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Pond Preparation 11 3 2009 Tuyen Nx

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  • 1. Ngo Xuan Tuyen MSc. National Breeding Center for Southern Marine Aquaculture (RIA2) E-mail: ngo.tuyen@gmail.com ASEAN Training Course on Aquaculture Production Preparation of ponds for aquaculture production March, 2010
  • 2. Issues of the topic
    • Purposes of Aqua-pond preparation
    • Main parts of aquaculture pond system
    • Pond preparation vs. Bio-security, environment friendly
    • Preparation of Grow-out pond
    • Preparation of water reservoir
  • 3.
    • Chinese: ponds culture -> common Carp, 1100 B.C.,
    • Egyptians -> Tilapia ponds 1000s B.C.,
      • Greeks and Romans raising eels
      • Europeans cultivating oysters
      • Japanese culturing oysters for pearls
    • The first documentation : Fish Breeding , (carp) China in 475 B.C. by Fan Li.
    • Fish poly-culture -> developed by the Chinese
    • The Chinese -> marine shrimp : the eighth century B.C.,
    • Modern shrimp culture: by Japanese scientists, 1930s,
    • First commercial shrimp farms (Japan) : until 1960s.
    HISTORY OF AQUACULTURE
  • 4. 1. Purposes of Aqua-pond preparation ► Particularly significant for old ponds Pond preparation can reduce: Resident toxic gas Incidence diseases Improve and sustain the water quality Enhance benefic microbial Adding live food
  • 5. 2. Main parts of pond culture system Water reservoir Grow-out pond Settling ponds Grow-out pond Grow-out pond Need to be prepare before crop running Need to be treated before discharging out
  • 6. Ex: Characters of shrimp & Tra fish pond Seawater Freshwater Water 10 - 30 20 – 40 (70) Stocking density (/m 2 ) 3 - 15 100 - 300 Productivity (tons/ha) Water treatment Rearing period (months) Aeration Depth (m) Shape Area (ha) Main characters Reservoirs Rearing ponds 3 – 5 6 - 7 yes yes 1.5 - 2 1.5 – 4.5 Rec. or square Rec. or square 0.5 - 2 0.3 - 1 Shrimp pond Tra fish pond
  • 7.
    • Environment friendly preparing the ponds:
      • a) Effective disinfection - Proven efficacy of disinfectants:
      • - full range of pathogen (viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi,…)
      • - approved and recommended (by GOs & NGOs): safe for staff
      • b) Environmental impacts:
      • - Priority: short term discomposing chemicals;
      • - Released -> Not harm other organisms in environment
      • c) Not use over dose & Considerable frequency of use
    3. Pond preparation vs. Bio-security, environment friendly
  • 8.
    • Environment friendly preparing the ponds:
      • d) Non antibiotics crop
      • e) Select: bio-controlling (bacteria, aquatic phytoplankton
      • or/and plants, bivalves)
      • f) Conducting Waste treatments
    Constructing Wetland areas
  • 9. (2) Bio-security: External & Internal barriers for aquaculture farm E1 . Farm frame I1 . Pond net frame Main gate E2. IN E3. OUT I2 . Farming wastes Settling ponds Grow out ponds Water reservoirs Houses I3 . Internal movements
  • 10. Example 1. Maintain foot dips at the entrance of pond site (I). 2. The seeds may be transported in pathogen contaminated water (E) 3. Staff should be trained in hygienic prevention methods in fish farm (E+I) Entry gate with vesicle bath
  • 11. 4. Procedure of Grow-out pond preparation Drained, Remove debris, renovating Disinfection, liming, apply minerals Drying (+ tilling) Killing predators & Disinfection Fertilizing: enrichment of plankton & bloom Add in Pre- /or Probiotics Filling Installing sub-constructs (aeration system,…) Check and improve water quality
  • 12. Waste water of Tra fish ponds -> watering the rice fields -> good results (Phung et al. 2008) Step 1 Drained, remove debris, till, prepare pond dikes, lining, put net frame (a) Draining the ponds Waste water of shrimp pond -> discharged into settling ponds
  • 13. (b) Remove sludge (debris) and washing the bottom Garden of mango tree Tra fish pond Sludge of Tra fish ponds -> can use to grow up the fruit trees, vegetables, rice->↓ use of synthesis fertilizers (Sickney, 2000)
  • 14. Sludge of shrimp ponds -> discharged into sludge reservoirs (right); Flushing the pond
  • 15. (c) Prepare pond dike, gates, lining, put the net frame Renovate, clean, smooth the pond dikes: - Water level: 1 - 2m - Prevent the pond from water leaking
  • 16.
