Aquaculture In Cambodiaubah

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  • 1. Kingdom of Cambodia Nation Religion King Country Report Status of Aquaculture Production in Cambodia By Mr. Mith Soksopheak Mr.khol Many Fisheries Administration Cambodia http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  • 2. Introduction
    • Cambodia has a land area of 181,035 km 2 , population: 13.4 millions, with a growth rate : 2.4% per year
    • Agriculture is the major occupation for about 85% of the population
    • Rice & Fish are the basic diets of the Cambodian people
    http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    • Fish is the most important source of animal protein for human consumption, ( avg. 75% of animal protein, consumption: 52,4kg/person/year )
  • 3.
    • Rich biodiversity: more than 500 fish species
    • Range of annual catch : 250,000 – 450,000 mt
    • The fisheries catch is valued : 200 – 300 Million USD
    • Fisheries sector shared : 11.4% of GDP
    http://www.ridzalmersing.com Pangasianodon gigas Catlocarpio siamensis
  • 4. Status of aquaculture in Cambodia 1. Inland Aquaculture
    • Main supply source of animal protein for rural areas in the country;
    • Until present, most farming systems are extensive, using on-farm waste inputs/domestic wastes to produce fish;
    • Fish can be cultured in cages, ponds and rice field.
    Pond fish culture Rice fish culture Cage fish culture
  • 5. Common culture species in Freshwater of Cambodia Note: P: pond; FC: floating cage; RF: rice field; WS: Wild seed; HS: Hatchery seed Scientific name Culture Method Source of seed Culture volume 1. Pangasianodon hypophthalmus FC, P HS, WS high 2. Pangasianodon bocouti FC WS high 3. Pangasianodon larnaudiei FC WS low 4. Pangasianodon conchophilus FC WS low 5. Channa micropeltes FC WS high 6. C. striatus FC WS high 7. Barbodes gonionotus FC, P, RF HS, WS high 8. Leptobarbus hoeveni FC, P HS, WS Medium 9. Mystus wyckiode FC WS low 10. Oxyeleotris marmoratus FC, P WS low 11. Trichogaster pectroralis P, RF HS, WS low 12. Barbodes altus P, RF HS, WS low
  • 6. Culture species and culture method in Freshwater of Cambodia Note: P: pond; FC: floating cage; RF: rice field; WS: Wild seed; HS: Hatchery seed Scientific name Culture Method Source of seed Culture volume 1. Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) P, RF, FC HS high 2. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichhys molitrix) P HS medium 3. Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) P, RF HS medium 4. Bighead carp ( Aristichtys nobilis) P HS low 5. Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) 6. Mrigal ( Cirrihina mrigal) P P, RF HS HS low low 7. African catfish ( C. gariepinus) P HS low
  • 7.
    • Freshwater cage culture (FC)
    • cage culture is reported to have originated in Cambodia, about a century a go;
    • cages are generally rectangular or/and boat shape and made of bamboo or hard wood;
    • major culture system of inland aquaculture production, representing 60-70% of aquaculture production over the past two decades
    http://www.ridzalmersing.com Fish cage distribution
  • 8. Main species culture in cage Use of small, low value and trash fish
  • 9.
    • Cage culture of Pangasid catfish :
    • The cage use for Pangasid culture vary in size:
    • (6m x 4m x 2m to 30m x 6m x 3m)
    • Source of Seed: Hatchery & Wild
    • Stocking rate: 80 – 200 fish/m 3 ( 80-150g Size)
    • Feeding: - low value fish species & ricebran
    • (15-25% of total feed fed)
    • - Cooked rice bran, corn and vegetation
    • - fish are starved or fed with only vegetation
    • Culture period: 12 months
    • Production: 30-90kg/m 3 ( Avg. 1kg/head)
    • FCR: 1 : 5-7
  • 10.
    • Cage culture of Hemibagrus wyckioides
    • Source of Seed: most seed collected from the Wild ( Upper MK )
    • Stocking rate: - 13 fish/m 3 ( H. wyckioides )
    • Feeding: Freshwater Small-sized fish (low value)
    • Culture period: 11-12 months
    • Production: - 38kg/m 3 ( H. wyckioides )
    • FCR: - 1 : 5 ( H. wyckioides )
    http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  • 11. Feeding carnivorous and omnivorous fish species in Cambodia’s cage culture system Note: Avg. FCR = Average Feed Conversion Ratio. FW fish = Freshwater fish; D fish = Dried freshwater fish; RB = Rice Bran; ASW= Animal Slaughter Waste; V = Vegetation plants RC = Red Corn; and CW = Cassava waste. Feed type and feed composition Avg FW Culture Species FCR Fish Dfish RB ASW V RC CW Hemibagrus wyckioides 5 80 0 0 20 0 0 0 Channa striata 8 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pangasius conchophilus 8 19 0 81 0 0 0 0 Pangasius larnaudiei 3 20 5 75 0 0 0 0 Pangasius bocourti 5 26 0 34 0 0 10 30 P. hypophthalmus 7 15 0 76 0 0 0 0 Barbodes gonionotus 8 38 0 38 0 24 0 0
  • 12. Problems in cage culture
    • High mortality rates of pangasids and snakeheads during summer months, particularly from March-May when the water temperature is high and the water flow is reduced;
    • Overcrowding of fish results in a large amount of waste being discharged, causing deterioration of water quality;
    • The seed used for cage culture of both snakeheads and Pangasids are collected from the wild and may be having a significant impact on wild stock;
    • Both snakeheads and Pangasids culture, the sharp decline of wild seed had led to a shortage of seed for stocking, while hatchery-produced seed have not been available;
    • Snakeheads do not easily accept pellet feed. There is a heavy reliance on catching or buying low value fish/trash fish for feed. This could be better utilised for human consumption.
