High Availability in the Cloud - Architectural Best Practices
 

High Availability in the Cloud - Architectural Best Practices

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RightScale Webinar: The April 21st Amazon service disruption in the US East Region caused many to revisit application architectures to better withstand failures. With cloud infrastructure as a level ...

RightScale Webinar: The April 21st Amazon service disruption in the US East Region caused many to revisit application architectures to better withstand failures. With cloud infrastructure as a level playing field, we all have effectively the same building blocks and it’s up to each of us to balance cost and complexity against the risk of outages. Fortunately, there are many simple approaches in the cloud that dramatically improve application scalability and availability with little incremental cost.

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  • RightScale already provides several abstractions that are cloud-agnostic. In fact you’re already using probably all of them (despite you might only be deployed in 1 cloud)..We have the concept of a server (something that can be launched/running on any cloud)The concept of a ServerTemplate, which specifies the configuration we want on a serverAnd the concept of an MCI which specifies which image configuration we want (lower-level stuff)And all these things are RS concepts…the cloud is not really involved in all this…
  • Cold DR(Most common... hours) Staged Server Configuration and generally no staged data. Bring up the servers and load the data to failover. Cold DR failover is typically manual.Warm DR(Recommended... >hour) Staged Server Configuration, pre-staged data and running Database Slave Server. Warm DR failover is typically manual but can be automated.Hot DR(Least common... but needed if <5 min) Parallel Deployment with all servers running but all traffic going to primary. Hot DR failover is normally automated.Hot HALive/Live configuration. May use Geo-target IP services to direct traffic to regional load balancers. Failover to other region if one has problems. Hot HA is normally seamlessly automated.
  • Differences to clarify from Multi-AZ…Don’t be fooled by similarity of appearance…Some resources are not shared across clouds (images, Elastic IPs and Snapshots)…These are problems you have to solve… Images we have made easyElastic IPsyou need a global load balancer somewhere… or use DNSHave to copy the data yourself for snapshots. You can have a replicating slave in the cloud…Or backups to a common place like S3 (constraint is that EBS snapshots are only good in the same AZ)To get a snapshot multi- cloud portable you 1) slave sync or 2) take LVM snapshots and upload the data somewhere

High Availability in the Cloud - Architectural Best Practices High Availability in the Cloud - Architectural Best Practices Presentation Transcript

