LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE TSL3110

“Educational theory comprises concepts, frameworks, ideas, and principles that may
be ...
What is teacher knowledge?

Teacher knowledge - “a body of professional knowledge that encompasses both
knowledge of gener...
An overview of domains and categories of teacher knowledge (Shulman, 1987).
- content knowledge;
- general pedagogical kno...
English language teaching to young learners requires knowledge about child
developmental theories, specific classroom mana...
Who is the young learner?
Slatterly and Willis (2001) define the young learners as those between 7–12 years
old while very...
HOW CHILDREN LEARN

Folom High School Behaviorism Blues.mp4

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Free Human Growth an...
Children are active
learners and thinkers.
(Piaget, 1970)

Children construct knowledge from actively interacting
with the...
HOW DO YOUNG LEARNERS LEARN?
Concrete Operational Stage (from 7 - 11 years) in which children begin to
conceptualize and d...
Overview of Learning Theories and Teaching Implications
Learning
theory
Behaviorist

Cognitive

Origination

Definitions a...
Implications for teaching practice of some key ideas from learning theories

1. Learning is a process of
active constructi...
Teaching Implication
2. Students’ prior
knowledge is an
important determinant of
what they will learn.
Students do not com...
3. Organizing information
into a conceptual
framework helps
students remember and
use knowledge.
Students must learn factu...
4. Learning is a social
phenomenon.
Students learn with greater
understanding when they share
ideas through conversation,
...
6. Students’ metacognitive
skills (thinking about
thinking) are important
to their learning.
Many students utilize few
lea...
Language Theories and Second Language Learning

Overview of Language Theories
Language theory
Structural

Definition
Langu...
The Six Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
This is also called "the silent period," when the student takes in the new l...
Instructional Strategies
If you have ELL students in your classroom, it is more than likely there will be
students at a va...
With a partner, list five methods according to which you think English Language
is taught in the Malaysian primary classro...
The Development and The
Choice Dilemma

16
• Introduction
•

ELT is a field that has gone through considerable changes and
developments. The trends to ELT have alway...
Method: A generalized set of classroom specifications for
accomplishing linguistic objectives.

Methodology:The study of p...
22
23
• What is the best method?
Bad news:
There is no such thing as the best method.

Good news:
No method is totally useless...
• Implications
• Being up-to-date is a must.
• Reflective teaching is key to successful teaching.
• Eclecticism should be ...
• Definition
ᶲ According to Gerard (1986:11-12), the eclectic T aims
to achieve
The maximum benefit from all the methods a...
• Anything goes?
ᶲ What to use?
 I use the most popular methodology.
« novelties are propagated which sometimes show a
re...
My own methodology
Practices and principles
Everyday spoken language
Communicative competence
Use of music
Use of commands...
THE CHOICE DILEMMA

Our task is to extract the key components of the various methods and work on what our
learners need an...
TUTORIAL TASK
TSL 3110 Tutorial task
1.
2.
3.
4.

3.1.2014

In groups, view the video clips and use the chart below to ana...
Meaningful/relevant contexts
a. use authentic contexts/situations
b. use realia
c. encourage personalization
d. others
Del...
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Introduction to Linking Theory into Practice

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Introduction to Linking Theory into Practice

