Introduction and objectives of the project

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  • 1. CONTENTSCHAPTER INDEX PAGE NO. INTRODUCTION I 1.1 PROJECT OVERVIEW 1 1.2 ORGANIZATION PROFILE 2 SYSTEM STUDY II 2.1 STUDY ABOUT EXISTING SYSTEM 6 2.2 NEED FOR PROPOSED SYSTEM 7 SYSTEM ANALYSYS 3.1 FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS 8 III 3.2 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 10 3.3 SOFTWARE FEATURES 11 SYSTEM DESIGN 4.1 OUTPUT DESIGN 21 IV 4.2 INPUT DESIGN 23 4.3 DATABASE DESIGN 26 4.4 TABLE DESIGN 27 SYSTEM TESTING V 5.1 SYSTEM TESTING 38 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION & MAINTENANCE VI 6.1 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 43 6.2 SYSTEM MAINTENANCE 45 CONCLUSION & FUTURE ENHANCEMENT VII 7.1 CONCLUSION 47 7.2 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY VIII 8.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 APPENDIX 9.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 50 IX 9.2 FORMS 55 9.3 REPORTS 59 9.4 SAMPLE CODING 63
  • 2. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECTBRIEF ABOUT THE ORGANISATION: Prem Wonder Land, Rampur Road, Moradabad. The school isrecognized by U.P. Govt. It is running Unity Public School is situated inEkta Vihar, MDA Colony, Near since last three years from class Nursery toVIIIth under administrative control of Smt. Khurshid Jafri. At present the school management and its all procedures are totallymanual based. It creates a lot of problems due to wrong entries or mistakesin totaling etc. This system avoided such mistakes through proper checksand validation control methods in checking of student record, fee depositparticulars, teachers schedule, examination report, issue of transfercertificates etc. I met personally to the principal and manager and discussabout the computerization of manual school management system. Thissystem registers a student and confirms its admission in school. When astudent registers in school a S.R. No (unique ID) is allotted to student.Student record is based on his/ her S.R. No.OBJECTIVE:
  • 3. The objective of developing such a computerization system is toreduce the paper work and safe of time in school management. There byincreasing the efficiency and decreasing the work load. The project provides us the information about student record, schoolfaculty, school timetable, school fee, school examination result and librarymanagement. The system must provide the flexibility of generating therequired documents on screen as well as on printer as and when required.PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The school management process can be described using differentmodules. Each of the module performs a different function. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Student School Faculty Time Examination Library Record Fee Profile Table Result Management(a) Student Record: We can easily find out the details of student alongwith his photographby entering his/her S.R. No.(b) School Fee:
  • 4. We can find out the fee structure of every class and the fee for studentwhether the student has paid fee or not. If he/ she has not paid school feewithin prescribed period, he / she should have to pay penalty.(c) Faculty Profile: We can easily find out the description about the teacher postedin school .(d) Time Table: We can search out the name of teacher and subject in particularclass at a particular time .(e) Examination Result: We can check the performance of students during the particularyear . On passing the particular class , student record and student TC isupdated .(f) Library Management: Library management process updates the library database. It givesinformation about a particular book when issued to the student and when itis taken back.SCOPE:
  • 5. The scope of the school management system facilitate us in thefollowing jobs :- ♦ Maintaining Student Records ♦ Automatic Preparation of Marksheet ♦ Automatic updation in student TC ♦ Library ManagenentTOOLS:FRONT END / GUI TOOLs : Visual Basic 6.0Visual Basic 6.0 : We have selected Visual Basic 6.0 as our Front end . VisualBasic is programming language . It is the most powerful objectoriented based language on 32 bit operating system . We find VB6quite useful developing 32 bit GUI based application . In Visualprogramming , mouse is used extensively , coding in VB is same aswriting programming statements for other languages . We selected VBbecause of its simplicity of creating of reusable code libraries . VB letsus mark objects in a code component as global so that their methodscan be invoked without explicitly creating an instance of the globalobjects. By adding support for class modules the creation of Active X(Com), DLL , EXEs , VB provides infrastructure of using an objectoriented technique , which being used in this project .RDBMS / BACK END: SQL ServerSQL Server 2000:
  • 6. We have selected SQL - Server 2000, i.e. an RDBMS packagefor back end tool for managing the database as this allows users tomanage the database very efficiently and controls data redundancy andinconsistency . It allows enforcing various data integrity constraints onthe data being entered into the tables. Database can be accessed usingGUI provided by the system . It is very easy to maintain . It is alsocheaper than other package . SQL server is an RDBMS package as backend tool formanaging database as this allows users to manage the data base veryefficiently and controls data redundancy and inconsistency . It allowsenforcing various data integrity constraints on the data being entered intothe tables . Data-base can be accesses using many front tools and it canbe installed on a simply configured system.OPERATING SYSTEM : WINDOWS Environment (NT , 2000 , XP)Hardware Requirement (Minimum):  Any Pentium Processor.  128 MB RAM with 2.00 GB Hard Disk Free Space  1.44 MB Floppy Disk Drive  Monitor  Mouse
  • 7.  CD-ROM Drive  PrinterSECURITY MECHANISMS: Security is provided at administrative and user level by introducingthe concept of passwords for authentification purpose. Password is categorized as : Administrator - Complete User - Student Record Display - Faculty Display - Time Table read only - Results Read onlyFUTURE SCOPE, FURTHER ENHANCEMENT ANDLIMITATIONS: This project will be useful for any schools and colleges with slightlymodification. It may be used for English Medium School as well as HindiMedium Schools. Project is flexible i.e. any change / modification in database may be perform easily. Also this project could be made web enabled.
  • 8. This project may be upgraded with some more modules such as sportsmodule, prize module, student attendance module, employee salarymodule, annually receipt and expenditure reports generation etc. Thisproject can also be made for multi-user environment. PROCESS LOGIC
  • 9. The process logic for our project is depending on program structure. Computer Institution Management System Student Database Faculty Database Fee StructureStudent Fee Record Class & Subject Database
  • 10. Each sub modules of school management system requires sub-submodules or different functions, such student database has new student entry,edit student record, delete student record. Faculty database also has add,delete and modification functions. Once we have entered school feestructure, we have maintained student fee record effectively. Student Resultis also has various options, such as individual result, class result, fail andpass student record in each subject as well as in class. Also transfercertificate will be made computerized. Another important module Librarymanagement has also various sub-sub modules, such as new book entry,search book, issue and return book, fine charges etc. This project carried out for a full computerized school managementsystem. Most of the school function was computerized. This project will beuseful for all schools and colleges with some modification. The modificationis customized so it is not necessary to change complete project. Project iscustomised i.e. any change / modification in data base may be performeasily. Also we are trying to make this project web enabled. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to thank Mr. Rahul Kumar Mishra (myhonorable guide), Lecturer, Department of Computer Applications, IFTM, Moradabad,for his prodigious, persuasions, painstaking, and attitude, reformative and prudentialsuggestions throughout my project.
