Old models, new threats, great opportunitiesPresentation Transcript
Rights, Forests and Climate Change: Introduction, Review of Current Situation, Challenges, Need for Action Andy White, Coordinator Rights and Resources Initiative Oslo, 15 October 2008
Rationale – Why This Conference
Increasing recognition that must deal with the rights issues :
Indigenous People’s/Civil Society statements in Bali, Accra; The Forest Dialogue, Eliasch Review, Etc.
Increasing crisis and urgency – dramatic local threats, Poznan is coming, funds are multiplying!
proliferation of “funds” and mechanisms – without adequate coherence, oversight, or accountability built in
BUT – not adequate guidance or teeth – how to ensure effectiveness without undermining rights and livelihoods?
We hope this conference will provide specific operational recommendations
A New Context: Must Focus & Prioritize SOURCE: Bloomberg.com
Poverty, vulnerability, and political instability are back!!
(a new crisis to deal with)
Mixed effects on local people, new baselines!
Likely decrease in funds for ODA ($, NOK, SEK, £)
4. Just the latest in string of “crises” – so we all must prioritize:
What’s low cost and what contributes to addressing multiple crises?
food, energy, political, climate?
Realities of Forest Areas – Old Problems
Past Attempts/Future Challenges
New Opportunities: Bases to Build On
Realities of (trying to) REDD
Ideas about a “Framework for Effectiveness”
Hoping for REDD +
Forest Areas – The Hinterland – Left Behind and Used
High rates of poverty – at least 1 billion use, depend on forest resources
Limited citizenship, respect for customary rights
At least 15 million people lack citizenship recognition – all hill tribes of Thailand, most Pygmies of Congo Basin
Governments claim 75% of world’s forests – illegal conservation, dispossession, preference for BIG industry
Corruption, limited rule of law
Limited accountability, judicial redress
Lack of basic services: schools? Clean water? Health?
Old Problems (1): Violent conflict common Source: D.Kaimowitz ETFRN NEWS 43/44 In the past twenty years 30 countries in the tropical regions of the world have experienced significant conflict between armed groups in forest areas. Continent Forest Threatened (million hectares, % of total) Population Threatened (x 1.000.000) Africa 130 (53%) 52 Latin America 50 (21%) 13 South/ Southeast Asia 52 (22%) 63 Europe/ Central Asia/ N America 10 (4%) - Total 242 127
Old Problems (2): Extensive Poverty; Slow/No Growth
forest rich countries are ½ of “Bottom Billion” –“falling apart and falling behind” (P. Collier ’07)
“ growth” located in urban, coastal areas
“ forest rich” countries doing significantly worse
ITTO producer countries doing significantly worse
Old Problems (3): Weak Governance
Old Problems (3): Weak Governance Sources: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008/cpi_2008_table http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=410&year=2008 Wily, Liz. 2008. Conflicts around the world.
50’s – today: industrial extraction and export
Some jobs and government revenue – but well documented failure – in terms of growth, governance, corruption, human rights – so why continue to support it today?
70’s – today: environmental protection, public protected areas
Some contributions to ecosystem protection – but well documented human rights abuses, failures of effectiveness, can’t scale up
80’s – 90’s: social, participatory forestry
Well intentioned, but had limited effect because did not address underlying rights constraints (to land, to markets)
90’s – today: market-based conservation
Improved approach, but not poverty alleviation tool, in fact, often undermines market opportunities for the poor, criminalizes the poor
All imposed from outside, continuation of feudal, external control of hinterland, the “forest” for centrally-defined “public good”
Most important is what was NOT done: recognize local rights, allow local people to pursue THEIR aspirations
Nagging Questions: (1) Why do we treat forest areas and forest peoples differently than agrarian or urban places and people?
(2) How in the world will REDD (really) work?
Past Attempts, Future Challenges
Climate and water crises and shocks – political turbulence
Continued growth in market demand and shifts in source of investment, direction of trade and political influence – “ global land grab”
All driving “wall of capital” and “wall of speculation” – colliding with the poor, and poorly governed hinterland
Shape of Things to Come
Source: Sunderlin, Hatcher, Liddle 2008, “From exclusion to ownership”. RRI Forest Tenure Transition Continues Key Finding – Some progress, but not much. 9 of top 30
New Opportunities – Bases to Build On
“ Democracy”/openness continues to spread
We have learned a lot:
mapping rights, facilitating community negotiations, appropriate legal structures, even how to engage in contentious political issues
New market opportunities for small scale enterprises, and trade levers (e.g. VPA)
Independent, multi-stakeholder consultation processes more common
Vast attention and sums going towards climate change could be made useful
People are organizing and gaining capacity and tools to hold us all accountable
But – what are the mechanisms that will enable them to hold us accountable?
Source: Economist; iAfrica
OUTCOMES · Carbon sequestered and maintained · Rights respected · Livelihoods supported · Forests conserved Framework for Ensuring Effective Investment in Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation in Forest Areas
What we need is R E D D + + Diminish · conflict · poverty · social exclusion + Advance · livelihoods · culture · development R E D D IGHTS NSURED IMINISH EFORESTATION
Thank You The climate has changed, have we? Substantial opportunity to address underlying problems www.rightsandresources.org