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香港六合彩的气息洋溢在油麻地的每一个角落。香港六合彩风风火火地走在田野上,风风火火地走进小学校,风风火火地走到会场上。有些时候,香港六合彩本是和杜元潮一起离开镇委会去一个什么地方的,但走着走着,香港六合彩就从后面走到了前头,而当香港六合彩到达目的地时,杜元潮已被远远地落在了后面。对此,香港六合彩并不多虑,无所谓。杜元潮到达时,假如是赴宴的,邱子东早已经坐下了,假如是接待外边来香港六合彩的,邱子东早已与香港六合彩家说得热火朝天了,假如是去小学校视察的,邱子东早已端起刚泡的茶喝掉了一半,并与老师们有说有笑了……油麻地的地面上,有五只高音喇叭。传一个香港六合彩,召集一个会议,布置生产任务或传达上头的精神,就全靠这五只喇叭。这五只喇叭所发出的声音,大部分是邱子东的。邱子东的声音很响亮,很威风,话也说得很流畅,很清楚,刀切的一般,毫不含糊。邱子东似乎也很喜欢在这五只大喇叭里发号施令。上瘾。那时,这广阔的田野上,就只有这五只大喇叭所发出的宏大的声音了。这声音会因为你所站的位置的不同,而此起彼伏。鸭鸣声,猪叫声,牛吼声,这大地上的一切声音,皆因这五只喇叭所发出的声音而显得无足轻重。这声音在空气里传播着,轰鸣着,回荡着,给了邱子东莫大的快意。不知出于何种考虑,季国良在组织完油麻地的领导班子之后,还给这个班子作了一下分工,其中有一个很重要的决定:由邱子东负责油麻地的财政审批。香港六合彩对杜元潮说:你是书记,你负责全面工作。杜元潮点了点头,没有表示反对。季国良又补充了一句:一般来说,审批这一具体工作都是由镇长来做。杜元潮又点了点头。因此,邱子东的上衣口袋里总插一支笔,香港六合彩可能随时随地都要签字。油麻地的家当其实微不足道,然而,正是这微不足道,审批才越发地显得重要。谁家锅揭不开了,申请补助十几斤粮食;谁家的房子在冬天的夜晚烧毁了,申请新建房子的砖瓦;谁家有香港六合彩生了大病,申请补助十几元钱;生产队长夜里开会,要吃一顿夜餐,需从会计周秃子那里取一笔钱;文艺宣传队要买服装道具,也得从周秃子那里取一笔钱……所有这一切,都得通过邱子东的一支笔。邱子东的字本来就很潇洒,现在就越发的潇洒,潇洒无边。邱子东脾气也大了,动不动就向下面发火,有时还骂娘。常常这样说话:我限你三天将早稻秧插完!你如果不想当你的队长了,你就将那块地给我荒着!十天不将这台戏给我排出来,香港六合彩别想拿到我一个工分!……有时,邱子东发火时,杜元潮就在场,但杜元潮面无表情,一言不发。油麻地的老百姓惶惑着:咱油麻地到底谁是一家之主?不知为什么,香港六合彩都希望杜元潮是。然而杜元潮并没有作出香港六合彩所希望的姿态来。硬不起来。有香港六合彩说。油麻地香港六合彩就开始猜测:这杜元潮,到底是城府太深还是就这么点儿本事?[第92节]骚雨/痴雨2(2)猜来猜去,结果有许多香港六合彩得出同一个结论:杜元潮说话结巴,杜元潮再凶,也没有办法。于是,香港六合彩就想明白了杜元潮为什么不喜欢走出油麻地,又为什么总是让邱子东唱戏在台前。于是,香港六合彩就有了一种深刻的悲哀:油麻地也就只能这样了。香港六合彩的猜测是有道理的。杜元潮的结巴,确实是让香港六合彩经常彻夜难眠的心病。为此,香港六合彩时常感到自卑,有时甚至感到绝望。

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  • Strategies to share budget yet maintain control of budget
  • 香港六合彩 » SlideShare

    1. 1. Arizona Department of Education FUNDING SCHOOLWIDE PROGRAMS BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN SCHOOLWIDE PLANS AND FUNDS
    2. 2. Consolidation of Funds <ul><li>A Local Educational Agency may consolidate and use funds together with other Federal, State and Local funds, in order to upgrade the entire educational program of a school that serves not less than 40 percent of children from low-income </li></ul>
    3. 3. Funding for Schoolwide Plan Parent Involvement Professional Development - 10% Team Needs Student Achievement SBR Coordination of funds (source) Evaluation Climate ASIP
    4. 4. Consolidation of Funds - Meaning <ul><li>Treating funds as if they are a single “pool” of funds. Funds from contributing programs lose their individual identity and the school has one flexible poof of funds. This could be establishing its own separate and unique account number. </li></ul><ul><li>The school may use funds from this consolidated schoolwide pool to support any activity of the schoolwide program without regard to which program contributed the specific funds. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Consolidation of Funds - Meaning <ul><li>The school must identify in its written schoolwide plan which programs are included and the amount each contributes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the LEA’s responsibility to ensure that a school supplements and not supplants. </li></ul>
    6. 6. PLAN COMPARISON (Title I Schools) <ul><li>Schoolwide Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Schoolwide reform model strategies for all children based on Scientifically Based Research </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of teachers in decisions about the use of academic assessment for improving student achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Needs Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Effective, timely and additional assistance for students who have difficulty achieving proficiency and advanced levels </li></ul><ul><li>High quality and ongoing Professional Development that is sustained, intensive and classroom focused. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to attract highly qualified teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction by highly qualified teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to increase parent involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for assisting preschool children in the transition from early childhood programs to elementary schools </li></ul><ul><li>School support team or other technical assistance provider </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Federal, State and local services. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>
