effective reading


Published on

Published in: Education, Sports
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

effective reading

  3. 3. Report Report on the Effective ReadingTo,Prof. Shivaprasad,Chetana‟s Hazarimal somani,College of Com. & Eco. &Smt.Kusumtai Chaudhari College of Arts. Dear Sir, In accordance with your instruction, we have analyzed all the causes of EffectiveReading. Effective Reading of the Financial year 2011-2012.The causes for the Effective Reading are as follows:- 3
  4. 4. READING Reading is both a sensory & a mental process. It involves use ofthe eye & the mind. It is a process rather than a subject.Reading Is a Complex cognitive Process of Decoding Symbols In Order To Construct or Derive Meaning. The Definitions of reading are: “Reading is limited to the interpretation of written and printed symbols.” Reading is a fundamental part of everyday living. Reading enables us to interact and understand the world around us. It helps us to explain our ideas and opinions to others and to record what hastaken place so future generations can understand their history. Reading also enables us to utilize information others have discovered such as a recipe or instruction manual. Reading has many uses, but is it really important? Read this article and find out. The modern point of view sees reading not a group of skills but as a part of the well rounded development of an individual. 4
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF READINGReading is fundamental to function in todays society.There are many adults who cannot read well enough tounderstand the instructions on a medicine bottle. That isa scary thought - especially for their children. Filling outapplications becomes impossible without help. Readingroad or warning signs is difficult. Even following a mapbecomes a chore. Day-to-day activities that many peopletake for granted become a source of frustration, angerand fear.Reading is a vital skill in finding a good job. Many well-paying jobs require reading as a part of job performance.There are reports and memos which must be read andresponded to. Poor reading skills increase the amount oftime it takes to absorb and react in the workplace. Aperson is limited in what they can accomplish withoutgood reading and comprehension skills. Reading isimportant because it develops the mind. The mind is amuscle. It needs exercise. Understanding the writtenword is one way the mind grows in its ability. Teachingyoung children to read helps them develop theirlanguage skills. It also helps them learn to listen.Everybody wants to talk, but few can really listen. Lackof listening skills can result inmajor misunderstandingswhich can lead to job loss, marriage breakup, and otherdisasters - small and great. Reading helps children [andadults] focus on what someone else is communicating.Why is reading important? It is how we discover newthings. Books, magazines and even the Internet are greatlearning tools which require the ability to read andunderstand what is read. A person who knows how toread can educate themselves in any area of life they are 5
  6. 6. interested in. We live in an age where we overflow with information, but reading is the main way to take advantage of it.Reading develops the imagination. TV and computer games have their place, but they are more like amusement. Amusement comes from two words "a" [non] and "muse" [think]. Amusement is non-thinking activities. With reading, a person can go anywhere in the world...or even out of it! They can be a king, or an adventurer, or a princess, or... The possibilities are endless. Non-readers never experience these joys to the same extent.In line with the above, reading develops the creative side of people. When reading to children, stop every once in awhile and ask them what they think is going to happen next. Get them thinking about the story. When it is finished, ask if they could think of a better ending or anything that would have improved it. If they really likedthe story, encourage them to illustrate it with their own drawings or tomake up a different story with the same characters. Get the creative juices flowing!The fact of the power of written ideas communicated through reading is a foundational reason why some governments oppose free and honest communication. Illiterate people are easier to control and manipulate. They cannot do their own research and thinking. They must rely on what they are told and how their emotions are swayed. There is a good possibility that this is one of the main reasons phonics was removed from the schools about 100 years ago. Finally, why is reading important? Reading is important because words - spoken and written - are the building 6
