What is a realism?
• Realism is an interest in or concern for the actual or re
al, as distinguished from the abstract and speculative.
• Realism refers to any effort to offer an accurate and d
etailed of actual life.
• There are three different types of a realism.
(fine arts, literature, and philosophy)
Treatment of forms, colors, and space in such a m
anner as to emphasize their correspondence to act
uality or to ordinary visual experience
A manner of treating subject matter that presents a c
areful description of everyday life, usually of the lower
and middle classes.
• The doctrine that universals have a real objecti
• The doctrine that objects of sense perception
have an existence independent of the act of pe
Alexander Posey (1873-1908)
• Posey was born into a bicultural and bilingu
• His mother was a Creek Indian and his fat
her was a white man who had been raised
in the Creek community.
• He grew up learning to appreciate both N
ative American and Euro-American traditio
ns and benefited from a traditional wester
n education at the Bacone Indian Universi
ty in Muskogee.
• It was at Bacone that Posey began compo
sing poetry, most of which is heavily influ
enced by the British and American Roman
The Fus Fixico letters
• Which translates as either "Warrior Bird" or "Heartless
• The letters offer humorous political and cultural comm
entary written from the perspective and in the dialect
of Indian speakers.
• The letter is about revolving around the conversations
of four men--and usually centering on the monologue
s of Hotgun Harjo, a medicine man--the letters narrate
Indian responses to political issues and lampoon the c
orruption that was rampant in Indian Territory.
Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)
•Samuel L. Clemens, better known by his pen
name "Mark Twain“.
•He continues to enjoy a reputation, already a
ttained by the end of his lifetime, as an icon
of American literature.
•Twain's life provided subjects and sources for
many of his works.
•Born in Missouri, he grew up in the Mississip
pi river town of Hannibal, which, thinly disguis
ed as St. Petersburg, became the boyhood ho
me of his most famous characters, Tom Sawy
er and Huck Finn. Clemens himself did not en
joy a long childhood.
• This is his greatest work, is remarkable above all for c
onjuring up a vivid sense of a time and place, for usin
g humor and pathos to pose crucial questions about r
ace relations and the legacy of slavery, and for experi
menting with narration and dialect.
• Through the naive perspective of Huck, a first-person
boy narrator who speaks is slang and dialect, Twain ex
poses social inhibitions and injustices, the gaps betwe
en what the American people are supposed to be and
what they are.
Kate Chopin (1851-1904)
• She was born in St. Luis, Missouri
and her family was a socially pro
minent and financially secure.
• Her mother was descended form
French Creole ancestors
• Her father was an Irish immigrant
who had made his fortune as a m
erchant in St. Luis.
• Chopin learned to speak both Fre
nch and English in her home and
was sent to Catholic school.
• It was published in 1899 and one of her masterpiece.
• It’s a story of a woman who gradually awakens to her
own dissatisfaction with her identity as a wife and mot
• She flouts social conventions by moving out of her hu
sband’s house and entering into an adulterous affair.
• The novel provoked hostile reviews from critics who di
smissed it as “trite and sordid” and “vulgar”.