  • High Availability in the Cloud – Architecting Best Practices Watch the video of this webinar May 6, 20111
  • Your Panel TodayPresenting:• Michael Crandell, CEO Twitter: @michaelcrandell• Josep Blanquer, Sr. Systems Architect• Brian Adler, Professional Services ArchitectQ&A:• Jason Altobelli, Account Manager Please use the questions window to ask questions anytime! 2
  • Agenda• Design for Failure• What happened in the AWS Outage• RightScale’s experience• Infrastructure abstraction and automation as building blocks for highly available applications• Architectural options to protect against cloud failures• Conclusions / Q&A Please use the questions window to ask questions anytime! 3
  • Terminology• Fault Tolerance • Fault tolerance leverages redundancy and replication to enable systems to continue operating properly if one or more components fails• High Availability • Fault Tolerant systems are measured by their Availability in terms of planned and unplanned service outages for end users • 99% Availability = 3.65 days of downtime per year • 99.5% Availability = 1.83 days of downtime per year • 99.9% Availability = 8.76 hours of downtime per year • 99.99% Availability = 53 minutes of downtime per year • 99.999% Availability = 5.26 minutes of downtime per year• Disaster Recovery • The process, policies and procedures related to restoring critical systems after a catastrophic event 4
  • Design for Failure• Large scale failures in the cloud are rare but happen• Application owners are ultimately responsible for availability and recoverability• Balance cost and complexity of HA efforts against risk you’re willing to bear• Fortunately, cloud infrastructure has made DR and HA remarkably affordable versus past options • Multi-server • Multi-AZ • Multi-region • Multi-cloud 5
  • Assessing Risk vs Cost in Aviation Fatalities per1M Hours Flown 20 Fatalities General Aviation 10 Fatalities Commuter Airline Large Air 4 Fatalities Carrier $ $$ $$$ Cost of Service 6
  • What Happened in the April 21 AWS Outage?• Triggered by operator error during a router upgrade which funneled high- volume network traffic into a low-bandwidth control network used by EBS• Flooding of the control network caused a large number of EBS servers to be effectively isolated from one another, which broke volume replication, and caused these servers to start re-replicating the data to fresh servers• This large-scale re-replication storm in turn had two effects: • It failed in many cases causing the volumes to go offline for manual intervention • It flooded the EBS control plane with re-replication events that affected its operation across the entire us-east region• Steps taken by AWS: • Stopping the re-replication attempts to quiesce the system and prevent new volumes from being drawn into the outage • Isolated the affected availability zone from the EBS control plane to restore normal operation in other zones • AWS started to recover volumes 7
  • RightScale’s Experience• ~2am – Monitoring server disks started to die like flies • Tried replacing them with fresh EBS drives – Failed • Tried re-launching them with fresh EBS drives in different Zones - Failed• ~3am – Realized EBS wasn’t going to be fixed anytime soon: Plan B time! • Revamped our monitoring ServerTemplate to use ephemeral volumes instead of EBS • Our architecture for monitoring data continually backs up and pulls data on demand from S3• ~3:20am – Started re-launching affected monitoring servers • Over the next several hours, ~15% of monitoring servers failed and were easily re-launched• ~7am – Amazon announces EBS volume creation is fixed in other zones• ~11am – EBS disk failures hit our master database • Chose one of our slaves (from our zone 1d) to be promoted • In a few minutes we had the new master up and running • It took a while to achieve needed performance due to its cold working set 8
  • Agenda• Design for Failure• What happened in the AWS Outage• RightScale’s experience• Infrastructure abstraction and automation as building blocks for highly available applications• Architectural options to protect against cloud failures• Conclusions / Q&A Please use the questions window to ask questions anytime! 9
  • What do we mean by Cloud?• A cloud is a physical data center entity behind an API endpoint• What do you mean by that? • Amazon Web Services is not a cloud • EC2 is not a cloud • Eucalyptus, Cloud.com are not clouds • EC2 East, EC2 AsiaPacific, my private cloud… are clouds • An availability zone is not a cloud, it’s part of one • Think of a cloud as a “resource pool” accessed via API 10
  • Overcoming Multi-Cloud Pain Points• APIs differ • Different sets of resources • Different formats, encodings and versions• Abstractions and features differ • Network architectures differ: VLANs, security groups, NAT, IPs, ACLs, … • Storage architectures differ: local/attachable disks, backup, snapshots, … • Hypervisors, machine images…cost models, billing, reporting…etc.• They are truly different beasts, with different semantics• So make sure you: • Design using generic concepts yet deploy using cloud specifics • Have tools that translate your concepts to cloud-specific ones • Think of how to share resources across clouds (i.e. data sharing) 11
  • How does RightScale help with Abstraction?• Unified Multi-Cloud UI and new API (in progress) • Multi-Cloud Servers/Arrays • Multi-Cloud ServerTemplates • Multi-Cloud Images • Others in the pipeline I 1:N I 1:1 ServerTemplate I Server Image I I runnable abstraction software config runtime config cloud resources 12