  7. 7. blocks of life. You are, right now, the result of words that you have heard or read AND believed about yourself. What you become in the future will depend on the words you believe about yourself now. People, families, relationships, and even nations are built from words. Think about it. Skill DevelopmentBoth the Lexical and the Sub-lexical cognitive processescontribute to how we learn to read.Sub-lexical Reading :Sub-lexical reading, involves teaching reading byassociating characters or groups of characters with soundsor by using Phonics or Synthetic phonics learning andteaching methodology. Sometimes argued to be incompetition with whole language methods.Lexical Reading :Lexical readinginvolves acquiring words or phraseswithout attention to the characters or groups of charactersthat compose them or by using Whole language learningand teaching methodology. Sometimes argued to be incompetition with Phonics and Synthetic phonics methods,and that the whole language approach tends to impairlearning how to spell. 7
  8. 8. Other methods of teaching and learning to read havedeveloped, and become somewhat controversial.Learning to read in a second language, especially inadulthood, may be a different process than learning to reada native language in childhood. There are cases of veryyoung children learning to read without having beentaught. Such was the case with Truman Capote whoreportedly taught himself to read and write at the age offive. There are also accounts of people who taughtthemselves to read by comparing street signs or Biblicalpassages to speech. The novelist Nicholas Delbanco taughthimself to read at age six during a transatlantic crossing bystudying a book about boats.Brain activity in young and older children can be used topredict future reading skill. Cross model mapping betweenthe orthographic and phonologic areas in the brain arecritical in reading. Thus, the amount of activation in the leftdorsal inferior frontal gyrus while performing reading taskscan be used to predict later reading ability andadvancement. Young children with higher phonologicalword characteristic processing have significantly betterreading skills later on then older children who focus onwhole-word orthographic representation. TYPES OF READING : Sub vocalization,or silent speech, is defined as the internal speech made when reading a word, thus allowing the reader to imagine the sound of the word as it is read. This is a natural process when reading and helps to reduce cognitive load, and it helps the mind to access meanings to enable it to 8
  9. 9. comprehend and remember what is read. Althoughsome people associate subvocalization with movingones lips, the actual term refers primarily to themovement of muscles associated with speaking, notthe literal moving of lips. Most subvocalization isundetectable (without the aid of machines) even by theperson doing the subvocalizing.Speed reading is a collection of reading methodswhich attempt to increase rates of reading withoutgreatly reducing comprehension or retention. Methodsinclude chunking and eliminating subvocalization. Noabsolute distinct "normal" and "speed-reading" typesof reading exist in practice, since all readers use someof the techniques used in speed reading (such asidentifying words without focusing on each letter, notsounding out all words, not sub-vocalizing somephrases, or spending less time on some phrases thanothers, and skimming small sections). Speed reading ischaracterized by an analysis of trade-offs betweenmeasures of speed and comprehension, recognizingthat different types of reading call for different speedand comprehension rates, and that those rates may beimproved with practice. The many available speedreading training programs include books, videos,software, and seminars.Proofreading also proof-reading isthe reading of a galley proof or computer monitor todetect and correct production-errors of text or art.Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurateby default because they occupy the last stage of 9
  10. 10. typographic production before publication. Proofreaders may also query items for confirmation. EFFECTIVE READINGWhen you are new to university study, the amount of reading you are expected to do can be daunting. However, you can learn how to prepare yourself in advance and find ways to make the going easier. What appears to be an impossible task (tackling all that text) becomes possible when you start becoming an active reader; that is, asking questions about what you need to find out, taking a strategic and critical approach, and then selecting readings that relate to your questions and tasks.Reading Strategies Active readers use reading strategies to help save time and cover a lot of ground. Your purpose for reading should determine which strategy or strategies to use. 1. Previewing the text to get an overview What is it? Previewing a text means that you get an idea of what it is about without actually reading the main body of the text. When to use it: to help you decide whether a book or journal is useful for your purpose; to get a general sense of the article structure, to help you locate relevant information; to help you toidentify 10
