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  • AQD has also developed breeding and seed production of other species for Philippine aquaculture such as portunid crabs, top shell, kapis shell. This is in line with the Departmental program on the development of aquaculture technologies for new species, however since this was not considered priority by the Philippine Government, this program was phased out in 2003.

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  • 1. Overview of Aquaculture in Southeast Asia Evelyn Grace de Jesus-Ayson
  • 2. Aquaculture globally is now the fastest growing sector of animal meat production
    • Average annual percentage growth rate from 1970 to 2000:
      • Aquaculture = 8.5%
      • Capture fisheries = 1.4%
      • Terrestrial farmed animals = 2.8%
        • Chicken = 5.1%
        • Hog = 3.1%
        • Beef and veal = 1.3%
        • Mutton and lamb = 1.1%
    • From 1992 to 2002, apparent per capita consumption of seafoods worldwide increased by 21%, from 13.1 kg to 16.2 kg.
  • 3. Projected growth in global aquaculture, 2005-2017 ( excluding seaweeds ) As early as 2017, aquaculture’s contribution to world fish supply may already exceed that of capture fisheries. From 2000 to 2005, aquaculture's contribution to world fisheries production increased from 27% to 34% (by volume).
  • 4. Why the rapid growth of aquaculture?
    • #1 Declining wild fisheries
    • Overfishing, habitat destruction and pollution
    • High cost of fuel, the uncertainty of obtaining a reasonable catch has made fishing a risky business.
    • The crisis in the fishing is now a very real threat to food security, jobs, and livelihood.
  • 5. Why the rapid growth of aquaculture? #2 Health value 116 147 114 19.2 20.9 23.2 20.2 4.3 0.6 6.3 1.7 6.8 95 147 18.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Catfish Shrimp Beef Chicken Pork Calories or Grams Calories Protein Fat
  • 6. Why the rapid growth of aquaculture?
    • #3 Business opportunity
    • Large variety of species available for culture
    • Large potential for improving yield through genetics, nutrition, health management, and modern farming techniques
    • Favorable farming traits: efficient feed converters, requires less energy for body support, efficient use of space, variable culture environment, etc.
  • 7. Why the rapid growth of aquaculture? #4 Foreign exchange and jobs Over US$30 billion of aquaculture products are traded globally, with developing countries accounting some 65% of exports, providing much needed jobs, livelihood, and foreign exchange
  • 8. Aquaculture Production in SE Asia Source: FAO FishStat
  • 9. Cummulative Aquaculture Production in SE Asia Source: FAO FishStat
  • 10. SOUTHEAST ASIA Aquaculture Production by CULTURE ENVIRONMENT 2007
  • 11. Source: FAO FishStat LAO PDR Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 12. Source: FAO FishStat LAO PDR Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 70,900 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 7,100 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 102,805 Other Commodities (not in the chart) -10,000
  • 13. Source: FAO FishStat MYANMAR Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 14. Source: FAO FishStat MYANMAR Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 604,660 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 2,460 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 1,862,403 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 7,500
  • 15. Source: FAO FishStat CAMBODIA Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 16. Source: FAO FishStat CAMBODIA Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 50,200 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 1,230 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 70,638 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 2,620
  • 17. Source: FAO FishStat VIETNAM Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 18. Source: FAO FishStat VIETNAM Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 2,194,500 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - N/A VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 4,544,750 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - N/A
  • 19. Source: FAO FishStat MALAYSIA Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 20. Source: FAO FishStat MALAYSIA Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 184,891 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 23,348 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 374,246 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 34,917
  • 21. Source: FAO FishStat THAILAND Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 22. Source: FAO FishStat THAILAND Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 1,390,031 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 65,583 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 2,432,761 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 110,579
  • 23. Source: FAO FishStat INDONESIA Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 24. Source: FAO FishStat INDONESIA Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 3,121,379 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 155,334 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 2,854,889 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 218,606
  • 25. Source: FAO FishStat PHILIPPINES Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 26. Source: FAO FishStat PHILIPPINES Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 2,214,785 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 24,942 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 1,371,042 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 28,877
  • 27. Source: FAO FishStat BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 28. Source: FAO FishStat BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 622 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 0 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 3,185 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 0
  • 29. Source: FAO FishStat SINGAPORE Fishery Production by Culture Environment (2007) QUANTITY (MT) VALUE (‘000 US $)
  • 30. Source: FAO FishStat SINGAPORE Aquaculture Production, Top 10 Commodities (2007) QUANTITY (MT) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 4,279 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 224 VALUE (‘000 US $) Total Aquaculture Production (2007) - 9,081 Other Commodities (not in the chart) - 1,332
  • 31. Requisites for sustainable aquaculture 1. Reliable breeding and seed production 3. Appropriate feeds and feeding practices 4. Effective prevention and control of diseases 2. Environment-friendly culture techniques
  • 32. * In SE ASIA, we are now able to breed several species of marine and freshwater fish, crustaceans and mollusks in captivity
  • 33. Requisites for reliable supply of good quality seeds 1. Domestication of breeders 3. Appropriate broodstock nutrition 4. Disease-free and disease resistant 2. Selective breeding
  • 34. Sporulation/Tissue Culture Wild source Slides/ Plates/ Cell wells 50mL t25 350 mL culture flask 2.0 L culture flask Aquaria Tanks Summary Research Hanging longline (inside cages) Outplanting (Cabalagnan) After Typhoon Frank 2008 2007 Cylindrical cages
  • 35. GRACILARIA grown from spores Tissue culture of KAPPAPHYCUS Nursery in tanks Grow-out
  • 36.
    • White spot disease
    Economically Important Viral diseases of P. vannamei in Asia
    • Taura syndrome
    • Infectious hypodermal and
    • hematopoietic necrosis
    • Infectious myonecrosis
  • 37. The Asian WSSV pandemic 1993 1991/2 1993 1993 1993 1994 1999
  • 38. Problem: Outbreak/ occurrence of VNN in grow-out cultures (floating net cages) of groupers, Asian seabass, groupers, pompano and even tilapia is incontrollable!
  • 39. Control Vaccinated
  • 40.
    • Problem : Neosiphonia (epiphyte) infection in farmed Kappaphycus
    • Neosiphonia
  • 41. Food safety Detection of chemical residues in aquaculture products - pesticides - antibiotics
  • 42. Environmental concerns Detection of chemical residues in the environment - pesticides - antibiotics
  • 43. Way Forward 1. Increased production 3. Culture of low trophic species 4. Integrated multitrophic aquaculture 2. Domestication 5. Substitute for fish meal, fish oils; alternative feed ingredients
  • 44. Other issues 1. The fish meal trap 3. Access to financing or capital Quality standards 4. Quality standards and access to markets 2. Small-scale stakeholders left behind???
  • 45. Thank you!