Communal Land/Resource Tenure in the SouthWest Amazon: Where do Carbon Rights Fit? Grenville Barnes University of Florida
Structure of Presentation <ul><li>Key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Property Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Commu...
<ul><li>Who “owns” the tree? </li></ul><ul><li>How to formalize the transaction? </li></ul><ul><li>What would prevent sale...
<ul><li>Individual rights accrue through ‘labor’ (Locke) </li></ul><ul><li>Property under Roman Law </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Bu...
Roman Law Classification of Property Roman law underlies almost all civil law countries (e.g. Latin America) State Private...
Who  Owns the world’s Forests (and Forest C)? 22% of Forests in Developing Countries is reserved for or privately owned by...
Focus on Amazon Annual Net Change in Forest Area by Region (1990-2005)   [FAO 2005] “…  an estimated 20 billion tons of ca...
N Pando - Bolivia Tenure Situation in Communities - MAP Region M (adre de Dios) –  A (cre) –  P (ando) Brazil Bolivia Peru
moooooo Pictures from the Amazon (2006) Spot the  Carbon?
STATE PRIVATE National Parks NATURAL RESOURCES Conservation Concessions LAND National Reserves Eco-Tourism Concessions Ref...
Madre de Dios (Peru) <ul><li>Land Tenure Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Communities </li></...
+- 37% of Forest Carbon is on Communal Land Pando - Bolivia <ul><li>Land Tenure Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>State (Parks/Fi...
Land vs Resource Rights – Community in Pando (Bolivia) [Source: Cronkleton and Albornoz 2007] Family Brazilnut Tenure Nucl...
Article 348: “ natural resources ” = “minerals in any form, hydrocarbons, water, air, soil and sub-soil,  forests ,  biodi...
Extractive Reserve - Brazil Unity of concession – family trails – individual tree tenure – spatial extent varies by resour...
Extractive Reserve - Brazil Unity of concession – family trails – family tree tenure – spatial extent varies on resource F...
Formalization of rights and transactions <ul><li>A  cadastre  is a land information system that provides legal security, p...
Land Administration Projects – Latin America Over $1 Billion invested in LAC on Property Formalization Projects (since 199...
Lessons from Land Cadastre Initiatives <ul><li>Tenure dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inheritances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Who  Holds Carbon Rights? <ul><li>Stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><li>Households </li></ul><ul><li>Local Communities </li></ul...
Challenges facing a Carbon Cadastre <ul><li>Recognize  resource dynamics  in system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes due to ...
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Property rights and a carbon cadastre in a REDD scenario

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by Grenville Barnes, Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida - Gainesville

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Property rights and a carbon cadastre in a REDD scenario