    • Lining the pond dike, reducing:
    • - Soil erosion
    • Leaking of soil acids into the water
    • Turbidity of clay
    • Growth of rooted algae
    (c) Prepare pond dike, gates, lining, put the net frame Put net frame: - entrance of predators
  • 17. (d) Prepare the pond bottom -> slope towards the drain (central canal) or to one end of the pond at the harvest gate. (Stickney, 2000) Cross-sectional diagram of pond (right) and different side slopes (left)
  • 18.
    • Disinfection by apply limes:
    • wet soil
    • acts by rapid increase in pH
    • Quick lime [CaO] or Hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ]
    Step 2 Liming and disinfection, (+ minerals) (Wing, 1999) 1500 1250 1000 750 300 100 4.0 – 4.5 4.6 – 5.0 5.1 – 5.5 5.6 – 6.0 6.1 – 6.5 6.6 – 7.0 Application rates (kg/ha) pH of soil
  • 19. (2) If the pond cannot be completely dried: Disinfection by apply chemical & liming apply an approved chemical to the remaining waters Ex: Chlorine dioxide at 2 mg/l ->to ensure sterilization of ponds
  • 20.   < 60 kgs/ha   Ca(OH) 2 Slaked lime Hydrated lime Builders lime   < 60 kgs/ha   CaO Quicklime Burnt lime > 10 tons/ha   CaCO 3 , MgCO 3   Pelletized lime   > 10 tons/ha   CaCO 3   Crushed oyster shells   > 10 tons/ha   CaCO 3 , MgCO 3   Dolomitic lime   > 10 tons/ha   CaCO 3   Calcitic lime   App. rates   Active Ingredients   Lime Type Types of limes and recommended rates of application for aquaculture ponds (Wing et al., 2004)
  • 21.
    • (1) Drying the pond
    • should be allowed to dry if possible
    • for 1 to 2 weeks; ↓-> if leaking of pyrites
    • Exposing to the sun and air:
      • breakdown of organic matter (oxidation)
      • kills many disease organisms and aquatic animals
    Step 3 Drying (+ tilling) the pond bottom
  • 22.
    • (2) Tilling soil:
    • can aid in oxidation,
    • NOT recommended for acid sulfate soils due:
      • to release of pyrites: [FeS 2 ] H 2 SO 4
      • reduction of pH
    New ponds : Tilling and roll the pond bottom soil [O]
  • 23. Step 4 Installing sub-constructs Aeration system: ↑ DO levels -> ↑ intensification ↑ Breakdown organic compounds Mixing the water body
  • 24.
    • Paddlewheels
    • (impeller)
    Several forms of mechanical aeration: (Combination) (2) Air diffusers: lines, disc , rubber pipes (also Tra fish) compressor
  • 25. Several forms of mechanical aeration: (3) Venturi aerator (5) Agitator Source: Aquatico, UK (4) Airlift pumps (Wing, 1999)
  • 26.
    • Filter the intake water with filter bags (fine mesh net) avoid:
    • crustacean larvae, insects, predators, competitors
    • floating organic particles
    • Water depth for stocking 0.7 – 1m ; (>2m, Tra)
    • Effect of filtering: depended on mesh of filter bags
    Step 5 Filling with treated water from reservoir (Chen, 2000)
  • 27. Filtering water through filter bags Cross section view Illustrations of Inlet gate (Fox, 2005) Above view
  • 28. After filling several days (3) allows all eggs of aquatic organisms are hatched Step 6 Killing predators and disinfection
    • (1) Kill predators:
      • Rotenone: kills fish within hours
        • 2 – 5ppm of powder;
        • 30 – 50kgs/ha of grinded root
      • Saponin (teaseed powder):
        • 5 – 7 ppm
  • 29.
    • (2) Disinfection:
    • Using limes:
      • Quick lime [CaO]; Hydrate lime [Ca(OH) 2 ]; 10 – 15kg/100m 2
    • - Chlorine dioxide ( * ) [ClO 2 ]: 1.5 – 2 ppm (USEPA, 1998),
    • [Ex: sodium chlorite (NaClO 2 ) 38 or 25% solution]
    • Oxidation, but not chlorinate (not react with organic matter)
    • very strong disinfectant (bacteria, virus, slime and protozoan);
    • - KMnO 4 : 3 – 6 ppm (seawater) + aeration; but P
    ( * ) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved chlorine di-oxide as a safe disinfectant.
  • 30. Some of chemical disinfectants (i.e. chlorine) are NOT recommended using in the growout ponds : poor pond bottom; accumulate organic toxic compounds
  • 31.
      • (1) Fertilizers:
      • Organic: must be treated
      • Inorganic: mainly supply N, P & K
      • use to increase primary productivity:
        • Fertilizers ->(bacteria ->) phytoplankton -> zooplankton -> fish fry feed
      • also causes a “bloom”: shades bottom & prevent weeds ( But Tra fish pond: 3 – 4m deep )
      • Phytoplankton: ↑O 2 ; ↓ NH 3 (+CO 2 );
      • (2) Apply method: well dissolved, don’t sink to the bottom
    Step 7 Fertilizing: enrichment of plankton Check the water supply for new ponds before fertilizing
  • 32.
