The important of visual art education among secondary school students
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The important of visual art education among secondary school students The important of visual art education among secondary school students Document Transcript

  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 EDU 702 THE IMPORTANT OF PSV AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Prepare For: Dr Johan Eddy Luaran Prepared By: Muhammad Ridha Faisal Bin Rosli Kamal 2013426796
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students Research Proposal By Muhammad Ridha Faisal EDU 702
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 1 1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.1 Background of the study ....................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Statement of the research problem ...................................................................................... 3 1.3 Research objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.4 Research questions……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.5 Operational definition…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.6 Limitation of the study………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.7 Significance of the study……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.8 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. CHAPTER 2 (LITERATURE REVIEW)................................................................................................. 4 2.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Concept ................................................................................................................................. 6 2.2 Theory.................................................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Relationships between variables........................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 3 (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY) ...................................................................................... 9 3.0 Research Design .................................................................................................................. 10 3.1 Population and Sampling .................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Instrumentation .................................................................................................................. 12 3.3 Validity and Reliability ......................................................................................................... 13 3.4 Data Collection .................................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 15
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Visual art or Pendidikan Seni Visual (PSV) is a chosen subject at the level of Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) for the literature and art students in most schools in Malaysia. Students begin to take this subject from Form 1 in middle school and before it since standard five in primary school and it is a compulsory subject at this level. PSV is a visual art and not a type of music, literature or martial arts. PSV in high school or secondary school stresses more on the process of making something with understandings, focuses and critics. It is aimed to improve students’ creativity besides giving positive values in it. Its curriculum involves fine art, visual communication, design and traditional craft. The students are applied to the appreciation of the visual arts heritage and hoped that the students will practice and apply the knowledge they gained to enhance the value of life (Ministry of Education, 2002). Its objective to be taught in high schools is to shape the students’ personality to be the generations of Malaysia who knew the culture, have high aesthetic values, imaginative, critical thinking, creative and innovative and also can be contributed to the development of self, family, community and country as what has been stated by the National Education Philosophy. From the experience of teaching this subject, a number of problems of teaching have been identified in the process of teaching and learning (P&P) in the class (Ministry of Education, 2002). Among the objectives of the high school’s PSV intended to appreciate the beauty of Allah’s creation, foster the culture of research in the process of producing works of art, enhancing knowledge, creativity, innovation, discipline and skills in visual arts which can be practiced in life and career, using a variety of skills, media, techniques and technology to create craft items and quality product of visual art, make description, analysis, interpretation and evaluation of works of visual art, and finally is to gain more value in the disciplines of science, technology and other subjects (Ministry of Education, 2002).
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 From this PSV curriculum organization, it is divided into two areas, namely the production of visual art as well as history and appreciation of visual art. Both of these areas will provide students new skills. For this purpose, the teacher's responsibility is to integrate the two fields in teaching and learning. In addition, both of this field is aimed towards the objective of FPN for the construction of individual, family, community and country. So, in the PSV curriculum organization, there are many aspects that are important in shaping students which is required in the National Philosophy of Education, teachers should strive to change the perception among students that PSV is the subject of the second class, the choice and does not need to be taught in P&P.