  1. 1. Communal Land/Resource Tenure in the SouthWest Amazon: Where do Carbon Rights Fit? Grenville Barnes University of Florida
  2. 2. Structure of Presentation <ul><li>Key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Property Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Community Tenure in SW Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from Land Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and strategies – C rights </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Who “owns” the tree? </li></ul><ul><li>How to formalize the transaction? </li></ul><ul><li>What would prevent sale to others? </li></ul><ul><li>How can conservation rights be enforced? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a fair market price? </li></ul>Jose’s $500 tree (Acre, Brazil)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Individual rights accrue through ‘labor’ (Locke) </li></ul><ul><li>Property under Roman Law </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Bundle’ of Property Rights paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>- Classification into state, private, communal and open access </li></ul>Conventional ‘Property’ Frameworks “ The reason many natural resources are not traded efficiently in market systems is …. the good or service should be private rather than public …….” (Portela et al 2008: 13) “ Resolving the uncertainties surrounding legal title to the sequestered carbon is critical to securing its market value in a CDM transaction.” (Miller et al 2008: 166)
  5. 5. Roman Law Classification of Property Roman law underlies almost all civil law countries (e.g. Latin America) State Private Communal Open Access Tenure Regime Definition Examples Res Communes Things open to all by their inherent nature (CO 2 ) Air, sea (open access) Res Publicae Things belonging to the public and open to the public by law (sub-soil C; forest C?) Roads, navigable rivers (public property) Res Universitatis Property belonging to a private or public group in its corporate capacity (forest C in communities) Private university, condominium (community property) Res in Patrominium Things that could be privately owned by an individual (forest C on private land) Land under private ownership Res (Terra) Nullius Things belonging to no-one (CO 2 ) Unclaimed land, fish or game
  6. 6. Who Owns the world’s Forests (and Forest C)? 22% of Forests in Developing Countries is reserved for or privately owned by communities – 2008 study shows trend continues [White and Martin 2002]
  7. 7. Focus on Amazon Annual Net Change in Forest Area by Region (1990-2005) [FAO 2005] “… an estimated 20 billion tons of carbon could be released into the atmosphere over the next 20 years under a “business as usual” scenario in the Brazilian Amazon alone.” (Nepstad et al 2007)
  8. 8. N Pando - Bolivia Tenure Situation in Communities - MAP Region M (adre de Dios) – A (cre) – P (ando) Brazil Bolivia Peru
  9. 9. moooooo Pictures from the Amazon (2006) Spot the Carbon?
  10. 10. STATE PRIVATE National Parks NATURAL RESOURCES Conservation Concessions LAND National Reserves Eco-Tourism Concessions Reforestation Concessions SUB-SOIL Recognized Isolated Titled Untitled INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES Brazilnut Concessions Titled Forest Concessions Intangible Area Communal Reserves Certified Buffer Zone 60 % 3-5 % 35-37 % De Jure Land and Resource Property Rights in Madre de Dios (Peru) Lotes Petroleros Mining Concessions (gold)
  11. 11. Madre de Dios (Peru) <ul><li>Land Tenure Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul>“ What is a community?” No unity of title – no nuclear settlement – individual concessions……. Individual land holdings Individual concessions
  12. 12. +- 37% of Forest Carbon is on Communal Land Pando - Bolivia <ul><li>Land Tenure Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>State (Parks/Fiscal) </li></ul><ul><li>State (forest concess) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul><ul><li>Inalienable </li></ul><ul><li>Indivisible </li></ul><ul><li>Imprescriptible </li></ul><ul><li>Inembargable </li></ul>Community Title Conditions
  13. 13. Land vs Resource Rights – Community in Pando (Bolivia) [Source: Cronkleton and Albornoz 2007] Family Brazilnut Tenure Nucleated settlement – unity of title - individual and collective tree tenure -
  14. 14. Article 348: “ natural resources ” = “minerals in any form, hydrocarbons, water, air, soil and sub-soil, forests , biodiversity , the electromagnetic spectrum and all of those elements and physical forces susceptible to use (aprovechamiento).” These natural resources are regarded as “ strategic in character and of public interest for the development of the country.” Article 349 further qualifies these natural resources as the “ indivisible, ‘non-expropriable,’ direct property and dominion of the Bolivian people , with the administration of the collective interest being the responsibility of the state .” The state “will recognize, respect and authorize individual and collective property rights to the land , as well as use and improvement rights to other natural resources.” New Constitution – Bolivia (not ratified) Public interest - state ownership on behalf of the nation - C changes the scale as Public Interest could apply to international community
  15. 15. Extractive Reserve - Brazil Unity of concession – family trails – individual tree tenure – spatial extent varies by resource Family house Rubber Trail Rubber Tree Brazil nut Tree <ul><li>State owns land </li></ul><ul><li>20/30 year usufruct concession </li></ul>
  16. 16. Extractive Reserve - Brazil Unity of concession – family trails – family tree tenure – spatial extent varies on resource Family house Rubber Trail Rubber Tree Brazil nut Tree Brazil nut Trail
  17. 17. Formalization of rights and transactions <ul><li>A cadastre is a land information system that provides legal security, public notice and a current , comprehensive record of property rights within a jurisdiction. It addresses the following specific questions with respect to property rights: </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE are they located? </li></ul><ul><li>WHO holds them? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT is the nature of these rights? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW were they acquired? </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN were they acquired? </li></ul>Could a ‘carbon cadastre’ be applied to C property rights ?
  18. 18. Land Administration Projects – Latin America Over $1 Billion invested in LAC on Property Formalization Projects (since 1996) CENTRAL AMERICA Belize (BID) Guatemala (BM) Honduras (BM, UE, BID) El Salvador (USAID, BM) Nicaragua (BM, MCC) Costa Rica (BID) Panama (BM, BID) SOUTH AMERICA Guyana (BID, DFID) Colombia (BID) Ecuador (BID, BM) Peru (BID, BM, USAID) Brazil (BID) Bolivia (BM, USAID, Ned, Nordic) Paraguay (BID) Surinam (Ned, BID) CARIBBEAN Jamaica (BID) Trinidad & Tobago (BID) Bahamas (BID) Republica Dominican (IBID) Antigua & OECS Countries (OAS) Turks and Caicos (DFID) Mexico (BM & BID)
  19. 19. Lessons from Land Cadastre Initiatives <ul><li>Tenure dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inheritances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rentals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subdivisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid De-formalization following titling (no buy in) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow focus on individual, marketable property </li></ul><ul><li>Poor baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Too much focus on land as opposed to key resources </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ladder” of formal rights not just ‘title’ </li></ul><ul><li>Tenure pluralism (indigenous vs colonial) </li></ul>Conventional cadastres treat community-based tenure as a homogeneous polygon that assumes all internal rights are shared equally … (Ankersen & Barnes 2004)
  20. 20. Who Holds Carbon Rights? <ul><li>Stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><li>Households </li></ul><ul><li>Local Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Government (national, regional, local) </li></ul><ul><li>Concessionaires (brazil nut, timber, conservation) </li></ul><ul><li>International Community </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Shareholders </li></ul>Need to uniquely identify each rightholder and their relationship to each other across space and time… SCALE
  21. 21. Challenges facing a Carbon Cadastre <ul><li>Recognize resource dynamics in system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes due to disease, drought, fire, natural disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes due to population dynamics - migration, death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes due to market price dynamics – timber, brazil nut, beef </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop capacity to document and map resource rights within </li></ul><ul><li>communities </li></ul><ul><li>Meshing participatory products with official records (QC) </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling up from community to region (vertical governance) </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of carbon rights – transparent, accountable, equitable </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with spatially overlapping resource rights </li></ul>Without developing capacity at local, community level, the adequate definition, mapping and recording of forest carbon rights will not be possible.

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