Piutang wesel
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Piutang wesel

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Piutang wesel Piutang wesel Presentation Transcript

  •  Didukung oleh sebuah promissory note . Sebuah instrumen yang dapat dinegosiasikan Dibuat untuk kepentingan penerima wesel Wesel berbunga (interest bearing note) : Memilikisuatu tingkat bunga yang ditetapkan atau Wesel tidak berbunga zero interest bearing note): memasukkan bunga sebagai bagian dari nilaipiutang dan tidak dinyatakan secara eksplisit
  •  Biasanya timbul dari : Konsumen yang membutuhkan perpanjanganperiode pembayaran dari hutang yang telah ada Konsumen yang memiliki resiko tinggi ataukonsumen baru Pinjaman untukkaryawan dan anak perusahaan Penjualan properti, pabrik dan peralatan Pada umumnya berasal dari transaksi pinjaman
  • Piutang jangka pendekdicatat pada nilai nominaldikurangi penyisihanPiutang wesel jangkapanjang : dicatat padanilai sekarang dari kasyang diperkirakan dapatditagihTingkat bunga Dijual padaBunga wesel = bunga pasar Nilai nominalBunga wesel > bunga pasar PremiBunga wesel < bunga pasar Diskonto
  •  Misal Bigelow Corp meminjamkan $10.000kepada Scandinavian import dan menerimawesel berbunga dengan jangka waktu 3 tahunsenilai $10.000, dengan suku bunga tahunan10%. Suku bunga pasar 10%. Bagaimana weseltersebut dicatat? Perhitungan Nilai pasar wesel = PV nilai pokok + PV bunga Premi/diskonto = NN wesel – PV wesel
  • Illustration: Bigelow Corp. lends Scandinavian Imports $10,000in exchange for a $10,000, three-year note bearing interest at 10percent annually. The market rate of interest for a note of similarrisk is also 10 percent. How does Bigelow record the receipt ofthe note?LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.0 1 2 3$1,000 $1,000 Interest$1,000$10,000 Principal4i = 10%n = 3
  • $1,000 x 2.48685 = $2,487Interest Received Factor Present ValuePV of InterestLO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • $10,000 x .75132 = $7,513Principal Factor Present ValuePV of PrincipalLO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • Summary Present value of interest $ 2,487Present value of principal 7,513Note current market value $10,000Date Account Title Debit CreditJan. yr. 1Dec. yr. 1LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.Notes receivable 10,000Cash 10,000Cash 1,000Interest revenue 1,000
  •  Wesel berbunga nol PV wesel = kas yang dibayarkan kepada penerbitwesel Implisit interest rate : suku bunga yang akanmenyamakan kas yang dibayarkan dengan jumlahpiutang di masa depan. Wesel dicatat pada PV (nilai tunai saat ini) danmengamortisasi diskonto pada pendapatan bungaselama umur wesel Misal Jeremiah Company menerima wesel jangkawaktu 3 tahun senilai $10.000, berbunga nol. Sukubunga pasar 9%. Bagaimana wesel tersebut dicatat?
  • Illustration: Jeremiah Company receives a three-year, $10,000zero-interest-bearing note. The market rate of interest for anote of similar risk is 9 percent. How does Jeremiah record thereceipt of the note?LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.0 1 3 3$0 $0 Interest$0$10,000 Principal4i = 9%n = 3
  • $10,000 x .77218 = $7,721.80Principal Factor Present ValuePV of PrincipalLO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.Illustration 7-14
  • Journal Entries for Zero-Interest-Bearing notePresent value of Principal $7,721.80Date Account Title Debit CreditJan. yr. 1 Notes receivable 7,721.80Cash 7,721.80Dec. yr. 1 Notes receivable 694.96Interest revenue 694.96($7,721.80 x 9%)LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  •  Wesel berbunga Bila suku bunga wesel berbeda dengan sukubunga pasar Misal : Morgan Corp memberikan pinjamankepada Marie Company dan menerima wesel$10.000, jangka waktu 3 tahun, bunga pertahun10%. Suku bunga pasar 12%. Bagaimana weseltersebut dicatat?
  • Illustration: Morgan Corp. makes a loan to Marie Co. andreceives in exchange a three-year, $10,000 note bearing interestat 10 percent annually. The market rate of interest for a note ofsimilar risk is 12 percent. How does Morgan record the receipt ofthe note?LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.0 1 2 3$1,000 $1,000 Interest$1,000$10,000 Principal4i = 12%n = 3
  • $1,000 x 2.40183 = $2,402Interest Received Factor Present ValuePV of InterestLO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • $10,000 x .71178 = $7,118Principal Factor Present ValuePV of PrincipalLO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • Illustration: How does Morgan record the receipt of the note?LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.Illustration 7-13Notes Receivable 9,520Cash 9,520
  • Illustration 7-14LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.