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 1.1 Background of the study According to (Suppiah Nachiappan, John Male, Abdul Aziz Shukor 2007) Art is very important in all of our lives because it enhances our understanding to problem solve, boosts our creative thinking and heightens self-expression. It is also considered a form of entertainment, not only for ourselves but for the entertainment of others as well There is no information of learning among students to learn PSV is that they are less interested on the subject, this situation stems from the diversity of the student or individual differences in the classroom. This includes aspects of individual differences physically, emotionally, mentally, socially, culturally, personality, language, religion, cognitive style and temperament. These aspects create problems to the teaching and learning for teachers and students. According to (Suppiah Nachiappan, John Male, Abdul Aziz Shukor, 2007)most of the students are not interested to study the subject in the classroom, for example, at the beginning of the chapter will provide students with the Basic Design of introducing art elements such as line, appearance, shape, space, thread and color. This syllabus content is considered normal for students, despite the fact that they should be more aware of formally and systematically. According to (Suppiah Nachiappan, John Male, Abdul Aziz Shukor, 2007) therefore, teachers should be able to control emotions of them first and be sensitive to the emotional intelligence of students in the class. The sensitive teacher will be able to predict her students’ mood swings as emotional feelings represent that person and teacher can easily master and launching the control of delivery of P&P in the class. It was a detrimental thing if the students are eager to learn, but was stopped by emotional. Emotion is the inner nature of a person, the emotional impact will affect behavior and how to control his emotions requires skill to be learns), this situation is to ensure that teachers are always able to control the emotions themselves or its emotional students. One problem is that PSV subtopics learning requires talent award and interest to produce works of art that really interesting and can be evaluated. Talent is a gift and every man will bring their own talent. Talent in singing, drawing, storytelling and acting are examples of the talent available. Interest also is the high tendency of individuals on one activity and it is universal according to (Suppiah Nachiappan, John Male, Abdul Aziz Shukor, 2007). For example, in the production of Fine Arts, students will produce works such as drawings, paintings, sculptures and prints. All subtopics actually require talent and passion and determination to create formation
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 works of fine art. Two students make excuses for not being talented and are not interested in producing a work of art and thus make them not want to learn.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 1.2 Statement of the research problem From the learning problems that are less interested in PSV is also closely related to students' achievement. It is connected to PSV syllabus visual communication that requires students to make graphics and multimedia, and require students to use technology, software and internet. This situation makes the students of the categories visual-spatial intelligence is very keen to learn. However, not all students have a level of visual-spatial intelligence, as pointed out in Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983). This will lead to students who have a variety of intelligence such as verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist and existentialism became less interested or not interested if PSV of P&P is carried out. For students with visual-spatial intelligence, they usually have no problem to engage in all art activities as their ability can observe visually the outside world. They were able to relate the three-dimensional picture and shadow, this type of student is rich in imagination and creativity in things that involve visual, if they are trained and their talents are discovered, usually the students will be leading artists, architects, sculptors and fantastic designers. Teachers need to be aware of multiple intelligence in the classroom before running P&P as the students who are not interested to study the subject of PSV should not be in confinement, by using theoretical modeling, these students should be given representation. The picture is suitable to be an example of their friends who have visual-spatial intelligence, commitment and determination to describe their partners in producing a work of art, showing the beautiful artworks and focused work that can be pursued to be active in this visual art. However, there was not much studies be carried out to investigate PSV and secondary school, there for this study the gap. Divergence is currently expected in teaching the subject Visual Art Education at upper secondary Malaysian schools. This is due to the fact that the teaching of this subject is unlike teaching other subjects offered at that level. The deciphering of knowledge is dependent on the experience of the teacher. The unavailability of a formal text book further exaggerates this.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 1.3 Research objectives The research objectives of this study are: I) To examine student’s level of interest in learning PSV in classroom. II) To investigate the causes of the student’s motivation in learning PSV in the classroom. III) To identify ways to help student’s motivation in learning PSV in the classroom. 1.4 Research questions The research questions for this study are: I) What are the levels of student interest in learning PSV in the classroom? II) What are the causes of the student’s motivation in learning PSV in the classroom? III) What are the ways to help student’s motivation in learning PSV in the classroom?