  1. 1. LINKING THEORY TO PRACTICE TSL3110 “Educational theory comprises concepts, frameworks, ideas, and principles that may be used to interpret, explain, or judge intentions, actions, and experiences in educational or educational-related settings” (Eraut, 1994a, p. 70). Theory with capital T is conceptual knowledge, generalized over many situations, theory with a small t is perceptual knowledge, personally relevant and closely linked to concrete contexts. (See Kessels & Korthagen, 1996, or Korthagen et al., 2001, chapter 2, for a more thorough discussion of these concepts). The concept of practice can perhaps be best translated as ‘professional situation.’ It is a (learning) environment – with materials, tools and actors – in which a profession is practiced.
  2. 2. What is teacher knowledge? Teacher knowledge - “a body of professional knowledge that encompasses both knowledge of general pedagogical principles and skills and knowledge of the subject matter to be taught” (Grossmand & Richart, 1988, p. 54).
  3. 3. An overview of domains and categories of teacher knowledge (Shulman, 1987). - content knowledge; - general pedagogical knowledge, with special reference to those broad principles and strategies of classroom management and organization that appear to transcend subject matter; - curriculum knowledge, with a particular grasp of the materials and programs that serve as ‘tools of the trades’ for teachers; - pedagogical content knowledge, that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding; - knowledge of learners and their characteristics; - knowledge of educational contexts, ranging from the workings of the group or classroom, the governance and financing of school districts, to the character of communities and cultures; - knowledge of educational ends, purposes and values, and their philosophical and historical grounds. (Shulman, 1987, p. 8).
  4. 4. English language teaching to young learners requires knowledge about child developmental theories, specific classroom management techniques, selection and use of specific teaching techniques, materials and activities appropriate for child learners. ITE provides professional knowledge and also its application to classroom settings.
  5. 5. Who is the young learner? Slatterly and Willis (2001) define the young learners as those between 7–12 years old while very young learners are defined as under 7 years of age. Scott and Ytreberg (2001) distinguish between two groups of young learners, one between 5-7 and another 8-11, considering mainly their ability to perceive the abstract and concrete. MOE definition of young learners ??? young learners‟ as the children from the first year of formal schooling (6 years old, in our case) to 12 years of age. How would you describe young learners? Write down on a piece of paper all the adjectives you can think of that describe the characteristics of young learners. Now read through the adjectives you wrote and categorise them into the T-chart.
  6. 6. HOW CHILDREN LEARN Folom High School Behaviorism Blues.mp4 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Free Human Growth and Development Video.mp4
  7. 7. Children are active learners and thinkers. (Piaget, 1970) Children construct knowledge from actively interacting with the physical environment in developmental stages. They learn through their own individual actions and exploration. Children learn through social interaction. (Vygotsky, 1962) Children construct knowledge through other people, through interaction with adults. Adults/teachers work actively with children in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) = difference between the child's capacity to solve problems on his own and his capacity to solve them with assistance Children learn effectively through scaffolding by adults. (Bruner, 1983) The adult’s role is very important in a child’s learning process. Like Vygotsky, Bruner focused on the importance of language in a child’s cognitive development. He shows how the adult uses “scaffolding” to guide a child’s language learning through finely-tuned talk. (Cameron, 2001)
  8. 8. HOW DO YOUNG LEARNERS LEARN? Concrete Operational Stage (from 7 - 11 years) in which children begin to conceptualize and do some abstract problem solving, though they still learn best by doing. Piaget believed that children went through the stages above and that they could only move onto the next stage when they had completed the stage before and were ready to do so. Another expert, Vygotsky (1978, cited in Hughes, 2009) believed that language was central to the cognitive development of children, that it was instruction provided by an adult that helped children learn and develop.
  9. 9. Overview of Learning Theories and Teaching Implications Learning theory Behaviorist Cognitive Origination Definitions and instructional implications US c. 1914; influenced by European empiricism TO PRESENT 1950s to present Learning as a response to environmental stimuli and can be manipulated, observed, and described (Watson; 1919, Skinner, 1938). Teaching thus is through practice, repetition, and rewards. Sociocultural 1970s to present Learning can be explained as deep, complex psychological phenomena such as motivation, schemas, and processes for learning (Bruner, 1996; Piaget, 1974). Teaching occurs in phases with gradual complexity Learning is influenced by social, cultural, and historical factors. Learning takes place within social interactions (Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch, 1991). Teaching occurs through meaningful interactions between experts and novices.
