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Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments
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Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments

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RightScale User Conference NYC 2011 - …

RightScale User Conference NYC 2011 -

Brian Adler - Solutions Architect, RightScale

As a result of assisting many customers with complex multi-tiered deployments across diverse industries and use cases, RightScale Professional Services has amassed a set of best practices for deploying applications in highly available, fault-tolerant environments. These configurations may span multiple zones, regions, and clouds from multiple vendors, or they may simply be designed for portability so they can be readily redeployed from one cloud to another for performance, price, geo-location, or other drivers. This session will cover best practices and tips and tricks for architecting multi-zone and multi-cloud deployments.

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  • Cold DR(Most common... hours) Staged Server Configuration and generally no staged data. Bring up the servers and load the data to failover. Cold DR failover is typically manual.Warm DR(Recommended... >hour) Staged Server Configuration, pre-staged data and running Database Slave Server. Warm DR failover is typically manual but can be automated.Hot DR(Least common... but needed if <5 min) Parallel Deployment with all servers running but all traffic going to primary. Hot DR failover is normally automated.Hot HALive/Live configuration. May use Geo-target IP services to direct traffic to regional load balancers. Failover to other region if one has problems. Hot HA is normally seamlessly automated.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Architecting for High-Availability and Multi-Cloud Environments<br />Brian Adler - Sr. Professional Services Architect, RightScale<br />June 8th, 2011<br />
    • 2. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 3. Takeaways
    • 4. Designing for Failure
    • 5. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 6. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 7. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>Terminology<br /><ul><li>Fault Tolerance
    • 8. Designs incorporating redundancy and replication to enable systems to continue operating properly (perhaps at a degraded level) if one or more components fails
    • 9. High Availability (HA)
    • 10. Fault Tolerant systems are measured by their Availability in terms of planned and unplanned service outages for end users
    • 11. 99% Availability = 3.65 days of downtime per year
    • 12. 99.9% Availability = 8.76 hours of downtime per year
    • 13. 99.99% Availability = 53 minutes of downtime per year
    • 14. 99.999% Availability = 5.26 minutes of downtime per year
    • 15. Disaster Recovery (DR)
    • 16. The process, policies and procedures related to restoring critical systems after a catastrophic event</li></li></ul><li>Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 17. Takeaways
    • 18. Designing for Failure
    • 19. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 20. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 21. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>Takeaways<br /><ul><li>Introduction to architectural options for designing highly-available, fault-tolerant applications
    • 22. Best Practices for implementation of these architectural options
    • 23. Multi-Availability Zone (AZ), Multi-Region and Multi-Cloud
    • 24. Architectural options
    • 25. Considerations / pros and cons of these options</li></li></ul><li>Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 26. Takeaways
    • 27. Designing for Failure
    • 28. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 29. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 30. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>Designing for Failure (in a good way)<br /><ul><li>Large scale failures in the cloud are rare but do happen
    • 31. Application owners are ultimately responsible for availability and recoverability
    • 32. Need to balance cost and complexity of HA efforts against risk(s) you are willing to bear
    • 33. Cloud infrastructure has made DR and HA remarkably affordable versus past options
    • 34. Multi-Server
    • 35. Multi-AZ
    • 36. Multi-Region
    • 37. Multi-Cloud</li></li></ul><li>Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 38. Takeaways
    • 39. Designing for Failure
    • 40. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 41. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 42. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>What do we mean by “Cloud”?<br /><ul><li>A cloud is a physical datacenter entity behind an API endpoint
    • 43. What does that really mean?
    • 44. Amazon Web Services is not a cloud
    • 45. EC2 is not a cloud
    • 46. Eucalyptus, Cloud.com, OpenStack are not clouds
    • 47. EC2 US-East, Rackspace, ‘my private cloud’… these are clouds
    • 48. An availability zone is not a cloud (but it is part of one)</li></ul>Think of a cloud as a “resource pool” accessed via an API<br />
    • 49. Regions & Availability Zones<br /><ul><li> Zones within a region share a LAN (high bandwidth, low latency, private IP access)
    • 50. Zones utilize separate power sources, are physically segregated
    • 51. Regions are “islands”, and share no resources. </li></li></ul><li>Overcoming Multi-Cloud Pain Points<br /><ul><li>APIs differ
    • 52. Different sets of available resources
    • 53. Different formats, encodings and versions
    • 54. Abstractions and features differ
    • 55. Network architectures differ: VLANs, security groups, NAT, IPs, ACLs, …
    • 56. Storage architectures differ: local/attachable disks, backup, snapshots, …
    • 57. Hypervisors, machine images, cost models, billing, reporting… etc.</li></ul>Each cloud is unique in some/many/all respects, with different<br />access mechanisms and varying functionalities provided<br />by the managed resources.<br />