  11. 11. the sections of the text you may need to read and the sections you can omit.To preview, start by reading: the title and author details the abstract (if there is one) then read only the parts that „jump out‟; that is: main headings and sub headings, chapter summaries, any highlighted text examine any illustrations, graphs, tables or diagrams and their captions, as these usually summarise the content of large slabs of text the first sentence in each paragraph 2. SkimmingWhat is it? Skimming involves running your eye veryquickly over large chunks of text. It is different frompreviewing because skimming involves the paragraph text.Skimming allows you to pick up some of the main ideaswithout paying attention to detail. It is a fast process. Asingle chapter should take only a few minutes.When to use it: to quickly locate relevant sections from alarge quantity of writtenmaterial. Especially useful whenthere are few headings or graphic elements to gain an 11
  12. 12. overview of a text. Skimming adds further information toan overview.How to skim: Note any bold print and graphics. Start at the beginning of the reading and glide your eyes over the text very quickly. Do not actually read the text in total. You may read a few words of every paragraph, perhaps the first and last sentences. Always familiarise yourself with the reading material by gaining an overview and/or skimming before reading in detail.3. ScanningWhat is it? Scanning is sweeping your eyes (like radar)over part of a text to find specific pieces of information.When to use it: to quickly locate specific information froma large quantity of written material.To scan text: After gaining an overview and skimming, identify the section(s) of the text that you probably need to read. 12
  13. 13. Start scanning the text by allowing your eyes (or finger) to move quickly over a page. As soon as your eye catches an important word or phrase, stop reading.When you locate information requiring attention, you thenslow down to read the relevant section more thoroughly.Scanning and skimming are no substitutes for thoroughreading and should only be used to locate material quickly.4. Intensive readingWhat is it? Intensive reading is detailed, focused, „study‟reading of those important parts, pages or chapters.When to use it: When you have previewed an article andused the techniques of skimming and scanning to find whatyou need to concentrate on, then you can slow down and dosome intensive reading.How to read intensively: Start at the beginning. Underline any unfamiliar words or phrases, but do not stop the flow of your reading. If the text is relatively easy, underline, highlight or make brief notes (see „the section on making notes from readings). 13
  14. 14. If the text is difficult, read it through at least once (depending on the level of difficulty) before making notes. Be alert to the main ideas. Each paragraph should have a main idea, often contained in the topic sentence (usually the first sentence) or the last sentence. When you have finished go back to the unfamiliar vocabulary. Look it up in an ordinary or subject-specific dictionary. If the meaning of a word or passage still evades you, leave it and read on. Perhaps after more reading you will find it more accessible and the meaning will become clear. Speak to your tutor if your difficulty continues. Write down the bibliographic information and be sure to record page numbers (more about this in the section on making notes from readings).Remember, when approaching reading at university youneed to make intelligent decisions about what you chooseto read, be flexible in the way you read, and think aboutwhat you are trying to achieve in undertaking each readingtask.5. Critical ReadingBeing critical in an academic context does not mean simplycriticising or „finding fault‟. It means understanding howideas have been arrived at, and evaluating their strengths 14
  15. 15. and weaknesses. Here are some of the main features of critical reading. Recognising the writer‟s purpose and underlying values (social, cultural and historical influences). Recognising patterns of the argument. Linking ideas in the text to other ideas and texts. Exploring alternatives to the stated idea. Recognising the assumptions and underlying values that you bring to your reading. Being an ACTIVE reader means being a CRITICAL reader. The purpose of critical reading is to gain a deeper understanding of the material. It involves reading in depth and actively questioning what you read.KEYS FOR EFFICTIVE READING Reading FAQ Does uni study involve lots of reading? In a word - yes. Most courses involve a great deal of reading, which is why you need tolearn new techniques to manage the workload. What will I be expected to read for? 15