  • Infrastructure Abstraction & Automationas Building Blocks of Highly Available Applications• Multi-Cloud Dashboard, Architecture & Application Portability • Single pane of glass through UI and API • Allows simplified deployments across multiple regions/clouds• Automated Deployments (Provisioning and Configuration Mgmt) • Reproducible Configurations with Change Control - Avoids manual configuration errors • Cost effective – Pay as you go for backup. It’s easy and inexpensive to test fault tolerance.• Advanced Server and Deployment Monitoring • Custom monitoring dashboard, custom graphing, cluster graphing• Automated Scaling and Operations • Easy to scale up/down, replace failed/unhealthy instances, backup data, replicate data, etc• Library of Cloud Optimized Solution Stacks • RightImages, RightScripts, and ServerTemplates 13
  • Agenda• Design for Failure• What happened in the AWS Outage• RightScale’s experience• Infrastructure abstraction and automation as building blocks for highly available applications• Architectural options to protect against cloud failures• Conclusions / Q&A Please use the questions window to ask questions anytime! 14
  • HA/DR Checklist for Risk Mitigation Determine who owns the architecture, DR process and testing. Develop expertise in house and / or get outside help. Conduct a risk assessment for each application. Specify your target Recovery Time Objective and Recovery Point Objective. Design for failure starting with application architecture. Implement HA best practices balancing cost, complexity and risk.  Automate infrastructure for consistency and reliability.  Abstract applications for flexibility and portability. Document operational processes and automations. Test the failover... then test it again. Release the Chaos Monkey. 15
  • Application Architecture Deployment Options• Storage Options • Local storage, EBS, S3, CloudFiles, Gluster, etc.• DNS Configuration Options • DNS APIs for dynamic configuration (Route53, DynDNS, DNS Made Easy)• Load Balancing Options • HA Proxy or AWS ELB to distribute traffic across multiple instances / AZs• Server Array Options • Create scalable tiers for web and application servers• Database Options • MySQL (EBS with snapshots to S3 or Local Disk with LVM snapshots) • Database Manager Features (Automated snapshots, replication, slave promotion, striping) • AWS RDS • Database Sharding • NoSQL Databases 16
  • General HA Best Practices Avoid single points of failure Always place one of each component (load balancers, app servers, databases) in at least two AZs Maintain sufficient capacity to absorb AZ / cloud failures Replicate data across AZs and backup or replicate across clouds/regions for failover Setup monitoring, alerts and operations to identify and automate problem resolution or failover process Design stateless applications for resilience to reboot / relaunch 17
  • Multi-AZ Example Consider local storage for additional slave database to remove dependency on EBS (Use LVM to snapshot backups) Consider distributed NoSQL databases Snapshot EBS volume for with the same distribution considerations. backups so the database can Place Slave databases in one Spread primary and replica nodes across be readily recovered within or more AZs for failover. multiple AZs. Place as many as you need the region. for required resiliency.18
  • Multi-Cloud Cold / Warm / Hot DR OptionsNo Downtime Hot HA (Live/Live Config) > 5 Minutes Hot DR (Least Common) > 1 Hour Warm DR (Recommended) > Few Hours Cold DR (Most Common) $ $$ $$$ $$$$19
  • Multi-Cloud Cold DR ExampleStaged Server Configuration and generally no staged data 20
  • Multi-Cloud Warm DR ExampleStaged Server Configuration, pre-staged data and running Slave Database Server 21
  • Multi-Cloud Hot DR ExampleParallel Deployment with all servers running but all traffic going to primary 22
  • Multi-Cloud Hot HA ExampleLive/Live configuration. May use Geo-target IP services to direct traffic to regionalload balancers. 23
  • Multi-Cloud Hot HA ExampleMulti-Cloud looks similar to Multi-AZ… but there are additional problems to solve as some resources are not shared You need DNS management across clouds or a global load balancerImages for cloud servers are specific to the cloud/region. You need to copy or replicate data yourself as EBS snapshots are specific to the source AZ. Getting the data out requires a slave sync or taking LVM 24 snapshots and transferring the data.
  • So What’s Best?• Design for failure• No one size fits all solution • Every application/components has its own architecture • Tradeoffs between levels of resiliency and cost• The options available in the cloud today are unprecedented • Capabilities for global redundancy • Time to access • Investment required• Follow our High Availability Checklist! 25
  • Special Offer – High Availability Assessment & Design Recommendations Become a RightScale customer in May and receive: Free High Availability Assessment Free Design/Architecture Recommendations Half Off Onboarding Fee Ready to get started? Contact us at sales@rightscale.com or (866) 720-0208 Learn More – RightScale Free Edition White Paper Library Webinar Library RightScale.com/free Rightscale.com/whitepapers RightScale.com/webinars RightScale User Conference – June 8 in NYC! Register here: www.rightscale.com/conference26
  • Thank You!27