Selected theories of leadership


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Selected theories of leadership

  1. 1. Selected Leadership TheoriesTrait TheoriesBehavioral ApproachesContingency ApproachesNeocharismatic Approaches
  2. 2. Trait Theory The theories that sought personality, social, physical,or intellectual traits that differentiated leaders fromnonleaders The traits are the inherent attributes of the leaders tokeep them distinct from others For example, Margaret Thatcher, as the prime ministerof UK, was recognized for her leadership in terms ofher confidence, iron-willed, determined, and decisive.
  3. 3.  A research study was conducted in the 1930s tostudy the attributes that differentiate the leadersfrom nonleaders. A review of 20 different studies identified nearly 80leadership traits, though the study was not aimed toidentify the leadership traits Among the identified traits, only FOUR of themwere common to all cases, which includedpersonality, social, physical, and intellectual traits.Trait Theory
  4. 4.  Earliest approach to study leadership Used to identify great persons from masses Based on the assumption of -certain traits = success/effectiveness The logic of leadership traits is as basic asheight, as complex as intelligenceTrait Theory
  5. 5. How Leaders Differ from Nonleaders? According to Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991),leaders can be distinguished from nonleaderson the basis of SIX attributes or traits: Drive Desire to lead Honesty and integrity Self-confidence Intelligence Job-relevant knowledge
  6. 6. Important Traits of Effective Leaders Personality Persuasive Persistence Patience Probity Praise giving Positive orientation People Based Possible Practical Progressive Prepared Power-building13 Ps
  7. 7. Personality Factors for Effective LeadershipCapacity Achievement Responsibility Participation StatusIntelligence Scholarship Honesty Activity SocioeconomicpositionAlertness Knowledge Dependability Sociability PopularityVerbal facility AthleticaccomplishmentInitiative CooperationOriginality PersonalityadjustmentPersistence AdaptabilityJudgment Aggressiveness HumorSelf-confidenceDesire to excel
  8. 8. Criticisms on Trait Theories of LeadershipThe belief that personality traits determine therate of success of a leader could easily bechallenged because practically it is very hard todistinguish leaders from non-leaders based onpersonality traitsThere exists a very thin relationship betweentraits and leader’s successSome traits are achieved by birthPersonality traits without motivation areworthless for successIt does not look like a theory“Traits Plus Motivation Equals Leadership”
  9. 9. Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Pattern of actions used by different individualsdetermines leadership potential Examples– Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire– Michigan Studies: Employee centered versustask centered
  10. 10. Three Approaches to Behavioral Studies1. Studies Based on Leadership Styles2. Studies Based on Leadership Dimensions3. Studies Based on Leadership Grid
  11. 11. 1. Studies Based on Leadership Styles Lewin, Lippitt, and White are probably the earliestcontributors of leadership study in a scientific manner. The authors specialized in leadership styles whileconducting a series of research studies in the 1930s atthe University of Iowa. The suggested leadership styles include: Autocratic Democratic Laissez-Faire
  12. 12.  When Quantity of work is important: When Quality of work is important: When Satisfaction with work is important:Which is the Best Style?Autocratic Democratic Laissez FaireMost LeastDemocratic Autocratic Laissez FaireBest WorstDemocratic Laissez Faire AutocraticMost Least
  13. 13. Tannenbaum and Schmidt- Continuum of Leadership BehaviorAutocratic Democratic Laissez-faireUse of Authority by the ManagerArea of Freedom for SubordinatesBoss- CenteredLeadershipSubordinate- CenteredLeadership
  14. 14. Optimal Leadership Style Depends Upon:1. Forces in the Leader2. Forces in the Subordinate Group3. Forces in the SituationTannenbaum/Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum
  15. 15. 2. Studies Based on Leadership DimensionsKey Contributionsa. Ohio State University Studiesb. Michigan State University Studies