  • 11. SYSTEM ANALYSIS System Analysis refers to the process of examining a situation with the intent ofimproving it through better procedures and methods. System design is the process ofplanning a new system to either replace or complement an existing system. But beforeany planning is done, the old system must be thoroughly understood and the requirementsdetermined. System Analysis is therefore, the process of gathering and interpreting facts,diagnosis problems and using the information to re-comment improvements in thesystem. Or in other words, System Analysis means a detailed explanation or description.Before computerizing a system under consideration, it has to be analyzed. We need tostudy how it functions currently, what are the problems, and what are the requirementsthat the proposed system should meet. The main components of making software are: • System and software requirements analysis • Design and implementation of software • Ensuring, verifying and maintaining software integrity System analysis is an activity that encompasses most of the tasks that arecollectively called Computer System Engineering. Confusion sometimes occurs becausethe term is often used in context that all dues it only to software requirement analysisactivities, but system analysis focuses on all the system elements- not just software. System analysis is conducted with the following objectives in mind:
  • 12. • Identify the customer’s need • Evaluate the system concept for feasibility • Perform economic and technical analysis • Allocate functions to hardware, software, people, database and other system elements • Establish cost and schedule constraints • Create a system definition that forms the foundation for all the subsequent engineering work. System Analysis is consisting of two main works i.e. Identify the need andPreliminary Investigation.PHASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS A development process consists of various phases, each phase ending with adefined output. The phases are performed in an order specified by the process modelbeing followed. The main reason for having a phased process is that it breaks the problemof developing software into successfully performing a set of phases, each handling adifferent concern of software development. It allows proper checking for quality andprogress for given software during development (end of phases). One phase would haveto wait until the end what software has been produced. This will not work for largesystem. Hence for managing the complexity, project tracking, and quality, all thedevelopment process consists of set of phases. Various process models have beenproposed for developing software. Each organization that follows a process has its ownversion. The different process can have different activities.
  • 13. In general, we can say that any problem solving in software must consist of these activities: Requirement specification for understanding and clearly stating the problem. Design for deciding a plan for a solution. Coding for implementing the planned solution Testing for verifying the programs For small problem these activities may not be clearly defined, and no written record of the activities may be kept. But for the complex and large system where the problem solving activity may last couple of years and where many persons are involved in development, and each of these four problem solving activities has to be done formally. Each of these activities is a major task for large software projects. FEASIBILITY STUDY The data collection that occurs during preliminary investigations examines system feasibility, the likelihood that the system will be beneficial to the organization. Four tests of feasibility are studies: technical, economical and operational. All are equally important. 1. Technical Feasibility: It involves determining whether or not a system can actually be constructed to solve the problem at hand. Some users expect too much of computers, assuming that computers can accurately predict the future, immediately reflect all information in an organization, easily understand speech, or figure
  • 14. out how to handle difficult problems. Such systems, even if they exist, are not yetavailable for widespread use. The technical issues raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation are: 1. Does the necessary technology exist (can it be acquired) to do what issuggested? 2. Does the proposed equipment have the technical capacity to hold the datarequired to use the new system? 3. Will the proposed system and components provide adequate responses toinquires, regardless of the number or location of users? 4. Can the system be expanded, if developed? 5. Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and datasecurity? For example, if the proposal includes a printer that prints at the rate of 2,000 linesper minute, a brief search shows that this is technically feasible. Whether it should beincluded in the configuration because of its cost is an economic decision. On the otherhand, if a user is requesting audio input to write, read, and change stored data, theproposal may not be technically feasible. 2. Economical Feasibility: It involves estimating benefits and costs.These benefits and costs may be tangible or intangible. Because of confusion between
