Modellembagadomain id

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Modellembagadomain id

  1. 1. BENTUK MODEL KELEMBAGAANSISTEM NAMA DOMAIN INTERNET UNTUK INDONESIA Paparan oleh Sukarno Abdulrachman Pembentukan Lembaga Pengelolaan Nama Domain Jakarta, 19-20 Januari 2005
  2. 2. Ringkasan  Menemukan dan mengembangkan MODEL melalui pengamatan POLA PIKIR, PANDANGAN & SOLUSI di berbagai belahan dunia  Paparan tidak membahas MODEL secara teknis operasional, melainkan KONSEPTUAL2
  3. 3. Isi Paparan Hal1. Pengelolaan Internet – Internet Governance 5 a. Tantangan b. Ciri-ciri / Sifat Pengelolaan1. Sistem Nama Domain se-Dunia, 9 ICANN3. Fungsi/ tugas Lembaga 164. Kerja-sama Internasional 215. Benchmarking auDA, CIRA 226. Kesimpulan dan Saran 313
  4. 4. Referensi-referensi1. Presentation Mr. Stuart Lynn, Former President ICANN, Cornell University, 28 Juni 20052. Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, DepKomInfo, 20053. ICANN, auDA, CIRA, CENTR, APTLD, dll.
  5. 5. Internet Governance/Pengelolaan Internet
  6. 6. What Is Internet Governance?  Broad View  Narrow View  Social Policy Issues  Central  Spam Coordination  Cybercrime  Names  Terrorism  Pornography  Numbers  Copyrights  Etc  Economic Policy  Internet Stability Issues  (ITU vs ICANN)  Haves vs Have Nots  Taxation  Legal6  Enforcement
  7. 7. Tantangan dalam Pengelolaan Internet  Trans-jurisdictional (Melintasi batas-batas Negara)  Nations, states, etc.  Rapid change (Perubahan Cepat Sekali)  Instant obsolescence  Porous (Terbuka)  Open to “all” and “everything”  Lack of ”situs” (Lokasi fisik tidak menentu)  Anywhere, any place, any time  Conflicting interests (Konflik Kepentingan - Disputes)  Dan lain-lain7
  8. 8. Ciri-ciri / Sifat-sifat Pengelolaan Internet (Juga untuk Pengelolaan Domain)  Governance should be characterized by:  Democratic & transparent processes  Open participation  Governments, private sector, civil society etc  Avoidance of undue influence, capture  Efficient management, decision-making  Kompetisi, dimana mungkin8
  9. 9. The Domain Name System9
  10. 10. Domain Names  In place of a hard to remember number  IP (Internet Protocol) address  128.82.48.10  Use an easy to remember domain name  www.msl.net10
  11. 11. The Domain Name HierarchyRoot The RootTop Level Domains .com .edu .biz ... .id .uk . . .Second Level Cnet.com or.idDomainsThird Level Domains abc.or.id Global TLDs ccTLDs11
  12. 12. The Domain Name System /Process Root REGISTRAR(S) Zone Root ICANN Root Register File Server Root Server Domain Server Names USER ISP REGISTRY IP IP Address Addressabc.msl.net?? Domain of ..net of .msl.net Name .net Registry .msl.net Registry Resolver Registry Registry NAME SERVERS IP Address of abc.msl.net 12
  13. 13. ICANNInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
  14. 14. ICANN Mission  Coordinate allocation/assignment of Internet unique identifiers  Names, addresses, protocol numbers  Coordinate operation/evolution of DNS  Stability  Coordinate policy development  Reasonably/appropriately related  Promote core values  Stability, delegation, consensus  Competition, market mechanisms  Openness, transparency, fairness, accountability  Respect for role of governments14
  15. 15. ICANN Organization (2005) ICANN President/CEOOmbudsman Board of Directors Board of Directors Staff GAC ALAC Government Government At-Large At-Large Advisory Council Advisory Council Advisory Council Advisory Council CCNSO CCNSO GNSO ASO Country Code Names Country Code Names Generic Names Generic Names Address Address Supporting Organization Supporting Organization Supporting Organization Supporting Organization Supporting Organization Supporting Organization At Large Security & Stability Root System Server Technical LiaisonAdvisory Committee Advisory Committee Advisory Committee Group Liaison Liaison Liaison (IETF)15
  16. 16. ccTLD Managers objectives (CENTR) • ccTLD Managers will operate under the law of the country or territory where they are located  A ccTLD Manager is entrusted with the management of the ccTLD, but has no interest in intellectual property rights in the 2 letter code  A ccTLD Manager should be equitable and fair to all eligible registrants and operate the database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience “Manager” = Lembaga / Badan16
  17. 17. The Local Internet Community (CENTR) • Public and private sector (commercial, non commercial, users, government) • Authority of the ccTLD manager comes from serving the LIC • The LIC has the overall responsibility for local policies and will coordinate these policies with respect to the technical operability of the Registry • The role of the IANA as a DNS support service is accepted and supported by ccTLD community17 ”Local” = negara y.b.s.