    • 58. Overcoming Multi-Cloud Pain Points<br /><ul><li>Navigating the obstacles
    • 59. Design using generic concepts (“durable storage”) yet deploy using cloud specifics (“EBS volumes”)
    • 60. Have tools that translate your concepts to cloud-specific ones (e.g. scripts/recipes that choose the correct provider for the desired resource)
    • 61. Think of how to share resources across clouds (i.e. data sharing)</li></li></ul><li>Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 62. Takeaways
    • 63. Designing for Failure
    • 64. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 65. Infrastructure abstraction and automation as building blocks for highly available applications
    • 66. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 67. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>HA/DR Checklist for Risk Mitigation<br /><ul><li>Determine who owns the architecture, DR process and testing.
    • 68. Develop expertise in-house and / or get outside help.
    • 69. Conduct a risk assessment for each application.
    • 70. Specify your target Recovery Time Objective and Recovery Point Objective.
    • 71. Design for failure starting with application architecture. This will help drive the infrastructure architecture.
    • 72. Implement HA best practices balancing cost, complexity and risk.
    • 73. Automate infrastructure for consistency and reliability.
    • 74. Document operational processes and automations.
    • 75. Test the failover... then test it again.
    • 76. Release the Chaos Monkey.</li></li></ul><li>Application Architecture Deployment Options<br />
    • 77. General HA Best Practices<br /><ul><li>Avoid single points of failure.
    • 78. Always place (at least) one of each component (load balancers, app servers, databases) in at least two AZs.
    • 79. Maintain sufficient capacity to absorb AZ / cloud failures.
    • 80. Reserved Instances – guarantee capacity is available in a separate region/cloud
    • 81. Replicate data across AZs and backup or replicate across clouds/regions for failover.
    • 82. Setup monitoring, alerts and operations to identify and automate problem resolution or failover process.
    • 83. Design stateless applications for resilience to reboot / relaunch.</li></li></ul><li>Multi-Availability Zone<br />Consider distributed NoSQL databases with the same distribution considerations. Spread primary and replica nodes across multiple AZs. Place as many as you need for required resiliency.<br />Place Slave databases in one or more AZs for failover.<br />Snapshot data volume for backups so the database can be readily recovered within the region.<br />Consider local storage for additional slave database to remove dependency on attached volume <br />(Use LVM snapshots to create backups) <br />
    • 84. Multi-Cloud Cold / Warm / Hot DR Options<br />No Downtime<br />Multi-Cloud HA<br />(Live/Live Config)<br />Hot DR<br />> 5 Minutes<br />(Least Common)<br />> 1 Hour<br />Warm DR<br />(Recommended)<br />Cold DR<br />> Few Hours<br />(Most Common)<br />$<br />$$<br />$$$<br />$$$$<br />
    • 85. Multi-Cloud Cold DRStaged Server Configuration and generally no staged data<br />Data Copy Mechanism<br /><ul><li> Not recommended if rapid recovery is required
    • 86. Slow to replicate data to other cloud
    • 87. Slow to bring database to an operational state</li></li></ul><li>Multi-Cloud Warm DRStaged Server Configuration, pre-staged data and running Slave Database Server<br /><ul><li> Generally recommended DR solution
    • 88. Minimal additional cost
    • 89. Allows fairly rapid recovery</li></li></ul><li>Multi-Cloud Hot DRParallel Deployment with all servers running but all traffic going to primary<br /><ul><li> Not recommended. Very high additional cost
    • 90. Allows rapid recovery, but not significantly faster than “warm” configuration</li></li></ul><li>Multi-Cloud HALive/Live configuration. May use Geo-target IP services to direct traffic to regional load balancers.<br /><ul><li> Possible, but not recommended (more to follow…). Maximum additional cost.
    • 91. Provides high availability, but complex to implement and manage.</li></li></ul><li>Multi-Cloud HAMulti-Cloud looks similar to Multi-AZ… but there are additional problems to solve as some resources are not shared across clouds<br />Security is an issue as security groups are Region-specific.<br />You need DNS management or a global load balancer.<br />Machine Images are specific to the cloud /region.<br />You need to copy or replicate data yourself as snapshots are specific to the source Region.<br />Data migration requires manual synchronization or taking LVM snapshots and transferring the data.<br />
    • 92. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Terminology/Level-Setting
    • 93. Takeaways
    • 94. Designing for Failure
    • 95. Cloud and component definitions (more terminology)
    • 96. Infrastructure abstraction and automation as building blocks for highly available applications
    • 97. Architectural options and considerations to protect against cloud failures
    • 98. Conclusions / Q&A</li></li></ul><li>So What’s Best?<br /><ul><li>Design for failure
    • 99. Assume everything will fail and architect a solution capable of handing each and every failure condition
    • 100. No one size fits all solution is available
    • 101. Every application has its own architecture
    • 102. Not all infrastructure building blocks fit well with all applications
    • 103. Tradeoffs between levels of resiliency and cost
    • 104. The options available in the cloud today are unprecedented
    • 105. Capabilities for global redundancy
    • 106. Time to access
    • 107. Investment required
    • 108. Follow our High Availability Checklist (or create your own)
    • 109. Multi-AZ configurations with a solid DR plan are generally the most viable and cost-conscious solutions</li></li></ul><li>Questions?<br />Brian Adler - Sr. Professional Services Architect, RightScale<br />June 8th, 2011<br />
    • 110. We hope to see you at our next RightScale User Conference!<br />See all presentations and videos at RightScale.com/Conference.<br />

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