PROTECT ENVIRONMENT IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION <ul><li>By Tran Quoc Bao, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Email :  [email_address] </l...
<ul><li>The development of aquaculture in the world and Viet Nam </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on the environment </li></ul><ul...
The development of aquaculture in the world (by FAO) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
The development of aquaculture in the world (by FAO) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao
The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao http://www.ridzalmersing.com
The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao
Environmental problems <ul><li>Forest destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Inducing organic pollution (by discharging waste organ...
Forest destruction http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Mangrove was cut to free space for shrimp pond http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Mangrove forest was cleared for shrimp pond http://www.ridzalmersing.com
The willow forest along the beach in the central region was cut for shrimp culture on sandy soil http://www.ridzalmersing....
<ul><li>Water quality changes: pH, Salinity, Alkalinity, DO, DIN, DIP, Fe, Al, TSS, heavy metals. </li></ul><ul><li>The ch...
<ul><li>DO, DIN, DIP : The discharge of waste products to nearby water systems can increase ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and ...
<ul><li>Phytoplankton structure changes: </li></ul><ul><li>The biodiversity index of phytoplankton community decrease over...
<ul><li>Inorganic nitrogen concentration increase: </li></ul>Impact on the environment Total DIN in the coastal estuaries ...
A shrimp pond is fallowed Impact on the environment inside the ponds  http://www.ridzalmersing.com
<ul><li>Productivity decline (especially for shrimp culture): slower growing rate, high disease occurrence, higher culture...
<ul><li>Replanting mangrove  </li></ul><ul><li>Proper planning of aquaculture areas </li></ul><ul><li>Set up waste treatme...
Mangrove protection & reforestation is necessary Measures and Solutions <ul><li>Mangrove forest is very important to the e...
Mangrove was replanted http://www.ridzalmersing.com
<ul><li>The planning of aquaculture areas must have STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT to forecast the possible impact of ...
<ul><li>Settling pond (sedimentation pond): The discharge waste water was directed through a settling pond for depositing ...
<ul><li>Some measures to control the  use of chemicals and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage low stocking density aq...
<ul><li>The benefit of using probiotics : </li></ul><ul><li>Improve water quality of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pat...
<ul><li>The benefit of these systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of disease outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>Produce high...
<ul><li>Farm owner must contribute one part of profit to community: hunger eradication & poverty reduction, building schoo...
Set up water quality monitoring networks <ul><li>Monitor and control the quality of water supply for aquaculture systems <...
<ul><li>Most importantly: </li></ul><ul><li>Training  knowledge  and enhance  the awareness  of relevant people on environ...
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Protect Environment In Aquaculture Production2 Bao

  1. 1. PROTECT ENVIRONMENT IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION <ul><li>By Tran Quoc Bao, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Email : [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN MONITORING CENTER FOR AQUACULTURE ENVIRONMENT AND EPIDEMIC (MCE) </li></ul>(Case discussion: in Viet Nam) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  2. 2. <ul><li>The development of aquaculture in the world and Viet Nam </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Feed back of the environment to aquaculture production and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures for environmental protection. </li></ul>Main issues http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  3. 3. The development of aquaculture in the world (by FAO) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  4. 4. The development of aquaculture in the world (by FAO) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  5. 5. The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao
  6. 6. The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  7. 7. The development of aquaculture in Viet Nam Data collected and classified by Tran Quoc Bao
  8. 8. Environmental problems <ul><li>Forest destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Inducing organic pollution (by discharging waste organic matter) </li></ul><ul><li>Bring Fe and Al from acid sulfate soil to rivers, decrease pH </li></ul><ul><li>Source of chemicals and antibiotics to food and natural water. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  9. 9. Forest destruction http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  10. 10. Mangrove was cut to free space for shrimp pond http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  11. 11. Mangrove forest was cleared for shrimp pond http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  12. 12. The willow forest along the beach in the central region was cut for shrimp culture on sandy soil http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  13. 13. <ul><li>Water quality changes: pH, Salinity, Alkalinity, DO, DIN, DIP, Fe, Al, TSS, heavy metals. </li></ul><ul><li>The change of pH related to the exposure of acid sulfate soil during pond excavation and preparation. These activity normally discard acid sulfate to the river system. </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity change: due to the requirement for brackish water for some types of aquaculture, i.e. shrimp farming. Lead to the change of irrigation systems, salinity intrusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity change: the discard of acid sulfate soil lead to the decrease of alkalinity at the moment but the use of tremendous amount of limes and dolomite lead to the increase of alkalinity and increase the hardness of water. </li></ul>Impact on the environment http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  14. 14. <ul><li>DO, DIN, DIP : The discharge of waste products to nearby water systems can increase ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate and can lead to DO decrease in river water. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Fe, Al: Increase due to the discard of acid sulfate soil to river. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metal: Some heavy metal (e.g Arsen) use in pesticide formula can be found increasingly in river water. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity decrease. </li></ul>Impact on the environment http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  15. 15. <ul><li>Phytoplankton structure changes: </li></ul><ul><li>The biodiversity index of phytoplankton community decrease over years (from 2006 upto now) </li></ul>Impact on the environment Algae density in the coastal estuaries in Mekong delta cell/L Western coast 2006 2007 2008 2009 Eastern coast 2006 2007 2008 2009 CaMau cape 2006 2007 2008 2009 North Bassac river 2006 2007 2008 2009 South East coast 2006 2007 2008 2009
