What Is Malaria?• A mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (microorganism)of the genus Plasmodium.• Name is derived from Italian ‘Mal’ aria’ or bad air.• Most important cause of fever and morbidity in the Tropical world.
• Malaria has been infecting humans for over 50,000 years.• First advances in malaria were made in 1880 by a French army doctor named Charles Laveran.• Carlos Finlay discovered that mosquitoes transmitted diseases.• In 2010, malaria caused an estimated 655 000 deaths mostly among African children. (WHO)
LIFE CYCLE MOSQUITO BITES PARASITE CHANGES INFECTED SEVERAL STAGES MAN AND SUCKS IN MOSQUITO BLOODPARASITES RE-ENTER INFECTED MOSQUITO BLOOD AND BITES CREATE SYMPTOMS HEALTHY MAN PARASITES IN MAN’S BLOOD ENTERS LIVER AND MULTIPLIES
Cause• A parasite is passed from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.• There are four parasite species that cause malaria in humans:1. Plasmodium falciparum2. Plasmodium vivax3. Plasmodium malariae4. Plasmodium ovale.
MALARIA IN INDIA• 90-95% cases reported from rural areas.• Contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO• About two million cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria per year.• 80.5% of the population lives in malaria risk areas
MALARIA IN ODISHA• Odisha contributes about 25% of the total annual malaria cases.• In 2010, Odisha saw the highest number of malaria deaths in the country at 247.• In 2011, 73 people died of Malaria. (NVBDCP)• 28,000 people found suffering from malaria this year with no deaths reported.
STRATEGIES• NVBDCPs Urban Malaria Scheme trying to curb mosquito breeding• Trimming drains, water disposal and sanitation• Emptying water containers once a week
• Observing a weekly "Dry Day".• Trials on WHO sponsored long- lasting insecticide-treated nets• Introduction of the indoor residual spray (IRS)
PREVENTION• Don’t keep stagnant water• Poisoning the breeding grounds• Pesticide DDT• Using mosquito net and repellents• Long sleeve clothes• Health education by community participation.
TREATMENTS• Anti-malarial drugs like Chloroquine, Mefloquine.• Quinine effective in treating some forms of malaria• Vaccine- under research• The most successful candidate developed to date is the RTS,S recombinant vaccine
CONCLUSION• The disease is a major health problem in much of the tropics and subtropics.• It presents a major disease hazard for travellers to warm climates.• According to WHO, around 1.32 billion people are at the risk of contracting malaria in Southeast Asia. It marks April 25 as the World Malaria Day.