  16. 16. Lectures: You will be expected to do some pre- reading in order to prepare for lectures Tutorials: Tutorials are often based on assigned readings. If you have not read the material, you won‟t be able to participate in group discussions. Assignments: You can‟t write your assignment until you have done the necessary research.The aim of most of your reading will be to seekinformation related to an assignment or course material.I read novels and newspapers - will reading unimaterial be the same?How we read usually depends on our purpose for reading.For example, while you might start reading a novel on pageone and read every word until you reach the end, thiswouldn‟t be an effective approach to take with academicreading. To get the most out of academic reading and to useyour time effectively, you need to take a strategicapproach.I have a reading list - am I expected to read everythingon it?Lengthy reading lists for courses and essays can beconfusing, particularly when the subjects are unfamiliar.However you don‟t have to feel lost. Although only rarelywill you be expected to read absolutely everything, if thethought of all that reading is daunting, don‟t hesitate to takea strategic approach and be selective. 16
  17. 17. Reading to RememberThe SQ3R Method of StudyReading is one of the coreactivities of study. You need to be able to understand whatyou read and to be able to recall the main ideas when youneed them. You can use the SQ3R method to help youremember a reading for tutorials, seminars or to revise forexams.S = SurveyBefore you start to read, survey the material to gain anoverview of the contents. Approach a reading by scanningthe title(s), subheading and any summaries or abstracts.Doing this will help you gain an idea of the main idea ortopic of the piece. You may also find that you get someidea of the author‟s position.Q = QuestionYour reading will be more memorable if you question thematerial.1. Ask yourself what the lecturer/ tutor say about thechapter or subject?2. Devise questions that will guide your reading: Think about specific questions that you need to, or would like to find answers for. Read any focus questions at the end of the reading. 17
  18. 18. If there are headings in the material, turn the headings into questions. For example, if the heading is Qualitative and Quantitative Research, your question might be: „What is the difference between these two types of research?‟ 3. Make a list of your questions. You will use them during revision to help you remember what you have read.R1 = ReadBe prepared to READ material twice. First, read withoutmaking notes: 1. Look for the author‟s plan. Read any headings, abstracts or summaries. This will give you an idea of the main thesis. 2. Look for answers to the questions you first raised. 3. Compare diagrams and illustrations with the written text. Often you will understand more from them. 4. Make sure you understand what you are reading. Reduce your reading speed for difficult passages. Stop and reread parts which are not clear. 18
  19. 19. 5. If you have difficulty understanding a text, look up difficult words in the dictionary or glossary of terms and reread. If the meaning of a word or passage still evades you, leave it and read on. Perhaps after more reading you will find it more accessible and the meaning will become clear. Speak to your tutor if your difficulty continues. 6. Question the author‟s reasoning. Is each point justified? Is there enough evidence? What is it? 7. Use personal experience as a memory aid. When the author makes a claim, reflect on your own experience to support or disprove it. This will help you remember and understand. But keep in mind that you are using personal experience only as a memory aid—it is not sufficient to prove or refute a research finding!On your second reading, begin to take notes: 1. Note down the main idea(s) of each paragraph. This is often the first or last sentence. 2. Look for important details (supporting evidence, written illustrations of points, provisions or alternatives). Examples can be good cues for your memory. 3. Take notes from the text, but write information in your own words. 19
  20. 20. 4. In your notes, underline or highlight the important points. This will be useful for later revision.R2 = RecallYou should now try to recall what you have read. 1. Close the book. 2. Make notes of what you remember. 3. Check their accuracy against the notes you made during your reading. 4. Return to the reading. Read one section at a time and try to recall what you have read. It can also be helpful to RECITE ideas aloud to help you remember.R3 = ReviewNow Review what you have read. At the end of your studyperiod, check the accuracy of your notes against theoriginal material (if you have underlined the main points,this should be simple!). This is an important part of theprocess because it can really help you remember what youhave studied. The next day: 20
  21. 21. 1. Read through your notes to reacquaint yourself with the main points. 2. Now read through the questions you noted down and try to answer them from memory. 3. Try doing the same thing after a few daysSEVEN STARATEGIESActivatingPriming the cognitive pump" in order to recall relevantprior knowledge and experiences from long-term memoryin order to extract and construct meaning from textInferringBringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, whatis unspoken (unwritten) in the text, and what is alreadyknown by the reader in order to extract and constructmeaning from the textMonitoring- clarifyingThinking about how and what one is reading, both duringand after the act of reading, for purposes of determining ifone is comprehending the text combined with the ability toclarify and fix up any mix-ups 21