  • 15. the types of costs, it is sometimes very difficult to decide if the benefits outweigh thecosts. Tangible benefits may include decreasing salary costs (by automating manualprocedures), preventing costly but frequent errors, sending bills earlier in the month, andincreasing control over inventory levels. Such benefits may be directly estimated inrupees without much trouble. Intangible benefits may include increasing quality of goodsproduced, upgrading or creating new customer services, reducing repetitive ormonotonous work for employees, and developing a better understanding of the market.Such benefits may be much more important than tangible benefits, but they may beignored because estimating their rupee values involves pure guesswork. Tangible costs are easily estimated. They include the one-time cost of developingthe system and the continuous costs of operating the system. Examples of developmentcosts are the salaries of programmers and` analysts, the prices of the computerequipment, and the expenses connected with user training. Operating costs include thesalaries of computer operators and the costs of computer time and computer supplies.Intangible costs are usually not discussed because they are rarely large. Examples ofsuch costs include those associated with early user dissatisfaction and with the problemsof converting to the new system. A system that can be developed technically and will be used if installed must stillbe a good investment. That is, financial benefits must equal or exceed the financial costs.The economic and financial questions raised by analysts during the preliminaryinvestigation seek estimates of:
  • 16. 1. The cost to conduct a full systems investigation. 2. The cost of hardware and software for the class of application beingconsidered. 3. The benefits in the form of reduced costs or fewer costly errors. 4. The cost if nothing changes (the system is not developed). Cost and benefit estimates on each project provide a basis for determining whichprojects are most worthy of consideration. Each estimate can be analyzed to determinehow rapidly costs are recovered by benefits, to calculate both the absolute and interest-adjusted amounts of excess benefits, and to establish the ratio of benefits to costs. All ofthese factors are considered when developing an overall sense of the projects economicfeasibility. To be judged feasible, a project proposal must pass all these tests. Otherwise, it isnot a feasible project. For example, a personnel record system that is financially feasibleand operational attractive, is not feasible if the necessary technology does not exist. Or amedical system which can be developed at reasonable cost but which nurses will avoidusing cannot be judged operationally feasible. 3. Operational Feasibility: Proposed projects are of course beneficialonly if they can be turned into information systems that will meet the organizationsoperation requirements. Simply stated, this test of feasibility asks if the system will workwhen developed and installed. Are there major barriers to implementation? Here arequestions that will help test the operational feasibility of a project:
  • 17. 1. Is there sufficient support for the project from the management and from users?If the current system is well liked and used to the extent that persons will not see reasonsfor a change, there may be resistance. 2. Are current business methods acceptable to the user? If they are not, user maywelcome a change that will bring about a more operational and useful system. 3. Have the users been involved in the planning and development of the project?Early involvement reduces the chances of resistance to the system and change in general,and increases the likelihood of successful projects. 4. Will the proposed system cause harm? The following questions are related tothis issue: Will the system produce result in any respect or area? Will loss of control result in any area? Will accessibility of information be lost? Will individual performance be poorer after implementation than before? Will customers be affected in an undesirable way? Will it slow performance in any areas? Operational feasibility is a measure of how people are able to work with thesystem. For example, a system may require managers to write BASIC, COBOL, orFORTRAN programs to access data. However, managers probably receive the greatest
  • 18. help from a system when they can concentrate on the problems to solve rather than onhow programs should be constructed to solve them. SYSTEM DESIGN It describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts,business rules, process diagrams, pseudocode and other documentation. The mostcreative and challenges phase of the software development life cycle is software design.The term design describes final software and the process by which it is developed. Thepurpose of the design phase is to plan a solution of the problem specified by therequirements document. It also includes the construction of programs and programtesting. Design takes us toward how to satisfy the needs. The design of a system isperhaps the most critical factor affecting the quality of the software; it has a major impacton the later phase, particularly testing and maintenance. The output of this phase is thedesign document. The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format.Samples of the output and input are to present Second, input data and master files(database) have to be designed to meet the requirement of the purposed output. Theoperational (processing) phases are handled through program construction and testing,including a list of the programs needed to meet the software objectives and completedocumentation. The design activity is often dived into two phases-system design and detaileddesign. System design, which is sometimes also called top-level design, all the major data
