Leadership concepts


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Leadership concepts

  1. 1. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056711Unit 1: Leadership in Perspective1. Introducing Leadershipa. Meaningb. Scopec. Functions2. Selected Perspectives of Leadershipa. Structural functionalist perspectiveb. Political-conflict perspectivec. Constructivist perspectived. Critical humanist perspective3. Issues Governing Educational Leadership
  2. 2. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056712 Are leaders born? Can leadership be learnt? What are the determinants of effective leaders andleadership? Are leaders different from managers? What is the role of leadership in transformation?Leadership: Learning Agenda
  3. 3. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056713Your mission…is to win our wars…you arethe ones who are trained to fight. Yours is theprofession of arms, the will to win, the sureknowledge that in war there is no substitutefor victory; That if you lose, the nation will bedestroyed.…General of the US ArmyDouglas Macarthur
  4. 4. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056714The most precious commodity withwhich the army deals is the individualsoldier who is the heart and soul of ourcombat forces.General J. Lawton Collins,VII Corps Commander, World War II
  5. 5. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056715 The act of leading One of the key management process functions. Process of influencing people to do something thatthey might otherwise not do. Refers to ‘Getting It Done’. An art which defies precise definitions. The action through which one or more persons areinfluenced or guided to behave the way they areexpected to. Cannot occur without the consent of followers.1. Introducing Leadership
  6. 6. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056716 Leadership ranges from the smallest decision, suchas where to eat lunch, to the decisions that affect thedirections of nations. Attainment of agreement upon goals or purposes isimportant, but the group or organization is animportant part of the leadership process. Once individuals turn as successful leaders, they aremore likely to accept or seek more challengingopportunitiesIntroducing Leadership
  7. 7. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056717LeadershipInfluencing people by providing the purpose,direction, and motivation while operating toaccomplish the mission and improving theorganization.
  8. 8. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056718Influencing Getting people to do what you want them todo. The example you set is just as important asthe words you speak. Through your words and example, you mustcommunicate purpose, direction, andmotivation.
  9. 9. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org98511056719 Persuades people with a reason to something. You must earn their trust: they must knowfrom experience that you care about them andwould not ask them to do somethingparticularly dangerous or affective unlessthere is a good reason, and unless the task isessential to mission accomplishment.Purpose
  10. 10. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567110 Communicate the way you want the missionbe accomplished. Prioritize tasks. Assign responsibility and communicate;delegate authority when necessary. Make sure your people understand thestandard. Listen, and correct the limitations that opposeyour direction.Direction
  11. 11. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567111 People want direction. They want to be givenchallenging tasks, training in how to accomplishthem, and the resources necessary to do them well.Then they want to be left alone to do the job.
  12. 12. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567112 Motivation gives subordinates the will to doeverything they can to accomplish a mission. To motivate your people, give them goals thatchallenge them. Get to know your people and their capabilities. Give them as much responsibility as they can.Motivation
  13. 13. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567113 When they succeed, praise them. When they fall short, give them credit for what theyhave done and coach or counsel how to do betternext time. Make sure that the example you set is as importantas what you say and how well you manage the work.Motivation
  14. 14. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567114 Actions taken to influence others serve toaccomplish operating actions Take take those actions that help accomplish thestated goals. All leaders execute operating actions, whichbecome more complex as they assume positions ofincreasing responsibility.Operating
  15. 15. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567115 Leaders should strive for improving everything thatis entrusted to them, their people, facilities,equipment, training, and all resources.Improving
  16. 16. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567116
  17. 17. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567117 BE, KNOW, DO clearly and concisely states thecharacteristics of a leader. Becoming a leader involves developing all aspectsof yourself.Be, Know, and Do
  18. 18. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567118 Character describes a person’s inner strength. Character helps you know what is right. Character gives you the courage to do what is rightregardless of the circumstance or the consequence. You demonstrate character through your behavior. You must embrace and teach values and developleader attributes, until they become habit.Be
  19. 19. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567119 A leader must have a certain level of knowledge tobe competent. You must develop interpersonal skills, knowledgeof your people and how to work with them. You must have conceptual skills, the ability tounderstand and apply the doctrine and other ideasrequired to do your job. You must learn technical skills, how to use yourequipment. warrior leaders must master tactical skills.Know
  20. 20. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567120 Influencing: making decisions,communicating those decisions, andmotivating people. Operating: the things you do to accomplishyour organization’s immediate mission. Improving: the things you do to increase theorganization’s capability to accomplishcurrent or future missions.Do
  21. 21. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567121 Weber has defined THREE types of leadershiplegitimacies:• Traditional Legitimacy,• Charismatic Legitimacy, and• Bureaucratic LegitimacyLegitimacy - what makes you a leader!
