Harvesting of fuelwood and charcoal to over 75 % of energy demand
Agricultural expansion through shifting cultivation
Illegal chainsaw operations,
Encroachment by farmers on protected forests
Lack of robust monitoring system
Irregular inventory of forest resource
Inadequate incentive structures to ensure sustainable forest management.
Huge costs associated with SFM/Forest certification stds.
In 1990, the total forest cover in the high forest zone was 7.45 million ha and reduced to 6.09 million ha in 2000. This corresponds to a deforestation rate of 1.8%
In 2005, the forest cover reduced further to 5.51 million ha. Between 2000 and 2005, the deforestation rate increased to 1.9%
By addressing the above challenges to SFM the needed climate change mitigation benefits through Sustainable Forest Management practices will be achieved
Forest resource inventory is not frequent to provide the needed reliable data for the accurate quantification of carbon stock changes in sustainably managed forests.
There is a lack of incentives to forest fringe communities and landowners to help maintain forest carbon sinks as well as promote additional carbon storage through sustainable forest management in order to discourage conversion of forest to other land
Challenges to Mitigating Forest-related Climate Change
Challenges to Mitigating Forest-related Climate Change (contd.)
Commercial forest plantation benefits are shared as follows:
Commercial Investor – 90%
Landowner (plus rent) - 6%
Forestry Commission - 2%
Community - 2%
The land lease is 50 years renewable after 1 st 25 years rotation
Participation in the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership to facilitate Ghana’s preparedness for REDD.
Initialing of Ghana-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement by ensuring good forest governance to address illegal logging and illegal chainsaw operations.
On-going Policy Approaches and Initiatives to Address Forest related Climate Change (contd)
Ghana’s Weaknesses in dealing with climate change
Land tenure systems affect resource management in Ghana as over 90% of land is controlled by traditional customary tenure system. Land is owned by stools/traditional owners/families etc. but trees are vested in the state.
The Forestry Commission is thereby powerless when confronted with these communal lands with regard to enforcing policy/regulations in off-reserve areas.
Lands under the state in the form of state forest and wildlife reserves are quite well managed, but those outside the reserves need more effort and the collaboration of traditional authorities and communities to manage.
Vestiture is a management right and NOT ownership right
There are no early warning systems in place to indicate the anticipated effects of climate change. Some indicators are useful to investigate so as to inform us of the direction and magnitude of specific problems. This will enable early adaptation strategies.
Next Operational Steps for Climate Change Mitigation Activities
Initiate a broad consultation process to develop a REDD readiness plan for implementation by March, 2009. Key elements are:
Construct a multi-stakeholder process
Keep the consultation fluid
Put in place a workable institutional set up
Review and clarify forest rights, carbon rights and tenure for the rural poor in order to develop a legal/property rights framework for carbon finance.
REDD would proactively support SFM, forest protection activities, forest law enforcement and governance policy reform activities to combat illegal logging.
Legal contractual rights to access carbon benefits – CDM, REDD etc. Create a realistic mechanism to compensate for the opportunity cost of land set aside for REDD
Investment in tree planting. Ensure sustainable funding mechanism for plantation development and equitable benefit sharing schemes. Create mechanisms to sustain payment of benefits to forest dependent communities for poverty reduction.
Incorporation of CDM/REDD issues in Ghana’s development plan/agenda
Identify threatened forests to demonstrate or pilot REDD activities in on-reserve and off-reserve areas starting from the protected areas and sacred groves within off-reserve areas as a means to develop technical and policy level capacity e.g. Appropriate institutional arrangements for carbon finance.
Design a credible monitoring and verification system for land use, land use change and forestry
To account for CO2 emissions and removals due to changes in carbon stocks on a timely basis
Use relevant methodology to build successive carbon stocks scenarios to calculate the net change of carbon stocks at a point in time by subtracting the previous scenario from the scenario related to the relevant point in time
Collections of available data images from remote and proximal sensing, ground truth and assessment of their suitability for the GHG monitoring
Use GIS for archiving and analyzing data coming from land-uses and carbon stocks
Collecting all the available data on biomass and carbon stocks of Ghana from:
Forest service and Forest companies
Research and scientific organizations and literature
Complement these with data of neighboring countries that can be considered comparable with the Ghanaian situation
Measures for Making REDD Sustainable
Permanent mechanism for stakeholder/actor dialogue/consultation
Continuous publicity/awareness creation
Permanent institutions tasked with implementation of REDD activities
Create mechanism for managing risk (e.g. wildfires)
Integrating all collected information in a database and then work on harmonizing them by removing differences due to difference in methodologies applied for their generation
Plan a national carbon stock inventory system by expanding PSPs to areas not covered by the existing system of sampling (consider the chance to use the FAO NFMA as a starting point)
Collect data on expansion factors and conversion factor that allow transforming available data on biomass from partial portion (e.g. only merchantable wood) to the whole stock and from biomass to carbon (also checking on international database)
Determine national reference scenario based on:
Collection of all relevant historical data taking into account national circumstances
Clear opportunities exist for REDD to build up on the VPA governance platform as well as link up with policy initiatives/reforms under the VPA.
North-South and South-South collaboration will enable Ghana to benefit from financial and technical assistance. Current efforts from the EU have led to major infrastructural rehabilitation and capacity building for our staff. If this assistance continues then we can play our role in reducing emissions, increasing carbon sinks and ensuring sound environmental practices.
We may benefit from international early warning systems e.g. Eumetsat satellite monitoring etc. which can be useful in preventing famine, bushfires, water crisis and protecting wildlife. Technical know-how in this field is essential for good forest governance.
There will be carbon market opportunities for commercial forest plantation developers and community based plantation developers. This gives credibility to investments in the forest sector if the anticipated benefits become real.
Road Map for the REDD Process Activity/ Output By Whom When Setting up National REDD Committee MLFM Oct, 30, 2008 R- Plan Completed FC, EPA &NRC Mar. 31, 09 Implementation of R- Plan All Stakeholder/NRC Mar, 09 – Dec 012 Appointment of Chairman Minister (MLFM) In Three Months from now 15/11/08) Awareness Creation NRC Start by Feb, 2009 Preparation of Information sheet and education material NRC/Consultant Ready by Mar, 2009 Communication Strategy NRC July, 2009 Country Review NRC/ Consultant Mar, 2009 Prepare TOR NRC Mar 09 Identify Consultant NRC Apr 09 Implement Review NRC/Consultant Jun, 09 Stakeholder Review Workshop NRC/Consultant Jan, 2010 Identification of Drivers of Deforestation and degradation Consultative meetings Late 09 – early 2010
In general, mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the forest sector will require substantial and sustainable resources to implement particularly REDD.
Broad stakeholder consultation on REDD is important to define REDD approaches that would reflect national circumstances.
REDD for Ghana will involve readiness and capacity building along with demonstration activities, institutional arrangements, distributional mechanisms and benefit sharing, clarification of carbon rights etc.
Reliable baseline and robust monitoring approaches are essential for advancing REDD in Ghana including the need for investment in inventory and ground truthing capacity as well as remote sensing.