  • 13.
    • Freshwater pond culture
    • Pond culture is of recent origin, some time around the 1960s
      • Intensive fish culture system ( P. hypophthalmus & Hybrid clariid catfish)
      • Extensive/semi-intensive culture system (Indigenous species, Tilapia, Exotic Carp species)
    Extensive/semi-intensive system, 25% Intensive system, 75% Fish production produced by pond culture systems
  • 14. Intensive pond culture X Species Stocking density Head/m 2 Production (tons/ha) Crop/Year P. hypophthalmus 8 – 30 (avg. 10) 5-200 (Avg. 67) 1 Hybrid clariid catfish 10 – 150 (avg. 50) 8-300 (Avg. 60) 2-4
  • 15. Extensive/semi-intensive pond culture To provide fish for family consumption
    • The promotion of family fish pond culture was started in 1986, through the UNICEF’s Family Food Program
    • The practice has been promoted in areas away from wild fish production sites (by Projects, NGOs and IOs)
    • From 1990s, many NGOs/IOs and projects such as: PADEK, SAO, AIT-AARM, APHEDA, MRC, UNDP/FAO to promote small-scale aquaculture at different provinces in Cambodia
    • Recently: JICA & DFID/DANIDA project
  • 16.
    • fish are grown in pond of 80-500m2
    • main species: - Pangasius spp, Silver barb
    • - Carps and Tilapia
    • Feeding: farm wastes products such as Rice bran, duckweed, termites, morning glory & rice-wine waste
    • Production: 25-60kg/100m2 (8 months)
    • Rice fish culture (RF)
    • Recently been introduced into Cambodia
    • RF has been promoted since it may provide a number of benefits such as:
    • - increase area available for fish production;
    • - fish may eat some insects that are harmful to rice plant;
    • - waste from fish may be useful fertilizer for rice plant;
    • - production of both fish and rice increased.
  • 17. Inland Aquaculture Production (tons): 1984-2005
    • Increased from 1610 tons in 1984 to 26, 000 tons in 2005, representing a 11.9 times increase or a growth of 16.3% per year.
    • it represented 8.3% of total inland fisheries production in 2005
    • AQ has expanded, diversified and intensified
  • 18.
    • Problems in pond culture
    • Seasonal variation in seed supply;
    • Unavailable of hatchery-produced seed of high value cultured species;
    • Poor knowledge of farmers about feeds and feeding technology;
    • Commercial feeds are expensive;
    • Farmers have limited capacity for pond investment.
  • 19. Crocodile farming Crocodylus siamensis Most important of feed: freshwater low-marketed value fish Feed type and feed composition (%) Life stage Feeding rate Kg/head/y FW fish FW shrimp Marine fish Rodent Snake Pork/ beef ASW Hatchling 34 (10-139) 81 12 2 0 0 5 0 Juvenile 62 (23-200) 87 0 6 3 3 0 1 Adult 124 (45-327) 80 0 5 8 6 0 1
  • 20. Crocodile farming Crocodile hatchling (head) Crocodylus siamensis
  • 21.
    • Coastal Aquaculture
    • Shrimp is a relatively new development started early 1990s,
    • Species: P. monodon
    • Seed: Wild and Imported
    • Problems in shrimp culture
    • unavailability of hatchery-produced shrimp post larvae;
    • Reliance on imported post larvae from neighboring countries;
    • diseases;
    • lack of special extension programs focusing on shrimp farming;
  • 22. Seaweed farming ( E. cottonii )
    • Started: 1999
      • Star private
      • N-Tac
  • 23.
    • Marine aquaculture
    • Mariculture is less developed as compared to the neighboring countries
    • Common cultured species: groupers and snappers (wild seed)
    • In 2005, there were about 204 fish cages
    • The production: 100 tons/year
    • The main currently constraints to mariculture:
    • the current reliance on wild seed for stocking
    • Unavailability of hatchery-produced seed;
    • Unavailability of commercial feeds;
    • Lack of training and extension programs focusing on marine aquaculture;
    • investment for marine aquaculture is quite high (i.e. cage construction, feed cost)
  • 24.