Rights, Forests and Climate Change: Introduction, Review of Current Situation, Challenges, Need for Action  Andy White, Co...
Rationale – Why This Conference <ul><li>Increasing recognition that must deal with the rights issues : </li></ul><ul><ul><...
A New Context: Must Focus & Prioritize SOURCE: Bloomberg.com <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty, vulnerabilit...
Outline <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realities of Forest Areas – Old Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past Att...
Forest Areas – The Hinterland – Left Behind and  Used <ul><li>High rates of poverty  – at least 1 billion use, depend on f...
Old Problems (1): Violent conflict common Source: D.Kaimowitz ETFRN NEWS 43/44 In the past twenty years 30 countries in th...
Old Problems (2): Extensive Poverty; Slow/No Growth <ul><li>forest rich countries are ½ of “Bottom Billion” –“falling apar...
Old Problems (3): Weak Governance
Old Problems (3): Weak Governance Sources:  http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008/cpi_2008_table htt...
<ul><li>50’s – today: industrial extraction and export </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some jobs and government revenue – but well d...
<ul><li>Climate and water crises and shocks – political turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Continued growth in market demand and...
Source: Sunderlin, Hatcher, Liddle 2008, “From exclusion to ownership”. RRI Forest Tenure Transition Continues Key Finding...
New Opportunities – Bases to Build On <ul><ul><li>“ Democracy”/openness continues to spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We ...
OUTCOMES · Carbon sequestered and maintained · Rights respected · Livelihoods supported · Forests conserved Framework for ...
What we need is  R  E  D  D + +   Diminish   · conflict   · poverty   · social    exclusion +   Advance   · livelihoods   ...
Thank You The climate has changed, have we? Substantial opportunity to address underlying problems www.rightsandresources....
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Old models, new threats, great opportunities

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Old models, new threats, great opportunities

  1. 1. Rights, Forests and Climate Change: Introduction, Review of Current Situation, Challenges, Need for Action Andy White, Coordinator Rights and Resources Initiative Oslo, 15 October 2008
  2. 2. Rationale – Why This Conference <ul><li>Increasing recognition that must deal with the rights issues : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous People’s/Civil Society statements in Bali, Accra; The Forest Dialogue, Eliasch Review, Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing crisis and urgency – dramatic local threats, Poznan is coming, funds are multiplying! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proliferation of “funds” and mechanisms – without adequate coherence, oversight, or accountability built in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT – not adequate guidance or teeth – how to ensure effectiveness without undermining rights and livelihoods? </li></ul><ul><li>We hope this conference will provide specific operational recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. A New Context: Must Focus & Prioritize SOURCE: Bloomberg.com <ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty, vulnerability, and political instability are back!! </li></ul><ul><li>(a new crisis to deal with) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed effects on local people, new baselines! </li></ul><ul><li>Likely decrease in funds for ODA ($, NOK, SEK, £) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Just the latest in string of “crises” – so we all must prioritize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s low cost and what contributes to addressing multiple crises? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>food, energy, political, climate? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realities of Forest Areas – Old Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past Attempts/Future Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Opportunities: Bases to Build On </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realities of (trying to) REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas about a “Framework for Effectiveness” </li></ul><ul><li>Hoping for REDD + </li></ul>
  5. 5. Forest Areas – The Hinterland – Left Behind and Used <ul><li>High rates of poverty – at least 1 billion use, depend on forest resources </li></ul><ul><li>Limited citizenship, respect for customary rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 15 million people lack citizenship recognition – all hill tribes of Thailand, most Pygmies of Congo Basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments claim 75% of world’s forests – illegal conservation, dispossession, preference for BIG industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corruption, limited rule of law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited accountability, judicial redress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of basic services: schools? Clean water? Health? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Old Problems (1): Violent conflict common Source: D.Kaimowitz ETFRN NEWS 43/44 In the past twenty years 30 countries in the tropical regions of the world have experienced significant conflict between armed groups in forest areas. Continent Forest Threatened (million hectares, % of total) Population Threatened (x 1.000.000) Africa 130 (53%) 52 Latin America 50 (21%) 13 South/ Southeast Asia 52 (22%) 63 Europe/ Central Asia/ N America 10 (4%) - Total 242 127
  7. 7. Old Problems (2): Extensive Poverty; Slow/No Growth <ul><li>forest rich countries are ½ of “Bottom Billion” –“falling apart and falling behind” (P. Collier ’07) </li></ul><ul><li>“ growth” located in urban, coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>“ forest rich” countries doing significantly worse </li></ul><ul><li>ITTO producer countries doing significantly worse </li></ul>
  8. 8. Old Problems (3): Weak Governance
  9. 9. Old Problems (3): Weak Governance Sources: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008/cpi_2008_table http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=410&year=2008 Wily, Liz. 2008. Conflicts around the world.
  10. 10. <ul><li>50’s – today: industrial extraction and export </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some jobs and government revenue – but well documented failure – in terms of growth, governance, corruption, human rights – so why continue to support it today? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70’s – today: environmental protection, public protected areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some contributions to ecosystem protection – but well documented human rights abuses, failures of effectiveness, can’t scale up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80’s – 90’s: social, participatory forestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well intentioned, but had limited effect because did not address underlying rights constraints (to land, to markets) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>90’s – today: market-based conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved approach, but not poverty alleviation tool, in fact, often undermines market opportunities for the poor, criminalizes the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All imposed from outside, continuation of feudal, external control of hinterland, the “forest” for centrally-defined “public good” </li></ul><ul><li>Most important is what was NOT done: recognize local rights, allow local people to pursue THEIR aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Nagging Questions: (1) Why do we treat forest areas and forest peoples differently than agrarian or urban places and people? </li></ul><ul><li>(2) How in the world will REDD (really) work? </li></ul>Past Attempts, Future Challenges
  11. 11. <ul><li>Climate and water crises and shocks – political turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Continued growth in market demand and shifts in source of investment, direction of trade and political influence – “ global land grab” </li></ul><ul><li>All driving “wall of capital” and “wall of speculation” – colliding with the poor, and poorly governed hinterland </li></ul>Shape of Things to Come
  12. 12. Source: Sunderlin, Hatcher, Liddle 2008, “From exclusion to ownership”. RRI Forest Tenure Transition Continues Key Finding – Some progress, but not much. 9 of top 30
  13. 13. New Opportunities – Bases to Build On <ul><ul><li>“ Democracy”/openness continues to spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have learned a lot: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mapping rights, facilitating community negotiations, appropriate legal structures, even how to engage in contentious political issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New market opportunities for small scale enterprises, and trade levers (e.g. VPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent, multi-stakeholder consultation processes more common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast attention and sums going towards climate change could be made useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are organizing and gaining capacity and tools to hold us all accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But – what are the mechanisms that will enable them to hold us accountable? </li></ul></ul>Source: Economist; iAfrica
  14. 14. OUTCOMES · Carbon sequestered and maintained · Rights respected · Livelihoods supported · Forests conserved Framework for Ensuring Effective Investment in Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation in Forest Areas
  15. 15. What we need is R E D D + + Diminish · conflict · poverty · social exclusion + Advance · livelihoods · culture · development R E D D IGHTS NSURED IMINISH EFORESTATION
  16. 16. Thank You The climate has changed, have we? Substantial opportunity to address underlying problems www.rightsandresources.org
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