  18. 18. Why is Public / Private sector partnership important?  Internet technology is changing too fast for many international organisations/forums  The Internet is a “self organizing”network (not following set paths) shows that traditional “regulations”will not work. The system will automatically find a path around any “restriction”.  Consensus based Policy at National and International level should result in light weight market driven improvements to services to the Internet users. • Improvements in services is good for development of society and economic growth.18
  19. 19. Top Level Domain Manager / Administrator  Kembangkan Best Practice for ccTLD Manager  (Lihat halaman berikut)  Kembangkan ‘Guidelines on the operation of ccTLD registry‘  Partisipasi dalam menyusun ‘Policies for registry’, berdasarkan “azas-azas”:  self-organised regulation  bottom-up authority  consensus  transparency19  cooperation based on trust and fairness
  20. 20. Best Practices -Scope  Duties of the ccTLD Manager  Process to Define the Local Internet Community  Process to Register Domain Names  Registrant Policies  Technical Requirements  Relationship with IANA  Financial Basis of Operation  Subcontracting  Data Security  Domain Name Dispute Resolution20
  21. 21. Kerjasama Internasional antar Pengelola Nama Domain  (contoh) Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries (CENTR). Not-for- profit organisation, based in Oxford, Salzburg and Brussels.  Established March 1998. 45 anggota  (contoh) APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association) is an organisation for ccTLD (country-code Top Level Domain) registries in Asia Pacific region.  Established in 1998, and in 2003 legally established in Malaysia. 18 anggota21
  22. 22. au Domain Administration Ltd. (auDA)  About auDA  .au Domain Administration Ltd (auDA) is the policy authority and industry self-regulatory body for the .au domain space.  Role of auDA  auDA carries out the following functions:  develop and implement domain name policy  license 2LD registry operators  accredit and license registrars  implement consumer safeguards  facilitate .au Dispute Resolution Policy  represent .au at ICANN and other international fora.22
  23. 23. Tentang auDA  Delegate for .au and all .au 2LDs (dapat dilimpahkan)  Industry self-regulatory body  Non-profit organisation  Membership-based  supply, demand, representative assoc  13 directors  11 elected by members, 2 appointed  3 fulltime staff23
  24. 24. Tentang auDA  Implement consumer safeguards  Facilitate .au Dispute Resolution Policy  Represent .au internationally  ICANN, ccTLD, APTLD, dll.  Policy:  Manage .au in the public interest  Preserve security and integrity of the DNS  Promote development of competitive industry  Protect interests of Registrants24
  25. 25. Industry Structure (Australia) auDA Registry Registrar Registrar Registrar Reseller Reseller Reseller Registrant Registrant Registrant25
  26. 26. Registry (Australia) [AusRegistry Pty Ltd]  Licensed by auDA  appointed by competitive tender  Operate registry for one or more 2LDs  Technical functions  run nameservers  maintain database of domain names  receive approved registrations from Registrars  operate WHOIS service  Appointed by auDA in December 2001  4 year licence to operate registry for 5 2LDs  asn.au, com.au, id.au, net.au, org.au26  Must meet auDA technical specifications