    7. 7. Consolidation of Funds - Reason <ul><li>Assists School to design and implement an effective comprehensive plan to upgrade the entire educational program of the school based on school’s needs through its comprehensive needs assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a school to be flexible on how it uses available resources to meet specifically identified needs of its students. </li></ul><ul><li>Each School must meet the intent and purpose of the fund which it consolidates. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Consolidation of Funds - Reason <ul><li>Attempts to ease accounting requirements for specific program funds separately because a schoolwide school is not required to distinguish among funds received from different sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require a school to maintain separate fiscal accounting records that identify specific activities supported by each program’s funds to show that these activities are allowable </li></ul><ul><li>(LEA Responsibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require a school to meet most of statutory and regulatory requirements as long as they meet the intent and purpose of each contributing program. </li></ul><ul><li>(LEA Responsibility) </li></ul>
    9. 9. What May Not Be Consolidated <ul><li>Reading First </li></ul><ul><li>National School Lunch Program </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start Program </li></ul><ul><li>With stipulations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Models of Funding <ul><li>Title I Funds Only </li></ul><ul><li>A school may use only its Title I funds to fund its schoolwide plan. The school must still have a written schoolwide plan that contain all required components how the school will address the specific educational needs identified by the needs assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>All children in the school may participate in activities funded with Title I funds and the school does not need to demonstrate that those activities are supplemental to ones that otherwise be provided by the school. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Models of Funding <ul><li>If a school only uses its Title I funds and does not consolidate with other funding sources, the school and LEA must account for and track Title I, Part A funds separately, identifying activities that the Title I funds support. </li></ul><ul><li>This is governed by cost principles in OMB Circular A-87. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Models of Funding <ul><li>Note: This may not be as effective because it does not give the school the flexibility to use all of its available resources to meet identified needs of its students. </li></ul>
    13. 13. FUNDS <ul><li> </li></ul>SCHOOL LEVEL BUDGET SOURCE M/O FEDERAL IDEA COMMUNITY TITLE I ONLY READING FIRST HEADSTART SCHOOLWIDE BUDGET
    14. 14. Models of Funding <ul><li>All Federal Funds Consolidated </li></ul><ul><li>A school may consolidate federal funds only. This pool of funds allows for the loss of the individual identity of each funding source and does not need to meet statutory requirements but must meet intent and purposes of each source. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: This may not be as effective because it does not give the school the flexibility to use all of its available resources to meet identified needs of its students. </li></ul>