  • 19. structures, file formats, output formats, and the major modules in the system and theirspecification are decided. During detailed design, the internal logic of each of the modules specified insystem design is decided. During this phase further details of the data structure andalgorithmic design of each of the modules is specified. In system design focus is on identifying the modules, whereas during detaileddesign focus is on designing the logic for each of the modules. In other words, in systemdesign the attention is on what components are needed, while in detailed design how thecomponent can be implemented in software is the issue. The design of an information system produces the details that state how a systemwill meet the requirements identified during systems analysis. Often systems specialistsrefer to this stage as logical design, in contrast to developing program software, which isreferred to as physical design. As soon as the user accepts the system proposal, work can start on preparing thesystem specification. This phase takes the requirements as agreed and the work, whichhas led up to producing the proposal and develops the system to the level of detailsnecessary to prepare the way for programming. At this point the analysts is concernedwith the detail of input and output, the processing required, and the way in which thesystem will operate on a day-to-day basis. Depending on the level of complexity of thesystem and the amount and quality of work done at the earlier stages, this phase can takemany months of hard work. It is concerned with the computer-oriented design of thesystem--the detail of the input transactions, the details of the printed reports, screens and
  • 20. other outputs, the file or database structure, the contents of records, the processingrequired and the efficiency of the system from a computer processing point of view. Systems analysts start by identifying reports and other outputs the system willproduce. Then the specific data on each is pinpointed, including its exact location on thepaper, display screen, or other medium. Usually designers sketch the form or display asthey expect it to appear when the system is completed. The system design also describes the data to be input, calculated or stored.Individual data items and calculation procedures are written in detail. Designers selectfile structures and storage devices, such as magnetic disk, magnetic tape, or even paperfiles. The procedures they write tell how to process the data and produce the output. The documents containing the design specifications use different ways to portraythe design-- charts, tables, and special symbols--some of which you may have used andothers that may be totally new to you. The detailed design information is passed onto theprogramming staff so that software development can begin. Designers are responsible for providing programmer with complete and clearlyoutlines specifications that state what the software should do. As programming starts,designers are available to answer questions, clarify fuzzy areas, and handle problems thatcan front the programmers when using the design specifications. A typical system specification will contain: 1. An introduction converting the relevance of the document and how it hasevolved from the previous phases.
  • 21. 2. A description of the system. This is usually an outline in a narrative from withaccompanying flow charts, procedure charts, and data flow diagrams or data models. 3. Detailed description of inputs, outputs and files, for example document layouts(input), screen layouts, report layouts, file/record layouts, and database schemes. 4. A description of the control, which operate within the system. This includescontrol over input and processing, restriction on access (e.g., passwords and control overinput and processing, restrictions on access (e.g., passwords and control on output (e.g.numbering of checks) 5. Processing required. This may in fact be handled by specifying generally whatwatch program in the system is expected to do and by backing this up with individualprogram specifications issued separately. Arrangements for testing may also bedescribed in this section. 6. Implementation consideration -- arrangements for converting existing fileschecking parallel runs, production of user procedures and production of computer -relatedprocedures. 7. A detailed development and implementation time-table. This section shouldlist all of the tasks to be done, including individual programs, showing theinterrelationship between each task and the planned start and completion date for eachtask.
  • 22. 8. A back -up plan. This should describe be procedures to be developed fortaking security dumps of files, for ensuring system resilience (e.g., duplexing) and forrunning the system at an alternative site in the event of the computer not being available. It is at this stage that the first reliable estimate of the amount of computerprogramming effort required can be produced. Up to this point the estimates are to alarge extent informed guesses and what comes out at the end of this exercise may be quitefrightening compared with the previously available estimates. This is a valid reason forensuring that senior management continues to have an approval role at the conclusion ofthis stage. SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE What happens during the rest of the softwares life: changes, correction, additions,moves to a different computing platform and more. This, the least glamorous and perhapsmost important step of all, goes on seemingly forever. After installation phase iscompleted and the user staff is adjusted to the changes created by the candidate system,evaluation and maintenance begin. The importance of maintenance is to continue to bringthe new system to standards. Software maintenance is a task that every developmentgroup has to face when the software is delivered to the customer’s site, installed and isoperational. The time spent and effort required keeping software operational after releaseis very significant and consumes about 40-70% of the cost of the entire life cycle. The term Maintenance is a little strange when applied to software. In commonspeech, it means fixing things that break or wear out. In software nothing wears out; it iseither wring from beginning, or we decode later that we want to do something different.