  16. 16. Ohio State University StudiesTwo Dimensions Initiating structure: The extent to which a leaderis likely to define and structure his/her role androles of subordinates in the search for goalattainment Consideration: The extent to which a leader islikely to have job relationships characterized bymutual trust, respect for subordinates‘ ideas, andregard of their feelings
  17. 17. Initiating Structure– Is task oriented– Directs subordinate work activities toward goalattainment– Typically give instructions, spend time planning,and emphasize deadlines– Provide explicit schedules of work activitiesConsideration– Is mindful of subordinates– Establishes mutual trust– Provides open communication– Develops teamwork
  18. 18. Two Dimensions Employee Oriented: The leadership dimension inwhich the leader emphasizes interpersonal relations;relationship oriented Production Oriented: The leadership dimension inwhich the leader emphasizes on technical or taskaspect of the job; result orientedMichigan State University StudiesSimilar to Ohio Studies
  19. 19. Studies Based on Leadership Grid Blake and Mouton (1964) represented with thegraphical portrayal of the two dimensional view ofleadership The authors proposed a managerial grid showing thekey managerial styles of ‗concern for people‘ and‗concern for production‘ The grid has been developed in a nine-by-nine matrixoutlining 81 different leadership styles
  20. 20. The Managerial Grid01234567890 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Concern for PeopleConcernforTask(1,9)(9,1)(9,9)(5,5)(1,1)
  21. 21. The Managerial GridHighHighLowLowConcern for ProductionConcernforPeople1,9Country Club ManagementThoughtful attention to the needs of peoplefor satisfying relationships leads to a com-fortable, friendly organization atmosphereand work tempo.1,1 Impoverished ManagementExertion of minimum effort to get requiredwork done is appropriate to sustainorganization membership.9,9Team ManagementWork accomplishment is fromcommitted people;interdependencethrough a “common stake” inorganization purpose leads torelationships of trust and respect.5,5Middle-of-the-Road ManagementAdequate organization performance is possiblethrough balancing the necessity to get out workwith maintaining morale of people at asatisfactory level.Authority-Compliance 9, 1Efficiency in operations results fromarranging conditions of work in such away that human elements interfere to aminimum degree.
  22. 22. Leadership StylesLikert‘s System FourSystem I—Exploitive AutocraticSystem II—Benevolent AutocraticSystem III—ConsultativeSystem IV—Participative Group
  23. 23. Contingency Theories of Leadership Leader traits and/or leader behaviors areimportant aspects but must be taken incontext.That is, the situation matters.
  24. 24. Selected Studies on Contingency Approaches Fiedler‘s Contingency Theory Hersey and Blanchard‘s Situational (Life Cycle)Theory House‘s Path-Goal Theory
  25. 25. LPC: LEAST PREFERRED COWORKER Low LPC Score: task-oriented leader High LPC Score: relationship-oriented leader According to Fiedler, a person is one or theother - it is a fixed personality trait
  26. 26. FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCYTHEORY OF LEADERSHIPA person‘s LPC score correlates with: Task structure Leader/Member relations Leader position powerin terms of group effectiveness
  27. 27. Three Elements of Leadership Situations Leader-member relations: refers to groupatmosphere and members‘ attitude toward andacceptance of the leader Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasksperformed by the group are defined, involvespecific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals Position power: is the extent to which the leaderhas formal authority over subordinates
  28. 28. Task-Oriented (low LPC)Leader is best when situation either favorable orunfavorableEmployee-Oriented (high LPC)Leader is best when situation is moderatelyfavorable
  29. 29. POSSIBLE USES OF FIEDLER’S THEORY1. Train leaders in needed style(Fiedler says no)2. Match the leader with the job(Fiedler says this is a good start)3. Engineer the job to fit the manger(Fiedler says this is the best approach)
  30. 30. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational TheoryA contingency approach to leadership that linksthe leader‘s behavioral style with the taskreadiness (maturity) of subordinates.Also known as ‗life cycle‘ theory.