  10. 10. Implications for teaching practice of some key ideas from learning theories 1. Learning is a process of active construction. Learning is the interaction between what students know, the new information they encounter, and the activities they engage in as they learn. Students construct their own understanding through experience, interactions with content and others, and reflection. Teaching Implication Provide opportunities for students to connect with your content in a variety of meaningful ways by using cooperative learning, interactive lectures, engaging assignments, hands-on lab/field experiences, and other active learning strategies.
  11. 11. Teaching Implication 2. Students’ prior knowledge is an important determinant of what they will learn. Students do not come to your class as a blank slate. They use what they already know about a topic to interpret new information. When students cannot relate new material to what they already know, they tend to memorize—learning for the test—rather than developing any real understanding of the content. Learn about your students’ experiences, preconceptions, or misconceptions by using pre-tests, background knowledge probes, and written or oral activities designed to reveal students’ thinking about the topic.
  12. 12. 3. Organizing information into a conceptual framework helps students remember and use knowledge. Students must learn factual information, understand these facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application in order to develop competence in a new topic. Teaching Implication Support students by using concept maps, flowcharts, outlines, comparison tables, etc., to make the structure of the knowledge clear.
  13. 13. 4. Learning is a social phenomenon. Students learn with greater understanding when they share ideas through conversation, debate, and negotiation. Explaining a concept to one’s peers puts knowledge to a public test where it can be examined, reshaped, and clarified. Teaching Implication Use Cooperative learning strategies, long-term group projects, class discussions, and group activities to support the social side of learning. Teaching Implication Use problem-based learning, simulations or It is often difficult for students to cases, and service learning to create learning use what they learn in class in new environments similar to the real world. contexts (i.e., other classes, the workplace, or their personal lives). 5. Learning is context-specific.
  14. 14. 6. Students’ metacognitive skills (thinking about thinking) are important to their learning. Many students utilize few learning strategies and have a limited awareness of their thinking processes. Teaching Implication Help students become more metacognitively aware by modeling your thinking as you solve a problem, develop an argument, or analyze written work in front of the class. Teach metacognitive strategies, such as setting goals, making predictions, and checking for consistency. Focus attention on metacognition by having students write in a learning journal or develop explanations of their problemsolving processes.
  15. 15. Language Theories and Second Language Learning Overview of Language Theories Language theory Structural Definition Language is equated with its linguistic forms. Cognitive Language is a biologically predetermined mental ability Language learning is a tool that is used to accomplish things or for certain purposes (i.e., communication). Language is a means through which exchanges, performances, and human relationships are created and maintained. Functional/ communicative Interactional
  16. 16. The Six Stages of Second-Language Acquisition This is also called "the silent period," when the student takes in the new language but Pre-production does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer, depending on the individual. Early production The individual begins to speak using short words and sentences, but the emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors in the early production stage. Speech Emergent Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer, but the individual still relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary continues to increase and errors begin to decrease, especially in common or repeated interactions. Beginning Fluency Speech is fairly fluent in social situations with minimal errors. New contexts and academic language are challenging and the individual will struggle to express themselves due to gaps in vocabulary and appropriate phrases. Intermediate Fluency Advanced Fluency Communicating in the second language is fluent, especially in social language situations. The individual is able to speak almost fluently in new situations or in academic areas, but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge and some unknown expressions. There are very few errors, and the individual is able to demonstrate higher order thinking skills in the second language such as offering an opinion or analyzing a problem. The individual communicates fluently in all contexts and can maneuver successfully in new contexts and when exposed to new academic information. At this stage, the individual may still have an accent and use idiomatic expressions incorrectly at times, but the individual is essentially fluent and comfortable communicating in the second language
