Milkfish  Breeding and Culture . Albert G. Gaitan Head, Igang Marine Station SEAFDEC/AQD, Tigbauan, Iloilo
Geographic distribution
 
 
Biology <ul><li>silvery, streamline body and forked tail </li></ul><ul><li>separate sexes, 5 yrs(70cm)sexually mature </li...
Milkfish  Chanos chanos
 
Cages for milkfish broodstock
 
Broodstock tank for milkfish
 
 
 
Multi-species hatchery used for milkfish
Bad eggs (sinking) Good eggs (floating)
<ul><li>Milkfish egg </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical, 1.1 - 1.3 mm  in  diameter </li></ul><ul><li>F...
2-cell stage blastomere embryo  hatchling
 
 
 
Artemia  hatching tanks Brachionus  culture tanks
Harvest of milkfish fry in the hatchery
Some hatchery-reared milkfish have deformities  in the gill cover
Total    232,116 metric tons Brackishwater Ponds  195,877 mt Cages  3,326 mt Pens  4,437 mt Freshwater Ponds  27 mt Cages ...
extensive, traditional system Pond Culture
Lablab
intensive system
Feeding of milkfish in intensive ponds
 
Site Selection <ul><li>Floating Net Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from adverse weat...
Pangasinan Davao Cage Culture ( marine cages )
Freshwater and marine pens Culture Pen
 
 
<ul><ul><li>Stocking of Milkfish Fry in Nursery Ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Stock fish   early morning. </li></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Source of Fingerlings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct purchase of fingerlings from nursery farm </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>Transfer of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•  Partially drain nursery/transition pond at low tide </li></...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 30 – 4...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Quality for nursery culture in pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding characteristics of milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milkfish is a daytime feeder </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding method  /  Feeding time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand feeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 am, 12 noon and 4 ...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding method  /  Feeding time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish obtai...
<ul><ul><li>Load feed into automatic or demand   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feeders two times a day   (9 am and 2 pm) </li...
Feces Excreted matter Feed / Nutrient  Wastes Uneaten feed Water Pollution
Maximum feed ration ??? Holding capacity / to prevent pollution Biomass  ~   0.8-1.3 tons/ha Feed ration  >   50 kg/ha/day...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding management tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•  Do not feed when DO is less than   3 ppm   </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>Feeding management tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•   Feed the fish and not the pond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Harvesting in Pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Pasulang’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish are induced t...
<ul><ul><li>Harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Pasulang’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather fish in catching pond ...
<ul><ul><li>Draining the pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•   Drain water to exposed 1/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of dors...
Harvesting of milkfish
 
 
Stocking in cages
<ul><li>Stocking density: </li></ul><ul><li>Cages </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 pcs/m 2  (Pangasinan) </li></ul><ul><li>50 pcs /...
Milkfish Culture in Marine Cages  (Bolinao, Pangasinan ) 18 x 18 x 10 m 20 fish/cu.m. = 65,000/cage Initial size: 25 g Cul...
Loading/transport of  feeds to the site Feeding the whole day Changing of nets every week
Harvesting in net cages <ul><li>Before lifting the net cage for harvest, inspect net cage of any tear or damage to prevent...
Harvest From cage to chilling boat Sorting ...to market in Dagupan, Pangasinan or Navotas, Metro Manila Transport of harve...
 
 
Thank you !
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Milkfish Pres Vietnam March 2010

2,367

Published on

Published in: Education
4 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,367
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
4
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Milkfish Pres Vietnam March 2010

