when a confidential report exposed that the new CEO, which hired tocontrol this disaster, has been paid £ 1.3 for three month only. Consequently, the corporation started to face a customer revolt as the local communities, or rather, thecustomers felt angry about the whole situation. Besides, the competitors, including NatWest, started to takeadvantage of the entire issue. What made the problem worse, Barclays’s spokesperson announced that,”their main focus was on shareholder returns and larger customers across their investment and retailbusinesses”. From this point, the customers and media, in general, started to lead an antagonistic campaignagainst the corporation. Indeed, Barclays Bank lost the stakeholders trust, whether they were employees orcustomers, even though, they tried to fix the issue again and again. Truly, Barclays’s communication stufflacked one of the main objectives of the corporate communication discipline, which is managingcommunication under crisis. Corporate Communication Enhancement Skills: The corporate communication staff must possess and master variety of professional skills, including:  Conduct effective meetings: which requires following four steps; plan the meeting, announce the meeting , conduct the meeting, and finally evaluate the meeting  Take care of the pitch and the tone: the communicator voice, during meetings, must be clear and easy to be heard by the stakeholders, internally and externally.  Understand the second party well: this requires knowing their thoughts, culture and education.  Do not always depend on verbal communication: it advisable for the communication coordinator to send formal e-mails regarding to what occurred in the meetings  Transparency must be found among all the team members: to do so, the corporate communication department must maintain hierarchy to allow uncomplicated flow of information.  Be yourself and be confident: the corporate communicators must work positively, take care of what is said, and control their own emotions and nervous traits. 9
  10. 10. CONCLUSION “Actions speak louder than words”. The words we choose to communicate hold the key, especially in aculturally diverse environment. According to the findings, effective communication is extensivelydependent 80% on non-verbal communication and a mere 20% on verbal communication. Communicationhas evolved from being one-on-one between people in today’s technologically advanced world to socialmedias like Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, etc. where we are communicating with thousands of peoplesimultaneously all across the globe. A key to success lies in breaking all communication and culturalbarriers in order to convey various messages in the form of music, painting, dance forms, posterpresentations, rallies, flash mobs, etc. It’s equally important even in corporate meetings to be presentableand understandable. Future of communication is already and will continue to be heavily dependent on advancedcommunication technologies all across the globe. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. communication/ 4. 5. Frederick, Ann. What Are the Functions of a Corporate Communication Department? 15 April 2012 <>. 6. Goodman, Michael B. and B. Peter Hirsch. "Tools and Techniques for Internal Corporate Communication ." Corporate Communication . Harvard Buisness Press , 2012. 7. "SAGE." 10 April 2012 < data/39352_978_0_85702_243_1.pdf>. 8. 9. 10. 11. Communication in Personal Relationships Across Cultures by William B. Gudykunst, Stella Ting- Toomey and Tsukasa Nishida (Aug 7, 1996) Final Video Presentation Link 10