  22. 22. QuestioningEngaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers,and teachers through self-questioning, question generation,and question answeringSearching- selectingSearching a variety of sources in order to select appropriateinformation to answer questions, define words and terms,clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gatherinformationSummarizingRestating the meaning of text in ones own words —different words from those used in the original textVisualizing - OrganizingConstructing a mental image or graphic organizer for thepurpose of extracting and constructing meaning from thetext 22
  23. 23. Tips for Active ReadingReading at university = reading with apurpose Successful study at uni is often about meeting competing demands and deadlines, so you need to get the most out of your reading in the limited time available. Before you begin, make sure you have identified a) the purpose for doing the reading and b) what you need to achieve. Always read with a purpose in mind. Before you begin, you should have an idea of why you are reading and what you are looking for/ what you want to achieve. Are you reading? to locate specific information? to understand difficult ideas? to gain an overview of something? to enjoy words and descriptions (as in poetry and some prose)? to relax and escape into a novel? Think about the way you would read to get a broad idea of what an article might be about, compared to how you would read to understand a complex and detailed concept - you might use previewing for the first task and intensive or critical reading for the second (more about this in the Reading Strategies section). 23
  24. 24. Working out why you are reading something (what youneed to achieve) will determine the way you will read it (orwhich reading strategies to use).Be selective about what you readUni study requires a lot of reading within a limited time, soit is important to be selective about what you read. Youneed to make decisions about what is essential. Establish which readings are required for your particular course and which are suggested (not compulsory). In some courses required readings take the form of a Course „Reader‟ or textbook; in others your lecturer/ tutor will indicate what is essential. There will be times when you need to read an entire article or chapter in detail. At other times you may be looking for specific information relating to an assignment topic and only a couple of pages or even a couple of paragraphs in a text will be useful. Once you locate the parts of a text that are going to be most relevant you may not need to read the rest. 24
  25. 25. How to select? Know what you are looking for (i.e. have a purpose) Identify key words to help you search Look for these key words when browsing the table of contents and index of a book for relevant pages Obtain an overview to further narrow down the „possibly useful‟ fieldFocus on the question/ task Ask yourself what it is you must find out. Identify questions you want to answer; actively look for those answers and evidence to inform them. Identify a few topic key words to look for If you are reading for a specific assignment read with a copy of the question/ task on hand so you don‟t waste time reading irrelevant material.Any prior knowledge of a topic you are reading about, andlinking new material with your past experience will helpyou read more effectively. 25
  26. 26. Ask yourself what you already know or think about this topic (from lectures, from other reading, from what you have heard or seen). If you have a reading list, select a source that might offer a good starting point. If the topic or material is new, begin with a general introductory text and read slowly. Read any related questions to the reading before doing the reading; they may be questions at the back of the chapter or the essay/assignment question. Identify your expectations - what do you think it will be about? Ask yourself questions about the topic. Change the title, headings and subheadings into questions or ask yourself what you want to find out.You will remember more if you read with questions in yourmind, rather than adopting the „sponge‟ approach - simplytrying to absorb everything. 26
  27. 27. Break reading into manageable segmentsIf you are finding reading overwhelming, break the readingup into manageable segments (e.g. chapters, individualarticles, a specific number of pages). Identify your purpose and the time you have available Set yourself a goal (for example, decide to read for a set length of time or a certain number of pages). Reward yourself with a break when you‟ve completed it. The tasks and goals may be large or small, depending on what needs to be achieved.Keep track of what you readAlways note where information and ideas come from.Record details of author, title, place of publication,publisher and date so that you can find the text again ifnecessary. Always record page numbers with any notes youtake. Yours faithfully FYBFMGroup no 5Date:-8th March 2012Place: - Mumbai 27