  17. 17. Instructional Strategies If you have ELL students in your classroom, it is more than likely there will be students at a variety of stages in the language acquisition process. What can teachers do to differentiate instruction according to language level?
  18. 18. With a partner, list five methods according to which you think English Language is taught in the Malaysian primary classroom. Which particular method has predominated in your own experience as a student? Did it work for you? Why? Why not? Are there good teachers or good methods? Are there good learners or good methods?
  19. 19. The Development and The Choice Dilemma 16
  20. 20. • Introduction • ELT is a field that has gone through considerable changes and developments. The trends to ELT have always been renewed according to the new emerging needs of every era. • The abundance of the literature on ELT methodology has become problematic to many practitioners who no longer know what to choose. • Innovative approaches have been thought of as new solutions to the inadequacies of the previous methods and approaches. • Eclecticism; a solution or a “Frankenstein monster”? 18
  21. 21. Method: A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methodology:The study of pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Technique: Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings. 19
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. • What is the best method? Bad news: There is no such thing as the best method. Good news: No method is totally useless. Methods and approaches to ELT are also tied by the pros and cons maxims. 24
  25. 25. • Implications • Being up-to-date is a must. • Reflective teaching is key to successful teaching. • Eclecticism should be considered. 25
  26. 26. • Definition ᶲ According to Gerard (1986:11-12), the eclectic T aims to achieve The maximum benefit from all the methods and techniques at his or her disposal according to the special needs and resources of his/her pupils at any given time. 27
  27. 27. • Anything goes? ᶲ What to use?  I use the most popular methodology. « novelties are propagated which sometimes show a remarkable similarity to sales stunts in commerce »  I use the most modern methodology. «modern» does not necessarily mean «better». Modern can also be interpreted as ‘not thoroughly tested yet’  I use the methodology advocated by the experts. ELT experts disagree. I use an eclectic methodology. 28
  28. 28. My own methodology Practices and principles Everyday spoken language Communicative competence Use of music Use of commands Methods Direct method. CLT Desuggestopedia TPR Subordinating teaching to learning (low TTT, making it about Ss’ learning rather than the T’s teaching) Silent way Variety of activities appealing to different intelligences (learn how to learn=metacognition) MI theory Contextualization, ICT, real life tasks, problem solving. Innovative approaches 31
  29. 29. THE CHOICE DILEMMA Our task is to extract the key components of the various methods and work on what our learners need and what we should offer them. Affect – Ls learn better when they are engaged with what is happening. Their feelings and attitudes matter both in relation to their encounters with the language and the learning experience. Input – Input is received in the form of reading, listening, or the way the teacher talks to the Ls. Comprehensible input is meaningful only if there is some language study (grammar) , opportunity for noticing or consciousness-raising. Output – Ls need chances to activate their language knowledge through meaningfocused tasks. Cognitive effort – Ls should be encouraged to think about language as they work with it since, this aids retention.. Grammar and lexis – Showing how words combine together and behave both semantically and grammatically is an important part of any language learning programme
  30. 30. TUTORIAL TASK TSL 3110 Tutorial task 1. 2. 3. 4. 3.1.2014 In groups, view the video clips and use the chart below to analyse the lesson. Write YES or NO for each item. If you marked YES, briefly describe which part of the lesson reflects that item. If you marked NO, provide suggestions to make the lesson more effective and dynamic for the YLs. Features Characteristics of YLs a. fun b. active (learn by doing) c. others Interactions a. individual work b. ss to ss in pairs c. ss to ss in groups d. T to ss, one on one e. T to ss whole class Learning styles a. spatial-visual b. audio-visual c. musical d. bodily-kinesthetic e. logical-mathematical f. linguistic g. interpersonal h. intrapersonal i. naturalistic j. others Yes / No Describe lesson
  31. 31. Meaningful/relevant contexts a. use authentic contexts/situations b. use realia c. encourage personalization d. others Delivery a. give plenty of comprehensible input b. use techniques to make input comprehensible (i.e. visuals, realia, gestures, repetition, rephrasing) c. break down long or difficult tasks into manageable/achievable tasks d. model tasks and clarify expectations e. others ELT methods a. GTM b. direct c. ALM d. suggestopedia e. TPR f. CLT g. others I find four great classes of students: The dumb who stay dumb. The dumb who become wise. The wise who go dumb. The wise who remain wise. --Martin H. Fischer

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