15 August 2011 email@example.com Are leaders born? Can leadership be learnt? What are the determinants of effective leaders andleadership? Are leaders different from managers? What is the role of leadership in transformation?Leadership: Learning Agenda
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgYour mission…is to win our wars…you arethe ones who are trained to fight. Yours is theprofession of arms, the will to win, the sureknowledge that in war there is no substitutefor victory; That if you lose, the nation will bedestroyed.…General of the US ArmyDouglas Macarthur
15 August 2011 email@example.comThe most precious commodity withwhich the army deals is the individualsoldier who is the heart and soul of ourcombat forces.General J. Lawton Collins,VII Corps Commander, World War II
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org The act of leading One of the key management process functions. Process of influencing people to do something thatthey might otherwise not do. Refers to ‘Getting It Done’. An art which defies precise definitions. The action through which one or more persons areinfluenced or guided to behave the way they areexpected to. Cannot occur without the consent of followers.1. Introducing Leadership
15 August 2011 email@example.com Leadership ranges from the smallest decision, suchas where to eat lunch, to the decisions that affect thedirections of nations. Attainment of agreement upon goals or purposes isimportant, but the group or organization is animportant part of the leadership process. Once individuals turn as successful leaders, they aremore likely to accept or seek more challengingopportunitiesIntroducing Leadership
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgLeadershipInfluencing people by providing the purpose,direction, and motivation while operating toaccomplish the mission and improving theorganization.
15 August 2011 email@example.comInfluencing Getting people to do what you want them todo. The example you set is just as important asthe words you speak. Through your words and example, you mustcommunicate purpose, direction, andmotivation.
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org Persuades people with a reason to something. You must earn their trust: they must knowfrom experience that you care about them andwould not ask them to do somethingparticularly dangerous or affective unlessthere is a good reason, and unless the task isessential to mission accomplishment.Purpose
15 August 2011 email@example.com Communicate the way you want the missionbe accomplished. Prioritize tasks. Assign responsibility and communicate;delegate authority when necessary. Make sure your people understand thestandard. Listen, and correct the limitations that opposeyour direction.Direction
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org People want direction. They want to be givenchallenging tasks, training in how to accomplishthem, and the resources necessary to do them well.Then they want to be left alone to do the job.
15 August 2011 email@example.com Motivation gives subordinates the will to doeverything they can to accomplish a mission. To motivate your people, give them goals thatchallenge them. Get to know your people and their capabilities. Give them as much responsibility as they can.Motivation
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org When they succeed, praise them. When they fall short, give them credit for what theyhave done and coach or counsel how to do betternext time. Make sure that the example you set is as importantas what you say and how well you manage the work.Motivation
15 August 2011 email@example.com Actions taken to influence others serve toaccomplish operating actions Take take those actions that help accomplish thestated goals. All leaders execute operating actions, whichbecome more complex as they assume positions ofincreasing responsibility.Operating
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org Leaders should strive for improving everything thatis entrusted to them, their people, facilities,equipment, training, and all resources.Improving
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15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org BE, KNOW, DO clearly and concisely states thecharacteristics of a leader. Becoming a leader involves developing all aspectsof yourself.Be, Know, and Do
15 August 2011 email@example.com Character describes a person’s inner strength. Character helps you know what is right. Character gives you the courage to do what is rightregardless of the circumstance or the consequence. You demonstrate character through your behavior. You must embrace and teach values and developleader attributes, until they become habit.Be
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org A leader must have a certain level of knowledge tobe competent. You must develop interpersonal skills, knowledgeof your people and how to work with them. You must have conceptual skills, the ability tounderstand and apply the doctrine and other ideasrequired to do your job. You must learn technical skills, how to use yourequipment. warrior leaders must master tactical skills.Know
15 August 2011 email@example.com Influencing: making decisions,communicating those decisions, andmotivating people. Operating: the things you do to accomplishyour organization’s immediate mission. Improving: the things you do to increase theorganization’s capability to accomplishcurrent or future missions.Do
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org Weber has defined THREE types of leadershiplegitimacies:• Traditional Legitimacy,• Charismatic Legitimacy, and• Bureaucratic LegitimacyLegitimacy - what makes you a leader!