    15. 15. FUNDS <ul><li> </li></ul>SCHOOL LEVEL BUDGET SOURCE M/O FEDERAL IDEA COMMUNITY Titles I, II, V Other Federal Funds READING FIRST HEADSTART SCHOOLWIDE BUDGET
    16. 16. Models of Funding <ul><li>All Funds Consolidated </li></ul><ul><li>A school may consolidate federal, state and local funds. This pool of funds allows for the loss of their individual identity and do not need to meet statutory requirements but must meet intent and purposes of each. </li></ul>
    17. 17. FUNDS <ul><li> </li></ul>SCHOOL LEVEL BUDGET SOURCE M/O FEDERAL IDEA COMMUNITY M/O FEDERAL COMMUNITY READING FIRST HEADSTART SCHOOLWIDE BUDGET
    18. 18. Models of Funding - FAQ <ul><li>May Title I, Part A funds in a schoolwide school be used for basic operational expenses such as building and repairs, landscaping and custodial services? </li></ul><ul><li>It depends: </li></ul><ul><li>If the school consolidates only its Title I funds or Federal Funds for its program, these funds must be used to address educational needs . Therefore, funds in this type of a school may not be used for non-educational activities as such as building maintenance, etc. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Models of Funding - FAQ <ul><li>When a school consolidates funds with state and local funds, funding sources lose their identity. To meet the supplement versus supplant requirement the LEA must ensure that the school receives all the state and local funds it would otherwise need to operate the program in absence of federal funds including funds for building maintenance, etc. Even though Title I funds are included in the consolidated pool, funds may support building maintenance, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>There must be sufficient state and local funds placed into the consolidated pool to cover non-educational funds. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Time and Effort <ul><li>Time and Effort requirements for </li></ul><ul><li>schoolwide programs </li></ul>
    21. 21. Models of Funding - FAQ <ul><li>How does an LEA document employee time and effort in schools that operate schoolwide programs? </li></ul><ul><li>OMB-Circular A-87 requirements to employees in a school operating a schoolwide program varies depending upon the extent to which federal funds are consolidated. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Models of Funding - FAQ <ul><li>If a school consolidates federal, state and local funds in a schoolwide pool, an employee who is paid with funds from that pool is not required to file a semi-annual certification because when funds are pooled there is no distinction between staff paid with federal funds and staff paid with state or local funds. </li></ul><ul><li>If a school does not consolidate state and local funds, an employee who works on a single cost objective (single federal program) must furnish semi-annual certification that he/she engaged solely in activities supported by source. </li></ul>
    23. 23. FUNDS - INCOME M/O 40% Title I 30% School Level Budget NSL Reading First School Wide Budget –School Reform First Year LEA Curriculum Title V 5% ASIP 7% Title II 8% Community 10%
    24. 24. FUNDS - INCOME M/O 40% Title I 30% School Level Budget NSL Reading First School Wide Budget –School Reform Second Year LEA Curriculum Title V 5% ASIP 7% Title II 8% Community 10%
    25. 25. FUNDS – End of Year <ul><li>Reporting Year End Expenses </li></ul>Funds may be carried over into the following year, up to 15% except for professional development and parent involvement. These funds must be carried over in the same budgeted line item. Reallocation of Funds
    26. 26. FUNDS – END OF YEAR M/O 40% Title I 30% School Level Budget NSL Reading First School Wide Budget –School Reform LEA Curriculum Title V 5% ASIP 7% Title II 8% Community 10%
    27. 27. End of Year <ul><li>Evaluate how money was spent </li></ul>

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