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Case study notes

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It provides with learning insights about how to develop a case study, make a presentation and discussion in classrooms.

It provides with learning insights about how to develop a case study, make a presentation and discussion in classrooms.

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  • 1. CASE APPROACH OF STUDY IN MANAGEMENTCASE APPROACH OF STUDY IN MANAGEMENTBYBYC P RIJAL, PHD IN LEADERSHIPC P RIJAL, PHD IN LEADERSHIPASSOCIATE PROFESSORASSOCIATE PROFESSORMID-WESTERN UNIVERSITYMID-WESTERN UNIVERSITYSURKHET, NEPALSURKHET, NEPAL1
  • 2. WHAT IS A CASE STUDY?WHAT IS A CASE STUDY? A case study presents real lifereal life accounts ofwhat happened to an individual, group, firmor any component of society over time. Case-based approach of teaching learning inbusiness studies is applied to understandvarious situations the managers areexpected to deal with, or have already dealt. For example, changes in competitiveenvironment leads to the change inmanagers response, which usually involveschanging the corporate, business, product orservice-level strategies.2
  • 3. CASE STUDY, WHAT IT ISCASE STUDY, WHAT IT IS Most of the cases are written in such a waythat the reader assumes for self in the placeof the manager whose responsibility is tomake rational decision to solve the problemexplained in the case situation.3
  • 4. CASE STUDY, WHAT IT ISCASE STUDY, WHAT IT IS The case method is a teaching learningphilosophy that combines knowledgeacquisition with significant studentinvolvement. In the words of Alfred North WhiteheadAlfred North Whitehead,the case method rejects the doctrine thatstudents first learn passively, and thenapply the knowledge.4
  • 5. CASE STUDY, WHAT IT DOES …CASE STUDY, WHAT IT DOES … If it is developed and presented effectivelywith rich and interesting details, casemethod brings reality into the classroom. Cases keep conceptual discussions groundedin the reality. Experience shows that simple fictionalaccounts of situations and collections ofactual organizational data and articles frompublic sources are not as effective forlearning as are fully developed cases.5
  • 6. CASE STUDY, WHAT IT DOES …CASE STUDY, WHAT IT DOES … A comprehensive case approach helps youhave a practical clinical study of a real-lifesituation faced by a manager. A case presented in a narrative formprovides motivations for the involvementwith and analyses of specific situation. By framing alternative strategic actions andby confronting the complexity and ambiguityof the practical world, case analyses provideextraordinary power for your involvementwith a personal learning experience. 6
  • 7. CASE STUDY, WHAT IT REQUIRESCASE STUDY, WHAT IT REQUIRES1. It requires students to practice importantmanagerial skills--diagnosing, making decisions,observing, listening, and persuading--whilepreparing for a case discussion.2. Cases require students to relate analyses andaction to develop realistic and concrete actionsdespite the complexity and partial knowledge of thesituation being studied.3. Students face intractability of the reality--completein absence of needed information, imbalancebetween needs and available resources, and conflictamong competing objectives.7
  • 8. HOW DO THE STUDENTS PERFORM …HOW DO THE STUDENTS PERFORM … Assigned cases are first prepared by students, and thispreparation forms the basis for class discussion under thedirection of the instructor. Students learn, often unconsciously, how to evaluate aproblem, how to make decisions, and how to orally argue aview point. Using this method, they also learn how to think in terms ofproblems faced by an administrator. In course works, a significant part of students evaluationmay rest with classroom participation on case discussions,with another substantial portion resting on written caseanalyses. Due to these reasons, using a case method tends to be veryintensive for both students and instructor. 8
  • 9. CASE METHOD: WHERE IS IT USED…CASE METHOD: WHERE IS IT USED… Case studies are used extensively throughout most of theprograms at the university level, business administrationclasses with no exception. You will be using case studies in many of the lectures in myclassroom proceedings in Leadership, OrganizationalPsychology, Strategic Management, Business Management,Human Resource Management, Organizational Design andChange, Research and Innovation, and so on … You must be ready for your life-term learning, for that I mayhave a bag full of collection of cases which may be directlyapplicable in your business dealing even.9
  • 10. REASONS OF THE USE OF CASE METHODREASONS OF THE USE OF CASE METHOD1. It provides you with the experience oforganizational problems that you probablyhave not had the opportunity to experiencebefore.2. It illustrates what you have learnt.3. It provides you with the opportunity toparticipate in class and to gain experience inpresenting your ideas to others.4. If you are a working executive, it will helpyou reach back to nature. Do you know, what‘back to nature’ is all about? 10