  22. 22. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567122 Legitimacy to control is handed down from the past Based on most traditional forms of customs Obedience based on loyalty to traditions Leadership decisions can be arbitrary Leadership authority is limited by the displeasure ofthe subjects, and failure to follow traditionsExamples: Kingdoms of China, Egypt, family schoolsPros: Leadership is clearly definedCons: Possible irrationalism, easily corruptedTraditional Legitimacy
  23. 23. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567123 Based on Inspiration: Vision and projection Legitimacy occurs after leader proves him/herselfExamples: Jesus Christ, Hitler, GhandiPros: The leader is not restricted by tradition andtechnical knowledgeCons: Power can be abused, and people can bemislead into followingCharismatic Legitimacy
  24. 24. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567124Power is given based on skills, knowledge, andexperience.Obedience is based on rank which is completed forand earned.Structured hierarchy prevails.Examples: Headteacher, Army General, CatholicChurchPros: Rational, technically efficient, and favourslevelling of social classesCons: Breeds impersonality and contempt, and stuntsenthusiasm.Bureaucratic Legitimacy
  25. 25. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567125Means EndsEfficiency EffectivenessGoalsLow Highwastage attainmentLeadership Vs. Efficiency and Effectiveness
  26. 26. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org9851105671261. Planning1. Define goals2. Establish strategy3. Develop tactics/subplans3. Leading1. Direct the people2. Motivate the people3. Resolve the conflicts2. OrganizingDetermine:1. What to be done2. How to be done3. Who is to do4. ControllingMotivate activitiesto ensure that theyare accomplishedas planned.Achieving theorganization’sstated purposeLeadership as One of the Management Functions
  27. 27. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567127PersonalGoal SettingElements of Self-LeadershipConstructiveThought PatternsDesigningNatural RewardsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforcement
  28. 28. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567128Accountability and responsiveness to be thecentral aspects.External environmental forces likely to createunexpected pressure.Management rigidity to be the strongest enemyof leadership.Nations more likely to go for international jobs.Leadership to be applied in every sector.Future of Leadership
  29. 29. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567129To set standards and accountabilities foreducational outcomes produced at all levels.Measure the outcomes to confirm that they havepositive relationship with the improvements made.Initiate changes for systems improvement tofacilitate long term system’s transformation.Communicate the problems, prospects, andnecessary changes with the external forces, andseek their continued support.Create and maintain international partnerships.Roles of Current Educational Leadership
  30. 30. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567130 Systems thinking Organizational designing Stewardship: share visionand purpose Creating creative tensions Teaching for developmentOther Important Roles of Educational Leaders
  31. 31. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567131 Do all people want to lead? Is it the part of universality of leadership to payhigh for the managers from the developedcountries? Is leadership not dominated by situation? Does legacy of leadership have its final definition?Leadership Dilemmas
  32. 32. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567132 The change or legacy of a good leader will lastlonger after the leader has left the role. Role model unconsciously important role in writingleadership schools A school, once it is created, provides a platform toplay for all and forever. Bad aspects are dominated and ignored.Leadership Effects
  33. 33. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567133Manager CharacteristicsAdministersA copyMaintainsFocuses on systems and structuresRelies on controlsShort-range viewAsks how and whenEye on the bottom lineImitatesAccepts the status quoClassic good soldierDoes things rightManager Vs. LeaderLeader CharacteristicsInnovatesAn originalDevelopsFocuses on peopleInspires trustLong-range perspectiveAsks what and whyEye on the horizonOriginatesChallenges the status quoOwn personDoes the right thingsWarren G. Bennis, Managing the dream: leadership in 21st century, journal ofOrganizational Change Management, vol. 2, No. 1, 1989, p. 7
  34. 34. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org9851105671342. Leadership in Perspectives Slater (1995) has defined leadership from fourmajor perspectives: Structural-Functionalist Perspective Political-Conflict Perspective Constructivist Perspective Critical Humanist Perspective
  35. 35. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567135Structural Functionalist Perspective This is a dominant perspective in education It sees leadership as a set of measurable behavior orskills. Includes all academic activities covering planning,organizing, leading, and controlling of the resourcesfor their best utilization to make the schooloperations more cost effective.
  36. 36. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567136Political-Conflict Perspective This perspective contrasts with the structural-functionalist perspective because it does not seeleadership as a set of behavior and skills, rather itsees it as power relationship with the subordinates. Structure of domination is the essence of thisperspective. In education, this perspective can be seen as therelationship between the headteacher and othermembers.
  37. 37. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567137Constructivist Perspective This perspective also tends to see leadership as theleader behaviors and skills. It emphasizes that the majority of the behavior andskills become dominated by one or two majorbehaviors that lead the functioning of otherbehaviors and skills. As its symbolic aspect, this perspective tends toconvey the meaning that the underlying dynamicsocial laws construct the structure of the society.
  38. 38. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567138Constructivist Perspective This perspective disagrees that the social structureor the social science, and educational administrationare value free. Creating and imparting values for life is the essenceof this perspective of leadership. Since educational institutions are for providingeducation for life, this perspective is instrumental inbetter understanding the philosophy of educationand educational leadership.
  39. 39. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567139 This perspective deals with the human relations atthe workplace. Creating motivating jobs, providing guidance, loveand care, and offering a vision for the team, onemay be able to establish personally as a leader. The indicators of the humanist perspective ofleadership are the personality traits, and leadermember relations.Critical Humanist Perspective
  40. 40. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567140Perspectives of Educational Leadership To summarize from the various leadershipperspectives, it may be concluded that leaderbehavior has to be measured in terms of - leaders relationship of power position, leader’s behavior and skills to add values tothe society, and leader’s personality traits to figurehead thework teams.
  41. 41. 15 August 2011 rijal@edifyintl.org985110567141Issues Governing Educational LeadershipPolitical-legal issuesEconomic issuesSocio-cultural issuesTechnological issuesInternational issuesSubject for discussionsissues and their impact inthe Nepalese context