  27. 27. Canada (CIRA)  Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA); Not-for-profit corporation for managing the .ca domain space in the public interest. (1998)  1999. Canadian government recognized CIRA as the new administrator of the .ca.  Government set the general principles and structure of CIRA to administer the .ca domain space.  2000. Agreement between Gov and CIRA27
  28. 28. Tentang CIRA  The general principles are:  Open and transparent, that ensures wide public access to all relevant information; following fair and sound business practices;  Appropriate balance of representation, accountability and diversity on the Board of Directors for all categories of stakeholders;  Service quick and easy, priced competitively;28
  29. 29. Tentang CIRA  The general principles are:  Reducing conflicts between persons granted domain names and other rights holders, including trade-marks or business names; and  Administering a system that facilitates and encourages entry for new players including registrars.  Volunteer Board of Directors (14 members) – policy setting  3 Directors (representing User Community, Industry, Registrars)  9 Directors elected by mCIRA members  2 Ex-officio members non voting (Gov + CEO)29
  30. 30. Struktur Organisasi LII LII 29 President BOARD and CEO Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Sekretariat 2 2 3 3 GAC NGAC 2 2 ASO DNSO ACCS2 CERT Etc 3 Memberships -Postel -Mastel POLICY Terdiri dari: -gTLD Akreditasi ID-First Lain-2 -Kominfo -ISOC-ID At Large -APJII -ccTLD & ID-Cert -Indag -FTII -Napsindo -Registrars Sertifikasi -POLRI -ATSI -TLKM, -TNI -Portal -Indosat, dll -Webhost -IndoWLI -Awari -Etc… OPR’NTKeterangan: IP DomainGAC: Government Advisory Committee Registrars RegistrarsNGAC: Non Government Advisory CommitteeASO: Address Supporting OrganizationDNSO: Domain Name Supporting OrganizationACCS: Accreditation and Sertification OrganizationCERT: Computer Emergency Response TeamBadan Penyelesaian sengketaEtc: Lain2, disiapkan untuk perangkat lembaga lainnya 30 Kajian Lembaga Internet Indonesia, hal 48
  31. 31. Kesimpulan & Saran tentang Bentuk Model Lembaga Pengelola Nama Domain Indonesia 1. Lembaga menyandang tugas sebagai Manager / Administrator Top Level Domain, dengan Dewan Pimpinan (Board) yang integritasnya tinggi, peduli akan kemajuan Internet di Indonesia. Organisasi adalah “Not for Profit”. 2. Pada dasarnya Lembaga adalah juga Registry, tetapi tugas itu dapat juga didelegasikan ke badan lain, komersial, yang berkualifikasi teknis (dasar kontrak) – pola Australia31
  32. 32. Kesimpulan & Saran 3. Lembaga merupakan Public-Private Partnership, dengan pendekatan “industry selfregulation”, dimana intervensi Pemerintah dibuat minimal / sekecil mungkin, 4. Lembaga memiliki tugas mewakili “komunitas Internet Indonesia” di berbagai forum Internasional, sejauh mengenai masalah (sistem) nama domain – ICANN, IANA, APTLD, ITU (?) 5. Azas-azas harus ditetapkan dan pegang teguh, a.l. transparansi, pendekatan konsensus, fairness.32
  33. 33. Kesimpulan & Saran 6.Perangkat-perangkat dikembangkan dan dipraktekkan dengan patuh-azas, sehingga terbentuk Best Practices yang dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. 7.Lembaga berpartisipasi dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa (perlu didalami, dan dilaksanakan sesuai arahan/ guidelines ICANN, dls) 8.Bila mungkin, adakan benchmarking ke 2-3 negara.33
  34. 34. TERIMA KASIHs_abdulr@jakarta.wasantara.net.id

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