      • However, excessive amounts of algae:
        • larger consuming oxygen during the night
        • Or if algae bloom die off -> consume extra oxygen
        • -> can lead to dangerously low oxygen concentrations
  • 33. Types of inorganic fertilizers (Knud-Hansen, 1998)
  • 34.
      • Fertilizing Rate:
      • Soil and water characteristics profoundly influence fertilizer requirements and responses
        • Ex: High Ca ++ hardness waters
        • -> require higher levels of phosphorus per fertilizer application:
        • Ca ++ in the water will precipitate the phosphorus .
  • 35. * Day 1 is the first day the pond is being filled. **For ponds with calcium hardness below 50 mg/l, use the lowest rate. Ludwig et al., 1998 4 – 8 9 – 18 60 21 4 – 8 9 – 18 60 14 If needed… 4 – 8 9 – 18 60 8 7.5 – 15 * * 18 – 36 ** 280 1 10 – 30 – 0 0 – 49 – 0 11 – 37 – 0 12 – 49 – 0 (liquid or powder) rice bran, cottonseed meal, or alfalfa pellets ( required a disinfection ) (Organic fertilizer (kg/ha) +) Inorganic fertilizer (kg/ha) Day *
  • 36.
      • (2) Replacement of organic fertilizers by Traditional formula
      • ■ [ 3 kg of grinded boiled marine fish meat + 6 of yolk sac of chicken egg + 450 grs of soybean powder + 300 grs of rice bran] / 1000m 3 of water
      • ■ Steaming, grinding, screening with fine net, dissolving
      • ■ (Add in minerals)
      • ■ Spraying on water surface
  • 37.
      • (3) Using commercial enhancers growing Plankton
      • Many kinds of already use enhancers for pond preparation
  • 38. Amplifying Probiotics Bacillus Step 8 Add in Pre- /or Probiotics Many types are already commercial
  • 39. Last step Check and improve water quality 2. Qualitative parameters: Color Exist of toxic algae EX: Total alkalinity If <20 mg/l ->liming If 20 - 50 mg/l ->benefit from liming If 50 mg/l ->do not require liming 1. Quantitative parameters: Depth Clarity pH Total alkalinity Dissolved oxygen Hung, 2009
  • 40. Liming: ↑ alkalinity - pH buffering Buffering – sustaining the water pH If pH ↑: H + + HCO 3 -  H 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 If pH ↓: OH - + H + + H 2 CO 3  HCO 3 - + H 2 O Agriculture lime [CaCO 3 ] or/and Dolomite [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ], 100 - 200kg/ha
  • 41. pH vs. toxins in pond water Toxicity of NH3-N: cause gill irritation and respiratory problems ↑ pH one unit ► ↑ 10 x (amount of toxic by NH 3 ) P roper timing of fry stocking after fertilizing is very important: - food particle size ->appropriate sizes for fish fry - abundant natural food organisms
  • 42. Recommended ranges of water quality (Boyd and Tucker 1992; Boyd, 1998)
    • D-species
    • 7 – 8
    • >4 – 5 (>3,Tra)
    • 30 - 300
    • >50
    • <0.5 – 1
    • <0.2
    • 0.2
    • <10
    • <0.05
    • Not detected
    • D-species
    • 0.5
    Fresh water pond Saltwater pond Temp. ( o C) pH (log[H + ]) DO (mg/L) Alkalinity (mgCaCO 3 /L) Hardness (mg/L) Salinity (ppt) NH 3 -N (ppm) NO 2 (ppm) CO 2 (ppm) Iron (ppm) H 2 S (ppm) Clarity (cm) P (ppm) 28 – 32; D-species 7.5 – 8.5 >4.5 50 - 200 >100 15 – 28 <0.1 <1.5 <15 Na <0.02 20 -30 Na D-species = depend on the species; na = not available
  • 43. 5. Procedure of water reservoir preparation Drained, Remove aquatic plants, prepare pond bottom & dikes, net frame Liming & Drying Killing predators & Disinfection Fertilizing Add in Pre- /or Probiotics Filling water with filter bag Check and improve water quality If needed
  • 44. Inlet gate design for reservoirs Bôø ao Water current Water level 5 1 2 3 4 Water sources Reservoir 1. Wooden layer-opening the bottom gate 2. Filter net (mesh < 2 mm) 3. Fish egg filter net 4. Wooden barrier – decrease the velocity 5. Filter net (mesh >10 mm
  • 45. End. Thank you for your listening!

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