  • 23. It is a very broad activity that includes error corrections, enhancements of capabilities,deletion of obsolete capabilities, and optimization. There are three major categories of software maintenance:Corrective Maintenance: This refers to modifications initiated by defects in thesoftware. It means repairing processing or performances failures or making changesbecause of the previously uncorrected problems. A defect can result from design errors,logic errors and coding errors. Design errors occur when, changes made to the softwareare incorrect, incomplete, wrongly communicated or the change request is misunderstand.Logic errors result from invalid tests and conclusions, incorrect implementation of designspecification, faulty logic flow or incomplete test data. Coding errors are caused by dataprocessing errors and system performances errors.Adaptive Maintenance: It includes modifying the software to match changes in theever-changing environment. The term environment in this context refers to the totally ofall conditions and influences which act from outside upon the software, for example,business rules, government policies, work patterns, software and hardware operatingplatforms. This type of maintenance includes any work initiated as a consequence ofmoving the software to a different hardware or software platform-compiler, operatingsystem or new processor. It means changing the program function.Perfective Maintenance: It means improving processing efficiency or performance, orrestructuring the software to improve changeability. When the software becomes useful,the user trend to experiment with the new cases beyond the scope for which it was
  • 24. initially developed. It means enhancing the performance or modifying the programs torespond to user’s additional or changing needs. In comparison with all the three maintenance, perfective takes more time andspent more money.Maintenance covers a wide range of activities, including correcting coding and designerrors, updating documentation and test data and upgrading user support. Maintenancemeans restoring something to its original condition unlike hardware, however, softwaredoes not wear out, it is corrected. A major problem with software maintenance is itslabor-intensive nature. SYSTEM TESTING
  • 25. SYSTEM TESTING It brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then checks forerrors, bugs and interoperability. Software testing is the process of testing the softwareproduct. Effective software testing will contribute to the delivery of higher qualitysoftware products, more satisfied users, lower maintenance costs, more accurate, andreliable results. However, ineffective testing will lead to the opposite results; low qualityproducts, unhappy users, increased maintenance costs, unreliable and inaccurate results. Testing is the major quality control measure used during software development.Its basic function is to detect errors in the software. It is a very expensive process andconsumes one-third to one-half of the cost of a typical development project. It is theprocess of executing program (or a part of a program) with the intention of finding the
  • 26. errors, however, testing cannot show the absence of errors it can show that errors arepresent. “Errors are present within the software under test”. This cannot be the aim ofsoftware designers they must have designed the software with the aim of producing itwith zero errors. Software testing is becoming increasingly important in the earlier part ofthe software development life cycle, aiming to discover errors before they are deeplyembedded within systems. In the software development life cycle the earlier the errors arediscovered and removed, the lower is the cost of their removal. The most damaging errorsare those, which are not discovered during the testing process and therefore remain whenthe system ‘goes live’. The testing requires the developers to find errors from their software. It is verydifficult for software developer to point out errors from own creations. A good test is onethat has a high probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. A successful test caseunearths an undiscovered error. This implies that testing not only has to uncover errorsintroduced during coding, but also errors introduced during the previous phases. The goalof testing is to uncover requirement, design, and coding errors in the programs. Differentlevels of testing are used:Unit testing: A module is tested separately and is often performed by the coder himselfsimultaneously along with the coding of the module. The purpose is to exercise thedifferent parts of the modules code to detect coding errors.
  • 27. Integration Testing: The modules are gradually integrated into subsystems, which arethen integrated to eventually from the entire system. Integration testing is performed todetect design errors by focusing on testing the interconnection between modules.System Testing: After the system is put together, it is performed. The system is testedagainst the system requirement to see if the entire requirement are met and if the systemperforms as specified by the requirement.Acceptance Testing: The final stage of initial development, where the software is putinto production and runs actual business. It is performed to demonstrate to the client, onthe real life data of the client, the operation of the system. Testing is an extremely critical and time-consuming activity. It requires properplanning of the overall testing process. The test plan specifies conditions that should betested, different units to be tested, and the manner in which the modules will beintegrated together. The final output of the testing phase is the test report and the errorreport, or a set of such reports (one for each unit tested). The importance of software testing and its implications with respect to S/WQuality cannot be overemphasized. Because of this importance & the large amount ofproject effort associated with the system development, it becomes quite necessary tobecome well planned and through testing. Inadequate testing & no-adequate testing leadsto errors that may be costly when they appear months later. Effective testing translatesinto cost savings from reduced errors & saves a lot of project efforts. It follows majorfactors that decide the occurrences of errors in a new design from the very early stage ofthe development.