  31. 31. Situational Leadership No single best way to lead Focus on maturity or readiness of followers– Ability and willingness Adjust emphasis on task and relationshipbehaviors according to the readiness offollowers to perform their tasks
  32. 32. Hersey’s Situational Leadership Model Based on– Style of leadership Giving direction (task behaviour) Giving motivational support (relationshipbehaviour)– ―Readiness‖ of followers to perform a task Ability Willingness
  33. 33. Situational Leadership Telling: low readiness, untrained andinexperienced employees Selling: low/moderate readiness, trained butinexperienced employees Participating: moderate/high readiness, able butunwilling, employees skeptical Delegating: high readiness, employees ready andwilling to take responsibility
  34. 34. Hersey andBlanchard’sSituationalLeadershipModel DefinesRelationshipBetweenMaturity andFourLeadershipStylesHighrelationshipLow taskHigh taskHighrelationshipLowrelationshipLow taskHigh taskLowrelationshipM1M2M3M4HighLow HighTask BehaviorRelationshipBehaviorStyle ofLeaderImmatureMaturityAbilityWillingnessM1M2M3M4High Moderate LowThis person is able(has the necessaryknowledge and skill)This person is willing(has the necessaryconfidence andcommitment)Maturity of FollowersPsychological maturityJob maturityA great deal4Quite a bit3Some2Little1Usually4Often3On occasion2Seldom1
  35. 35. HOUSE’SPATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP Based on Expectancy Theory of Motivation A leader should emphasize either pathclarification or adjust rewards depending on thefactors affecting a person‘s motivation Theory assumes people can change theirleadership styles to fit the situation
  36. 36. Situational ContingenciesThree Important Situational Contingenciesin Path-Goal Theory The personal characteristics of groupmembers The work environment The situation
  37. 37. Path-goal Theory Rooted in Expectancy Theory Leader behaviors– Directive– Supportive– Achievement-oriented– Participative
  38. 38. Path-Goal Model of LeadershipFollower Characteristics1. Locus of control2. Authoritarianism3. AbilityOutcomes1. Job satisfaction2. Performance3. Acceptance of the leaderFollowers1. Perceptions2. MotivationEnvironmental Factors1. Tasks2. Formal authority system3. Work groupLeader Behavior Styles1. Directive2. Supportive3. Participative4. Achievement-oriented
  39. 39. Supportive LeadershipSupportiveLeadership• Reduce boredom• Make job moretolerable• Increase self-confidence• Lower Anxiety• Increase theintrinsic valenceof work• Increase effort-performanceexpectancyIncreaseeffort
  40. 40. Directive LeadershipDirectiveLeadershipReduce roleambiguityStrengthen rewardcontingenciesIncrease effort-performanceexpectancyIncreaseperformance-reward expectanciesIncreasesubordinateeffortIncrease sizeof incentivesIncrease outcomevalences for tasksuccess
  41. 41. Path-goal TheoryCausal VariablesLeader BehaviorIntervening VariablesSubordinate expectationsOutcome VariablesSubordinate effortand satisfactionSituational Moderator VariablesCharacteristics of task and environmentCharacteristics of subordinates
  42. 42. Change Leadership Transactional Leader: Provides directionfor subordinates to achieve set objectives(typical ―good manager‖ using positionpower & some personal power) Transformational Leader: Special ability tocreate innovation & change(charismatic leader within an organization –high on position & personal power)
  43. 43. Effects of Change LeadershipTransactionalLeadershipCurrentstate ofexpectedsubordinateeffortNormalexpectedsubordinateperformanceTransformationalLeadershipHeightenedmotivationto attaindesignedoutcome(extra effort)Subordinateperformancebeyondnormalexpectations
  44. 44. Transformational LeadershipTransformationalLeadership• Idealized Influence• Inspiration• Intellectual stimulation• IndividualizedconsiderationTransactionalLeadership• Contingent reward• Management byexception (active orpassive)• Laissez fairePerformancebeyondexpectationsAgreed uponperformanceBroadening andelevating followergoalsLeader/followerexchange
  45. 45. Characteristics ofTransactional Leadership Establishes goals and objectives Designs work flow and delegates taskassignments Negotiates exchange of rewards for effort Rewards performance and recognizesaccomplishments Searches for deviations from standards andtakes corrective actions
  46. 46. Characteristics ofTransformational Leadership Charismatic: Provides vision and a sense of mission,gains respect and trust, instills pride Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention,and treats each person individually, coaches Intellectually stimulating: Promotes learning,encourages rationality, uses careful problemsolving Inspirational: Communicates high performanceexpectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, distillsessential purposes
  47. 47. Integrative Framework ofChange Leadership1. Leader Traits: 13 Ps2. Success Criteria: Leader power andleader behavior3. Situational Variables: Environmentalforces (PEST)4. Interveining Variables: Subordinatecommitment, dedication, enthusiasm, etc.