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 1.5 Operational definitions 1.5.1 Art is a tool for thinking, for both adults and for children (Bae, 2004; Kolbe, 2001; Millikan, 2003; Rauch 2001; Svendson, 2004). Connected closely to the process of thinking, and the clarification of ideas which are inherent in art, is the way art making helps children to make meaning. This is part of the multi-modal and multi-dimensional aspect of art, which encompasses many ways of knowing and expressing thoughts and feelings in one process (Rauch, 2001; Wright, 2003). In the research, art refers to the visual arts are part of the historical record of every culture and historical period known to human beings. 1.5.2 According to Kenneth M.Lansing (1973) in his book Art, Artist and Art Education stated that arts education activities for which there can serve as a communication branch. The ability of teachers in delivering lessons and use the correct methods will meet. In addition, teachers need to understand and master the curriculum and syllabus Visual Arts. Skills of teachers in curriculum work focusing on the development of specific knowledge and skills upgrading using a variety of approaches and techniques. Art education is one of the core subjects in the general education curriculum for secondary schools and in art teacher training program. However despite the national oriented curriculum that stresses cultural, social, and political, the influence of British studio-based art teaching still persists and dominates school art programs (Jin Leng, 1980; Hassan, 1978). The school art syllabus indicates that "a large proportion of the time should be spent on picture making and allied subjects, figure and landscape painting and drawing" (Syllabus, secondary school, 1969). 1.5.3 In Theory of Human Fitness, Gardner (1983) suggests that there are seven types of fitness but most schools emphasize fitness linguistics and mathematics only. Other fitness may be lost. This theory supports the arts should be given an important role in the curriculum, as humans acquire knowledge through a variety of plenty of fitness and also through teaching techniques. By using a balanced approach to studying form, theme, and context of an artwork, learners can create as well as discern layers of meaning in visual language, as revealed in the following equation: Form+Theme+Context (FTC) = Art (Sandell, 2006, 2009). In exploring form, or how the work “is,” learners differentiate an artist’s many structural decision, embedded in the creative process, that lead to a final product. By examining the themes, or what the work is about, learners explore what the artist expresses through a selected overarching concept or “Big Idea” (Walker,
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 2001) that reveals the artist’s expressive viewpoint relating art to life as well as other disciplines. In investigating context(s), or when, where, by/for whom, and why the art was created (and valued), learners comprehend the authentic nature of artwork by probing the conditions for and under which the art was created from our contemporary perspective, as well as those of foreign and previous cultures. 1.6 Limitation of the study The small sample size of this study might not allow the findings of the study to be generalize able to all secondary school students in this country. Besides that, this study this not an action research, hence the suggested ways to overcome the importance of PSV among secondary school student that might think PSV not important. 1.7 Significance of the study In this situation, teachers should not be blamed simply because it is impossible for the science teacher to have the talent or interest in art production who is directed by school administration to teach PSV. Factors such as teacher ability and profession of subject they teach are very difficult to solve the learning problems in PSV which involves talents and interests. However, in the PSV syllabus, there are ways and techniques of art productions; teachers’ initiative is needed to sharpen interest in the production of artwork though teachers had no talent. At least the teacher should be able to produce a painting of beautiful scenery on the views of students and is sufficient for these students and the idea of making it as a model to create their artwork. When these students became interested in the work of earlier teacher, they will become more interested in producing work almost same or better than the work of the teacher, the theoretical model of Dr. Bandura can be applied to this problem. PSV subtopics in the syllabus are taught about traditional crafts and new dimensions, this title requires students to learn the basics of pottery, batik, wood carving, weaving and embroidery art (Ministry of Education, 2002). The problem here is students’ creativity is needed because students will produce motifs or patterns of their own before translated into actual sculptures. Problems arise when students are divided into two large groups, indirectly.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 Primarily, the aim of this research is to offer contribution to the enhancement of the Visual Art education in Malaysia. This area of study has long been regarded as insignificant and merely as an add-on to the other subjects in the Malaysian academic scenario. This perception must be eradicated from the minds of the Malaysian public, both within the school and in general. Therefore, it is hoped that with this research, the significant contributions derived from the Visual Art subject is being given prominence and is highlighted. It is also hoped that with the findings from this research, certain measures could be taken by the authority bodies to improve the quality of teaching of this subject for the benefit of our future generation. Teaching and learning of the subject Visual Art (Pendidikan Seni Visual) in Malaysian high schools would be greatly standardized and enhanced by the utilization of appropriate teaching aids. 1.8 Conclusion This chapter has covered the background of the study, the statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the research questions, the significance of the research, the operational definition of terms used in this study and the limitation of this study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be presented in the next chapter.