15 August 2011 email@example.com Legitimacy to control is handed down from the past Based on most traditional forms of customs Obedience based on loyalty to traditions Leadership decisions can be arbitrary Leadership authority is limited by the displeasure ofthe subjects, and failure to follow traditionsExamples: Kingdoms of China, Egypt, family schoolsPros: Leadership is clearly definedCons: Possible irrationalism, easily corruptedTraditional Legitimacy
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org Based on Inspiration: Vision and projection Legitimacy occurs after leader proves him/herselfExamples: Jesus Christ, Hitler, GhandiPros: The leader is not restricted by tradition andtechnical knowledgeCons: Power can be abused, and people can bemislead into followingCharismatic Legitimacy
15 August 2011 email@example.comPower is given based on skills, knowledge, andexperience.Obedience is based on rank which is completed forand earned.Structured hierarchy prevails.Examples: Headteacher, Army General, CatholicChurchPros: Rational, technically efficient, and favourslevelling of social classesCons: Breeds impersonality and contempt, and stuntsenthusiasm.Bureaucratic Legitimacy
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgMeans EndsEfficiency EffectivenessGoalsLow Highwastage attainmentLeadership Vs. Efficiency and Effectiveness
15 August 2011 email@example.com. Planning1. Define goals2. Establish strategy3. Develop tactics/subplans3. Leading1. Direct the people2. Motivate the people3. Resolve the conflicts2. OrganizingDetermine:1. What to be done2. How to be done3. Who is to do4. ControllingMotivate activitiesto ensure that theyare accomplishedas planned.Achieving theorganization’sstated purposeLeadership as One of the Management Functions
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgPersonalGoal SettingElements of Self-LeadershipConstructiveThought PatternsDesigningNatural RewardsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforcement
15 August 2011 email@example.comAccountability and responsiveness to be thecentral aspects.External environmental forces likely to createunexpected pressure.Management rigidity to be the strongest enemyof leadership.Nations more likely to go for international jobs.Leadership to be applied in every sector.Future of Leadership
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgTo set standards and accountabilities foreducational outcomes produced at all levels.Measure the outcomes to confirm that they havepositive relationship with the improvements made.Initiate changes for systems improvement tofacilitate long term system’s transformation.Communicate the problems, prospects, andnecessary changes with the external forces, andseek their continued support.Create and maintain international partnerships.Roles of Current Educational Leadership
15 August 2011 email@example.com Systems thinking Organizational designing Stewardship: share visionand purpose Creating creative tensions Teaching for developmentOther Important Roles of Educational Leaders
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org Do all people want to lead? Is it the part of universality of leadership to payhigh for the managers from the developedcountries? Is leadership not dominated by situation? Does legacy of leadership have its final definition?Leadership Dilemmas
15 August 2011 email@example.com The change or legacy of a good leader will lastlonger after the leader has left the role. Role model unconsciously important role in writingleadership schools A school, once it is created, provides a platform toplay for all and forever. Bad aspects are dominated and ignored.Leadership Effects
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgManager CharacteristicsAdministersA copyMaintainsFocuses on systems and structuresRelies on controlsShort-range viewAsks how and whenEye on the bottom lineImitatesAccepts the status quoClassic good soldierDoes things rightManager Vs. LeaderLeader CharacteristicsInnovatesAn originalDevelopsFocuses on peopleInspires trustLong-range perspectiveAsks what and whyEye on the horizonOriginatesChallenges the status quoOwn personDoes the right thingsWarren G. Bennis, Managing the dream: leadership in 21st century, journal ofOrganizational Change Management, vol. 2, No. 1, 1989, p. 7
15 August 2011 email@example.com. Leadership in Perspectives Slater (1995) has defined leadership from fourmajor perspectives: Structural-Functionalist Perspective Political-Conflict Perspective Constructivist Perspective Critical Humanist Perspective
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgStructural Functionalist Perspective This is a dominant perspective in education It sees leadership as a set of measurable behavior orskills. Includes all academic activities covering planning,organizing, leading, and controlling of the resourcesfor their best utilization to make the schooloperations more cost effective.
15 August 2011 email@example.comPolitical-Conflict Perspective This perspective contrasts with the structural-functionalist perspective because it does not seeleadership as a set of behavior and skills, rather itsees it as power relationship with the subordinates. Structure of domination is the essence of thisperspective. In education, this perspective can be seen as therelationship between the headteacher and othermembers.
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgConstructivist Perspective This perspective also tends to see leadership as theleader behaviors and skills. It emphasizes that the majority of the behavior andskills become dominated by one or two majorbehaviors that lead the functioning of otherbehaviors and skills. As its symbolic aspect, this perspective tends toconvey the meaning that the underlying dynamicsocial laws construct the structure of the society.
15 August 2011 email@example.comConstructivist Perspective This perspective disagrees that the social structureor the social science, and educational administrationare value free. Creating and imparting values for life is the essenceof this perspective of leadership. Since educational institutions are for providingeducation for life, this perspective is instrumental inbetter understanding the philosophy of educationand educational leadership.
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org This perspective deals with the human relations atthe workplace. Creating motivating jobs, providing guidance, loveand care, and offering a vision for the team, onemay be able to establish personally as a leader. The indicators of the humanist perspective ofleadership are the personality traits, and leadermember relations.Critical Humanist Perspective
15 August 2011 email@example.comPerspectives of Educational Leadership To summarize from the various leadershipperspectives, it may be concluded that leaderbehavior has to be measured in terms of - leaders relationship of power position, leader’s behavior and skills to add values tothe society, and leader’s personality traits to figurehead thework teams.
15 August 2011 firstname.lastname@example.orgIssues Governing Educational LeadershipPolitical-legal issuesEconomic issuesSocio-cultural issuesTechnological issuesInternational issuesSubject for discussionsissues and their impact inthe Nepalese context