Compensation and incentives for the maintenance of ecosystem services: A review of current knowledge. Ivan Bond, Sheila Wertz Kanounnikoff and Peter Hazlewood Funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norway)
Limited off-farm opportunities and poor economic growth
Weak regulation / governance
Both drivers and causes vary over time and space.
Economic drivers assuming dominance
A simple model for payments for ecosystem services Landuse systems Financial benefits Financial costs Current landuse Desired land-uses
Source: Engel et al. 2008 Review extended beyond Wunder’s definition
PES definitions -- between hardcore and periphery PES Core “ PES-like” Schemes PES Core PES Core 5 criteria Theory & some private PES “ PES-like” Schemes: Some of 5 criteria Public agro-environmental schemes; eco-labels (e.g. ecotourism), etc. Other Economic Incentives: Any “payment” for any “environmental service” by “anybody” ICDPs, park-ranger salaries, reforestation subsidies, etc. Source: Sven Wunder, 2008 Other Economic Incentives “ PES-like” Schemes PES Core