  48. 48. Participative Management Democratic approach of management Employees have autonomy in making andimplementing decisions Leader invites wider participation of the subordinatesin making and selling decisions Exists high degree of delegation of authority Managers listen and value the subordinatesuggestions High degree of customer focus exists A move into TQM process climate
  49. 49. Management by Objectives (MBO) A management system in which specific performancegoals are jointly determined by employees and theirmanagers, progress toward accomplishing those goalsis periodically reviewed, rewards are allocated on thebasis of the progress in accomplishing the goals Goal achievement is the key of MBO Management approach is driven by the nature ofperformance objectives and goals MBO consists of four elements; goal specificity,participative
  50. 50. Management by Objectives (MBO)FOUR Characteristics of MBO Goal specificity, Participative decision making, An explicit time period, and Performance feedback.MBO increases organizationalperformance and productivity
  51. 51. Management by Walking Around (MBWA) A term used to describe when a manager is out in thework area, interacting directly with employees, andexchanging information about what‘s going on. MBWA is a management control process whichfollows THREE steps: Measuring actual performance, Comparing actual performance with the standardperformance, and Taking managerial actions for further improvement
  52. 52. Management by Exception An alternative approach of management when theother conventional laws management do not work Difficult to distinguish from charismatic,transformational, and transactional leadershipapproaches Examples: Use negative reinforcement if positive reinforcement doesnot work Reward for faulty deeds if punishment does not work Do it yourself to let others know how to follow it Induce unexpected surprising ways to doing things
  53. 53. Learning Organization An organization with exceptional work culture The most open type of organization An organizational system in which fear of ignoranceand inability is eliminated through relevant trainingand development People learn through open interactions Managers value subordinate problems and theirsuggestions Creativity creeps from eternal insights of all members A move towards TQM process climate
  54. 54. Key Findings from Leadership Theories Transformational leaders inspire higher performance thando transactional leaders Effective leaders must be concerned about accomplishingthe task and relationships Effective leaders know when to tell, sell, participate, ordelegate Effective leaders understand mission and strategy, knowhow to implement change, motivate employees to highperformance, and teach effectively Effective leaders lead by example and are honest and fair.They inspire confidence.
  55. 55. Reasons for Derailment of Top ManagementRank the following in order of importance. Choose 1 for the reason you feel is mostimportant, 2 for next most important, etc.a) Betrayal of Trust—failure to meet commitmentsb) Cold, aloof, arrogantc) Overdependence on one‘s boss or mentord) Insensitive to others: abrasive, intimidatinge) Overmanaging: unable to delegate or build a teamf) Unable to think broadly or strategically - too much attention todetail and minor technical problemsg) Unable to adapt to a boss with a different styleh) Unable to select and develop an effective staffi) Overly ambitious—plays politics, pushes too hard to get aheadj) Failure to handle specific performance problems - failure to handleproblems then not admit the problem, try to cover up or shift blameSource: ―What Makes a Top Executive‖ by McCall and Lombardo, Psychology Today, February 1983