  • 28. 1. Communication between the user & the designer This factor is handled by frequently communicating with the finance departmentand the gate entry. 2. The Time factor for the design This factor is handled by giving comparatively more time to the designing of thesystem.  Objectives of System Testing Once a system has been designed, it is necessary to undergo an exhaustive testingbefore installing the system. This is important because in some cases a small error, notdetected and corrected early before installation, may explode into a much large problemlater on. Testing is being performed when users are asked to assist in identifying allpossible situations. That might arise as regards the factor that efforts were put to tacklethe problem under consideration. A plan was decided to be followed for testing thesystem. The complete testing procedure was divided into several steps, to be performed atdifferent stages. Tests were to be done as follows: -Testing Criteria A. White Box Testing (i) Transaction path Testing In this phase each and every condition within a unit program were tested. As andwhen a loop or condition statement was incorporated into a unit the loops were tested for
  • 29. correctness, for foundry conditions and for not getting into infinite execution cycle. Thedata used was whatever necessary at that instance. The path of each transaction fromorigin to destination was tested for reliable results. (ii) Module Testing This was carried out during the programming stage itself. Individual programswere tested at the time of coding and necessary changes are made there on to make surethat the modules in the form program, is working satisfactory as regards the expectedoutput from the module. All aspects of the program viz. All choices available wereproperly tested. (iii) String Testing After loading all individual program string was performed for each one ofprograms where the output generated by one program is used as input by anotherprogram. This step was completed after making necessary changes wherever required. B. Black Box Testing (i) System Testing After module and string testing, the systems were tested as a whole system Testswere undertaken to check bundled modules for errors. The errors found in the couplesystem as a whole was corrected. A testing on the Actual data of the company followedthis. During this phase the existing System and this package was running in parallel to
  • 30. enable us to verify and compare the result sets. The following criteria were used whiletesting the system. (ii) Output Testing No systems could be useful if it does not produced the required operation for thatmatter operation in the required format the outputs generated or displayed by the systemunder consider was tested by asking the format required by them. (iii) User Acceptance Testing User acceptance of a system is a key factor for the success of any system. Thesystem under consideration was tested for user acceptance by constantly keeping in touchwith the prospected system users at the time of developing and making changes. Wherever required this was done in regard to the user satisfaction. Testing Procedure Different type of checks like duplicate checks, completeness check, validity,checks etc. are incorporated in this system, as the data has to be entered in differentforms. The user is not familiar with new system the data entry screens are designed insuch a way that they are • Consistent • Compatible • Easy to use • Had quick response
  • 31. The following conventions are used while designing of the various screens tomake the system user friendly • All the items that are logically related are together. • Error and validation messages are provided wherever required. • System testing is against its initial objectives, it is done in a simulated environment.Test Review Test review is the process, which ensures that testing is carried out, as plannedtest review decides whether or not the program is ready to ship out for theimplementation. For each data entry screen, we prepared test data with extreme values and underall relevant data- entry screen against real this process helped in rectifying the modulestime. Name Data type Description studentid varchar Student id name varchar Student name Gender varchar Gender Age varchar Age Dob varchar Date of birth Phone numeric Phone no Course varchar Course name Address varchar address Nationality varchar nationality Father name varchar Father name maritu varchar Marital status Father name varchar Father name Blood varchar Blood group doj varchar Date of join
  • 32. refname varchar Reference name