  • Journal Entries for Interest-Bearing NoteDate Account Title Debit CreditBeg. yr. 1 Notes receivable 9,520Cash 9,520End. yr. 1($9,520 x 12%)LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.Cash 1,000Notes receivable 142Interest revenue 1,142
  •  Jika wesel diterima sebagai pertukaranproperti, barang dan jasa dalam transaksiyang wajar, suku bunga ditetapkan cukupwajar kecuali : Tidak ada suku bunga yang ditetapkan Suku bunga yang ditetapkan tidak masuk akal Jumlah nilai nominal wesel berbeda secaramaterial dengan harga jual tunai saat ini
  • LO 6 Explain accounting issues related to recognition of notes receivable.Illustration: Oasis Development Co. sold a corner lot to RustyPelican as a restaurant site. Oasis accepted in exchange a five-yearnote having a maturity value of £35,247 and no stated interest rate.The land originally cost Oasis £14,000. At the date of sale the landhad a fair market value of £20,000. Oasis uses the fair market valueof the land, £20,000, as the present value of the note. Oasis thereforerecords the sale as:Notes Receivable 20,000Land 14,000Gain on Sale of Land 6,000(£35,247 - £20,000) = £15,247
  •  Penilaian Piutang wesel jangka pendek =penilaian piutang usaha Piutang wesel jangka panjang : pengujianimpairmen seringkali dilakukan berdasarkanpenilaian individual.Kerugian impairmendiukur sebagai selisih antara carrying amountwesel dengan PV wesel
  • LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable.Illustration: Tesco Inc. has a note receivable with a carrying amountof $200,000. The debtor, Morganese Company, has indicated that it isexperiencing financial difficulty. Tesco decides that Morganese‟s notereceivable is therefore impaired. Tesco computes the present value ofthe future cash flows discounted at its original effective-interest rate tobe $175,000. The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows.
  • LO 7 Explain accounting issues related to valuation of notes receivable.The entry to record the impairment loss is as follows.The computation of the loss on impairment is as follows.Bad Debt Expense 25,000Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 25,000
  •  Perusahaan menilai piutang mereka untukmelakukan impairment setiap periode Contoh loss event :1. Masalah keuangan konsumen yang signifikan2. Pelunasan piutang yang bermasalah3. Konsumen menegosiasi ulang jatuh tempohutangnya terkait dengan kesulitan keuangankonsumen
  •  Impairment loss adalah selisih dari :1. Carrying amount (nilai pokok + bunga akrual)dengan2. Nilai kas masa depan yang didiskontokan dengantingkat bunga pinjaman historis efektif (theloan’s historical effective-interest rate) Dalam mengestimasi arus kas, kreditor harusmenggunakan asumsi dan proyeksi yang masukakal
  • LO 11 Describe the accounting for a loan impairment.Illustration: At December 31, 2010, Ogden Bank recorded aninvestment of $100,000 in a loan to Carl King. The loan has anhistorical effective-interest rate of 10 percent, the principal is due in fullat maturity in three years, and interest is due annually. The loan officerperforms a review of the loan‟s expected future cash flow and utilizesthe present value method for measuring the required impairment loss.Illustration 7B-1
  • LO 11 Describe the accounting for a loan impairment.Illustration: Computation of Impairment LossIllustration 7B-2Recording Impairment LossesBad Debt Expense 12,434Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 12,434
  • LO 11 Describe the accounting for a loan impairment.Recovery of Impairment LossIllustration: Assume that in the year following the impairmentrecorded by Ogden, Carl King has worked his way out of financialdifficulty. Ogden now expects to receive all payments on the loanaccording to the original loan terms. Based on this new information,the present value of the expected payments is $100,000. Thus,Ogden makes the following entry to reverse the previously recordedimpairment.Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 12,434Bad Debt Expense 12,434
  • LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Opsi fair valuePerusahaan dapat melakukan fair value untuk aset dan kewajibanfinansial termasuk piutang [6]IASB meyakini bahwa pengukuran fair value untuk instrumenkeuangan memberikan informasi yang lebih relevan dan lebih dapatdipahami daripada biaya historis karena instrumen keuanganmenunjukkan nilai yang ekuivalen dengan kas saat ini[6] International Accounting Standard 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement(London, U.K.: International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation, 2003), paras. IN16 and 9.
  • LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Fair Value Measurement► Piutang (Receivables) dicatat dengan fair value.► Unrealized holding gains or losses dicatat sebagai bagiandari laba bersih► Jika sebuah perusahaan memilih untuk menggunakan fair valueuntuk melaporkan sebuah akun piutang, maka perusahaanharus menggunakannnya secara kontinyu untuk akun piutangtersebut sampai dengan piutang tersebut dilunasi
  • LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Fair Value Measurement► Receivables are recorded at fair value on the statement offinancial position.► Unrealized holding gains or losses reported as part “Otherincome and expense” on the income statement.► If a company elects the fair value option, it must continue touse fair value measurement for that receivable.► If the company does not elect the fair value option at the dateof recognition, it may not use this option on that specificreceivable in subsequent periods.
  • Illustration (Recording Fair Value Option): Assume that EscobarCompany has notes receivable that have a fair value of $810,000and a carrying amount of $620,000. Escobar decides on December31, 2011, to use the fair value option for these receivables. This isthe first valuation of these recently acquired receivables. AtDecember 31, 2011, Escobar makes an adjusting entry to recordthe increase in value of Notes Receivable and to record theunrealized holding gain, as follows.Notes Receivable 190,000Unrealized Holding Gain or Loss—Income 190,000LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.
  • LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Perusahaan dapat mentransfer piutang kepada perusahaan lainuntuk ditukarkan dengan kasAlasan:Persaingan.Keperluan kas yang tinggi.Penagihan membutuhkan biaya dan waktuTransfer accomplished by:1. Secured borrowing (piutang dipakai sebagai jaminan)2. Sale of receivables (penjualan piutang/anjak piutang)Derecognition of Receivables
  • Secured BorrowingIllustration: March 1, 2011, Howat Mills, Inc. provides (assigns)$700,000 of its accounts receivable to Citizens Bank as collateralfor a $500,000 note. Howat Mills continues to collect the accountsreceivable; the account debtors are not notified of the arrangement.Citizens Bank assesses a finance charge of 1 percent of theaccounts receivable and interest on the note of 12 percent. HowatMills makes monthly payments to the bank for all cash it collects onthe receivables.LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Using receivables as collateral in a borrowing transaction.
  • Secured Borrowing - IllustrationLO 8Illustration 7-18
  • E7-14: On April 1, 2010, Prince Company assigns $500,000 of itsaccounts receivable to the Hibernia Bank as collateral for a $300,000 loandue July 1, 2010. The assignment agreement calls for Prince Company tocontinue to collect the receivables. Hibernia Bank assesses a financecharge of 2% of the accounts receivable, and interest on the loan is 10% (arealistic rate of interest for a note of this type).Instructions:a) Prepare the April 1, 2010, journal entry for Prince Company.b) Prepare the journal entry for Prince‟s collection of $350,000 of theaccounts receivable during the period from April 1, 2010, throughJune 30, 2010.c) On July 1, 2010, Prince paid Hibernia all that was due from the loan itsecured on April 1, 2010. Prepare the entry to record this payment.LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.
  • E7-14 continuedDate Account Title Debit Credit(a) Cash 290,000Finance Charge 10,000Notes Payable 300,000($500,000 x 2% = $10,000)(b) Cash 350,000Accounts Receivable 350,000(c) Notes Payable 300,000Interest Expense 7,500Cash 307,500(10% x $300,000 x 3/12 = $7,500)LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.
  • Factors are finance companies or banks that buy receivables frombusinesses for a fee.Illustration 7-19LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.
  • Sale without GuaranteePembeli menaggung resiko penagihanTransfer sekaligus merupakan penjualan piutang.Penjual mencatat “kerugian atas penjualan piutang” untukmenampung penyesuaian yang mungkin terjadi(diskon,retur, dsb)Penjualan menggunakan akun „Seller use Due from Factor(receivable) untuk mencatat hasil yang ditahan oleh faktoruntuk menutupi diskon penjualan, retur penjualan danpengurangan hargaLO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.
  • Sale with GuaranteePenjual menjamin pembeli atas resiko penagihanTransfer piutang dipertimbangkan sebagai sebuah pinjaamn- kadang diakui sebagai a failed sale.LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.Assume Crest Textiles sold the receivables on a with guarantee basis.Illustration 7-21
  • Illustration: Crest Textiles, Inc. factors €500,000 of accountsreceivable with Commercial Factors, Inc., on a non-guarantee (orwithout recourse) basis. Commercial Factors assesses a financecharge of 3 percent of the amount of accounts receivable and retainsan amount equal to 5 percent of the accounts receivable (for probableadjustments). Crest Textiles and Commercial Factors make thefollowing journal entries for the receivables transferred withoutrecourse.Illustration 7-20LO 8 Understand special topics related to receivables.