  16. 16. <ul><li>Inorganic nitrogen concentration increase: </li></ul>Impact on the environment Total DIN in the coastal estuaries in Mekong delta http://www.ridzalmersing.com Western coast 2006 2007 2008 2009 Eastern coast 2006 2007 2008 2009 CaMau cape 2006 2007 2008 2009 North Bassac 2006 2007 2008 2009 South East coast 2006 2007 2008 2009
  17. 17. A shrimp pond is fallowed Impact on the environment inside the ponds http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  18. 18. <ul><li>Productivity decline (especially for shrimp culture): slower growing rate, high disease occurrence, higher cultured expense, lower profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Large proportion of population is aquaculture dependent  thread to livelihood of community as aquaculture production decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Thread to food safety and export as antibiotics and chemical is misused/overused </li></ul><ul><li>The use of antibiotics: Thread to the health of community due to antibiotic resistance of bacteria strains. </li></ul>Consequences to aquaculture production and socio-economic http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  19. 19. <ul><li>Replanting mangrove </li></ul><ul><li>Proper planning of aquaculture areas </li></ul><ul><li>Set up waste treatment system for intensive farming </li></ul><ul><li>Promote farming system with water recirculation and zero or minimal water exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of probiotic products to replace for chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up water quality monitoring networks to control and protect the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the farming systems that meet criteria for GAP (Good Aquaculture/Agriculture Practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance the awareness of farmers in environmental protection through training or public media (e.g TV, radio). </li></ul>Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  20. 20. Mangrove protection & reforestation is necessary Measures and Solutions <ul><li>Mangrove forest is very important to the ecosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>The habitat for many species </li></ul><ul><li>The nursery ground for many species </li></ul><ul><li>Wave buffer, against land erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment filtering, sediment retention </li></ul><ul><li>Supply wood and food for people </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  21. 21. Mangrove was replanted http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  22. 22. <ul><li>The planning of aquaculture areas must have STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT to forecast the possible impact of aquaculture to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible organic pollution in the farming area and in rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible use of chemicals and antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity of the river system </li></ul><ul><li>Possible impact to nature: land used, water used, forest . . . </li></ul>Proper planning of aquaculture areas Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  23. 23. <ul><li>Settling pond (sedimentation pond): The discharge waste water was directed through a settling pond for depositing a large part of solid particle before being discharged to river. </li></ul><ul><li>The settling pond must has appropriate size (For example: the settling pond for an intensive shrimp pond should be at least 1/3 of the culture pond). </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a separate discard place for solid waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up waste water treatment system for super intensive farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply systems with limit water exchange, ideally zero water exchange recirculation farming system. </li></ul>Set up waste treatment system for intensive farming Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  24. 24. <ul><li>Some measures to control the use of chemicals and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage low stocking density aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage organic/ecological farming </li></ul><ul><li>Ban or restrict the sell and use of chemicals, antibiotics that is critical to the food quality and the health of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the use of probiotics to replace for the use of chemicals and antibiotics. </li></ul>Control the use of chemicals and antibiotics Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  25. 25. <ul><li>The benefit of using probiotics : </li></ul><ul><li>Improve water quality of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pathogens in water </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the use of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize disease outbreak </li></ul>Encourage the use of probiotics Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  26. 26. <ul><li>The benefit of these systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of disease outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>Produce high quality aquaculture products that can meet the critera of international markets (European country, USA, Japan …) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the water quality, less waste discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics </li></ul>Promote the systems that meet criteria for GAP (Good Aquaculture/Agriculture Practice) Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  27. 27. <ul><li>Farm owner must contribute one part of profit to community: hunger eradication & poverty reduction, building schools and other public works . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Farm owners must be in high responsibility with their labours, install best working conditions for labours. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm owners were encouraged to involve in community based aquaculture for best socio-economic management and environmental protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up regulations, enforcements applied at farm level for environmental protection. </li></ul>Enhance the role of farm owners to the community Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  28. 28. Set up water quality monitoring networks <ul><li>Monitor and control the quality of water supply for aquaculture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Help manage the activities of waste water discharge from aquaculture and other sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Give basic information to assist for planning. </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of monitoring sites, environmental parameters, sampling period, sampling frequency should be studied and considered carefully </li></ul>Measures and Solutions http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  29. 29. <ul><li>Most importantly: </li></ul><ul><li>Training knowledge and enhance the awareness of relevant people on environmental protection for sustainable aquaculture and the benefit of future generation. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com

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