  1. 1. Milkfish Breeding and Culture . Albert G. Gaitan Head, Igang Marine Station SEAFDEC/AQD, Tigbauan, Iloilo
  2. 2. Geographic distribution
  3. 5. Biology <ul><li>silvery, streamline body and forked tail </li></ul><ul><li>separate sexes, 5 yrs(70cm)sexually mature </li></ul><ul><li>euryhaline </li></ul><ul><li>herbivore, omnivore </li></ul><ul><li>disease resistant </li></ul><ul><li>fast growth </li></ul><ul><li>seed supply </li></ul><ul><li>high market potential </li></ul>
  4. 6. Milkfish Chanos chanos
  5. 8. Cages for milkfish broodstock
  6. 10. Broodstock tank for milkfish
  7. 14. Multi-species hatchery used for milkfish
  8. 15. Bad eggs (sinking) Good eggs (floating)
  9. 16. <ul><li>Milkfish egg </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical, 1.1 - 1.3 mm in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Fine yolk, no oil globule </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow perivitelline space </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic development: </li></ul><ul><li>20 – 35 h at 26–32 o C and 28 – 34 ppt </li></ul>
  10. 17. 2-cell stage blastomere embryo hatchling
  11. 21. Artemia hatching tanks Brachionus culture tanks
  12. 22. Harvest of milkfish fry in the hatchery
  13. 23. Some hatchery-reared milkfish have deformities in the gill cover
  14. 24. Total 232,116 metric tons Brackishwater Ponds 195,877 mt Cages 3,326 mt Pens 4,437 mt Freshwater Ponds 27 mt Cages 2,863 mt Pens 8,724 mt Marine Cages 8,271 mt Pens 9,041 mt Milkfish production, Philippines, 2002
  15. 25. extensive, traditional system Pond Culture
  16. 26. Lablab
  17. 27. intensive system
  18. 28. Feeding of milkfish in intensive ponds
  19. 30. Site Selection <ul><li>Floating Net Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from adverse weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible but secured from poachers </li></ul><ul><li>At least 3m deep and away from seagrass and coral beds </li></ul><ul><li>Earthen Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate water source with minimal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Clay or sandy-clay soil </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from adverse weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible but secured from poachers </li></ul><ul><li>(abandoned shrimp ponds) </li></ul>
  20. 31. Pangasinan Davao Cage Culture ( marine cages )
  21. 32. Freshwater and marine pens Culture Pen
  22. 35. <ul><ul><li>Stocking of Milkfish Fry in Nursery Ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Stock fish early morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Make sure that salinity and temperature levels in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are close to those </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of pond before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fish are released . </li></ul></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><ul><li>Source of Fingerlings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct purchase of fingerlings from nursery farm </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase of fry and stunting of fingerlings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in transition ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 fish/m 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 months (0.052 g/day/fish; 81% survival) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 37. <ul><ul><li>Transfer of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Partially drain nursery/transition pond at low tide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Allow water enter during high tide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(fish will swim towards the inflowing water ) </li></ul></ul>Low Tide High Tide
  25. 38. <ul><ul><li>Feeding of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 30 – 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein energy:total energy 44 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid 7 – 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestible energy 2500-3500 kca/kg diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acid 1–1.5% n-3 PUFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus 0.85% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acid </li></ul></ul>
  26. 39. <ul><ul><li>Feeding of Milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Quality for nursery culture in pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 27 – 31 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat 9 - 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen-free extracts 44 - 45 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus 0.94 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  27. 40. <ul><ul><li>Feeding characteristics of milkfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milkfish is a daytime feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milkfish feeds frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food reaches the intestine after two hours </li></ul></ul>
  28. 41. <ul><ul><li>Feeding method / Feeding time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand feeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 am, 12 noon and 4 pm at fixed areas of the pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activated by electric timers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set at predetermined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intervals to release feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 feeder/ 10000 fish </li></ul></ul>Automatic Feeder
  29. 42. <ul><ul><li>Feeding method / Feeding time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish obtain food by demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by touching the trigger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fish per demand feeder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20-80 g 5000-7000 fish per unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80-150g 3500-4500 fish per unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>150 g 2000-3000 fish per unit </li></ul></ul>Adjusting wingnut Control valve Actuator rod Scatter plate Mounting shaft
  30. 43. <ul><ul><li>Load feed into automatic or demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feeders two times a day (9 am and 2 pm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so as not to overfeed the fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding method / Feeding time </li></ul></ul>
  31. 44. Feces Excreted matter Feed / Nutrient Wastes Uneaten feed Water Pollution
  32. 45. Maximum feed ration ??? Holding capacity / to prevent pollution Biomass ~ 0.8-1.3 tons/ha Feed ration > 50 kg/ha/day DO a.m. < 1.0 ppm Mortality Semi-intensive pond – No aeration
  33. 46. <ul><ul><li>Feeding management tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Do not feed when DO is less than 3 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Give supplemental feed when natural food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Feed size should be directly proportional to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fish size </li></ul></ul>
  34. 47. <ul><ul><li>Feeding management tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Feed the fish and not the pond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care must be ensured that feed is always consumed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overfeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underfeeding is better than overfeeding! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Do not feed when fish are stressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish do not eat when stressed and feeding them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will only contribute to poor water quality. . </li></ul></ul>
  35. 48. <ul><ul><li>Harvesting in Pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Pasulang’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish are induced to swim against water current </li></ul></ul>Low Tide High Tide
  36. 49. <ul><ul><li>Harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Pasulang’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather fish in catching pond or canal during spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tide, use drag seine to collect them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoop into chilling tank or boxes where temp. is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to kill harvested fish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In chilling tank, 1 : 3 ratio of fish and ice is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect remaining fish from totally drained pond </li></ul></ul>
  37. 50. <ul><ul><li>Draining the pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Drain water to exposed 1/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of dorsal portion of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as they go to deeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portion of pond/trench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Collect fish through seining; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place in chilling tank. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 51. Harvesting of milkfish
  39. 54. Stocking in cages
  40. 55. <ul><li>Stocking density: </li></ul><ul><li>Cages </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 pcs/m 2 (Pangasinan) </li></ul><ul><li>50 pcs /m 2 (Samal Island) </li></ul><ul><li>Fish pen </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 pcs/m 2 (Pangasinan) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Rate </li></ul><ul><li>5 - 50 g 10 % </li></ul><ul><li>51 - 125 8 % </li></ul><ul><li>125 - 199 6 % </li></ul><ul><li>200 - 250 5.5 % </li></ul><ul><li>251 - 300 5 % </li></ul><ul><li>300 - 400 4 % </li></ul><ul><li>400 - 500 3.5 – 3 % </li></ul><ul><li>500 2.5 % </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding time : </li></ul><ul><li>whole day (8 am-12 noon; 1-5 pm) </li></ul>Cages Fish pens Marine Pens and Cages
  41. 56. Milkfish Culture in Marine Cages (Bolinao, Pangasinan ) 18 x 18 x 10 m 20 fish/cu.m. = 65,000/cage Initial size: 25 g Culture period: 229 days Harvest size: 500 g Production: 30 MT/cage SGR: 1.41%/day FCR: 2.58
  42. 57. Loading/transport of feeds to the site Feeding the whole day Changing of nets every week
  43. 58. Harvesting in net cages <ul><li>Before lifting the net cage for harvest, inspect net cage of any tear or damage to prevent fish from escaping. </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly lift the nets to concentrate the fish in one corner. Use fine, soft, knotless scoop nets or soft plastic screens in catching the fish. </li></ul>
  44. 59. Harvest From cage to chilling boat Sorting ...to market in Dagupan, Pangasinan or Navotas, Metro Manila Transport of harvest to mainland Bolinao
  45. 62. Thank you !

×