  • 11. APPROACHAPPROACH A business case study is a powerful decision-making tool in business management studiesdue to a variety of reasons:1.It forces the decision maker to follow apredetermined process or format to ensure allfactors have been considered.2.It insists the user to determine the riskfactors and other major success factors.3.It allows multiple parties to review the caseand its assumptions.11
  • 12. PROCEDURALASPECTS OF A CASE STUDYPROCEDURALASPECTS OF A CASE STUDY1. Develop the company profile2. Identify the companys internal strengthsand weaknesses3. Assess the external environmentsurrounding the company4. Perform a SWOT analysis5. Review the company strategies, level-wise6. Analyze the company’s structural-functionalsystems7. Recommend with corrective measures12
  • 13. WRITING A CASE STUDYWRITING A CASE STUDY1. Introductory partIntroductory part: Briefly outline what the companydoes, how it developed historically, what problemsit is experiencing, and how you are going toapproach the issues in the case write-up.2. Develop strategic-analysesDevelop strategic-analyses: Use all possible toolsand techniques of internal and external analysis;requires the analyses of at least 6 components.Assess the company strengths and weaknesses byusing possible financial analyses.3. Solutions and recommendationsSolutions and recommendations: Be comprehensive,make sure they are in line with the previousanalyses so that the recommendations fit with thecontext. 13
  • 14. MAJOR FINANCIALANALYSES TO BEUSEDUSED11. Profit ratiosProfit ratios: Gross profit margin, net profit margin,return on total assets, net income, and return onstakeholders’ equity.2.2. Liquidity ratiosLiquidity ratios: Current ratio, and quick ratio.3.3. Activity ratios:Activity ratios: inventory turnover, cost of goodssold, day’s sales outstanding, accounts receivable.4. Leverage ratios:4. Leverage ratios: Debt-to-assets ratio, debt-to-equityratio, and times-covered ratio.5. Shareholder return ratios:5. Shareholder return ratios: Total shareholderreturns, price-earnings ratio, market-to-book value,dividends yield, and market price per share.6.6. Analysis of cash flowscash flows is the most instrumental.14
  • 15. POINTS TO LEARN…POINTS TO LEARN…Before the class discussion:1. Read the reading assignments (if any)2. Use the Short Cycle Process to familiarizeyourself with the case.3. Use the Long Cycle Process to analyze thecase4. Usually there will be group meetings todiscuss your ideas.5. Write up the case (if required)15
  • 16. POINTS TO LEARN…POINTS TO LEARN…During the class discussion:6. Someone will start the discussion, usuallyat the prompting of the Instructor.7. Listen carefully and take notes. Pay closeattention to assumptions. Insist that theyare clearly stated.8. Take part in the discussion. Yourcontribution is important, and is likely apart of your evaluation for the course.16
  • 17. POINTS TO LEARN…POINTS TO LEARN…After the class discussion:9. Review as soon as possible after the class.Note what the key concept was and how thecase fits into the course.17
  • 18. SHORT CYCLE PROCESS IS ALWAYSPREFERREDPREFERRED1. Quickly read the case.2. Answer the following questions:Who is the decision maker in this case, and what is theirposition and responsibilities?What appears to be the issue (of concern, problem, challenge,or opportunity) and its significance for the organization?Why has the issue arisen and why is the decision makerinvolved now?When does the decision maker have to decide, resolve, act ordispose of the issue? What is the urgency to the situation?3. Take a look at the Exhibits to see the numbers.4. Review the case subtitles to see what areas are covered inmore depth.5. Review the case questions if they have been provided.18
  • 19. JOURNEYJOURNEYStep 1 – Be familiarStep 1 – Be familiara. In general--determine who, what, how, where andwhen (the critical facts in a case).b. In detail--identify the places, persons, activities, andcontexts of the situation.Step 2 – Recognize the symptomsStep 2 – Recognize the symptomsa. List all indicators (including stated "problems") thatsomething is not as expected or as desiredb. Ensure that symptoms are not assumed to be theproblem (symptoms should lead to identification ofthe problem). 19
  • 20. JOURNEYJOURNEYStep 3 – Identify the goalsStep 3 – Identify the goalsa.Identify critical statements by major parties(people, groups, the work unit, etc.).b.List all goals of the major parties that exist orcan be reasonably inferred.Step 4 – Conduct the analysisStep 4 – Conduct the analysisa.Decide which ideas, models, and theoriesseem useful.b.Apply these conceptual tools to the situation.c. As new information is revealed, cycle back tosub-steps ‘a’ and ‘b’.20
  • 21. JOURNEYJOURNEYStep 5 – Make diagnosisStep 5 – Make diagnosisa. Identify predicaments (goal inconsistencies).b. Identify problems (discrepancies between goals andperformance).c. Prioritize predicaments/problems regarding timing,importance, etc.Step 6 – Do the action planningStep 6 – Do the action planninga. Specify and prioritize the criteria used to choose actionalternatives.b. Discover or invent feasible action alternativesc. Examine the probable consequences of action alternatives.d. Select a course of action.e. Design the implementation plan of action.f. Create a plan for assessing the action results.21
  • 22. ANY QUESTIONS ?ANY QUESTIONS ?22
  • 23. THANK YOU !THANK YOU !23

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