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter presents the previous researches which are connected to the concept or theories and past research according to the importance of PSV among secondary school students. In this study, the researcher concerns for those have been studying about this topic. Any researcher will always refer to the previous research that has studied related topic; it is because prior knowledge any specific area is important to researchers (Sulaiman, 2004). He also stated that it’s very much necessary to refer to the researchers that already exist. In this chapter, researcher has emphasized on a sub topic on the level of student in secondary school interest in learning PSV. The most important instrument researcher used in this study is The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). The researcher has focused on the student interest level in learning PSV in secondary school; this study is very important and useful for teacher and students. It is because after the researcher completely doing their research; people may know the relationship between these two variables. After complete this study, the researcher also can use this finding to prepare their self after be posting to school later. They also can be more confident and responsible for doing the school work in order to increase their student academic achievement.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 2.1 Conceptual Framework The concept of art has undergone centuries of development from Socrates to modern-day theorists. Therefore, there are numerous definitions of art. According to F. ROBERT SABOL, Ph.D. President, National Art Education Association is Art is one of the universal languages all human beings understand and use to communicate. We use art to understand who we are, our places in the world, and the meaning of our lives. We use art to express ourselves and to speak to others across time and place. Human beings have an essential drive to create and understand visual imagery. This drive is one of the basic traits that make us human. The power of the visual arts to enrich human experience and society is recognized and celebrated throughout the world. Art and the visual arts are part of the historical record of every culture and historical period known to human beings. It may be said that all we know about some past civilizations is found entirely in the record of art and artifacts their people left behind. The visual arts have been used to capture and express a wide array of values, beliefs, and ideas embraced by people from around the world and from every period of history. The visual arts have been used to educate, persuade, commemorate, and problem solve. In fact daily we are dependent upon the visual arts to make sense of the world in which we live. We continuously are inundated with innumerable visual images and messages on television, computers, digital communications devices, and in the printed media. Neuroscience has shown that a significant portion of the human brain is devoted to understanding visual stimulation and to decoding visual messages we receive through our sense of vision. We do this by using all of our higher order thinking skills, memory, and education. In our contemporary society, the visual arts and dependence upon visual imagery is essential in communicating and understanding the information we need to live our lives. In order to fully understand visual imagery and its meaning, it is essential that all people receive an art infused education. Such an education enables people to become informed citizens, critical thinkers, creative problem solvers and productive members of society. The visual arts can be an important and rich domain of learning for young children. In PreK education, The Task Force on Children’s Learning and the Arts: Birth to Age Eight (Young children and the arts: Making creative connections, Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, 1998) recommends that art experiences for young children include activities
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 designed to introduce children to works of art that are high quality and developmentally appropriate in both content and presentation. Angela Eckhoff, 2007 In spite of the rhetoric of arts advocates who speak of art as a basic subject alongside English, math, and science, art education do not exhibit the characteristics of a “basic” discipline and consequently remains on the margins of secondary education (Hope 2006).1 Education policies contribute to the art education’s current status in the high school curriculum. The National Association of State Boards of Education describes the marginalized status of the arts and recommends incorporating the arts into core graduation requirements, admission standards for colleges, and accountability measurements, as well as increasing the frequency of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) arts assessment (Meyer 2005). Until such policies are implemented, teachers must find ways to foster support for their art programs and make authentic curricular encounters with the visual arts a possibility for a broad range of students. One response to the lack of supportive arts education policy is the College Board’s Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art Program, a visual arts assessment at the high school level. The College Board oversees the AP program and thus has a substantial influence on secondary curriculum, teaching, and assessment, and on the large number of teachers and students involved with the program. The structure of the AP portfolios, furthermore, helps shape a definition of college-level foundational skills that occasionally conflicts with current arts education ideology. It is useful to ask how an evaluation that removes artistic production from the context of its creation can support the complexities of artistic practice and knowledge. Our analysis of this program and our professional experiences generated questions about assessment; advocacy, foundational knowledge, and the changing character of art making that are relevant to future research and policy development in high school art education. This includes issues concerning the power of representation the formation of cultural identities, functions of creative production, the meanings of visual narratives critical reflection on technological pervasiveness and the importance of interdisciplinary connections The focus in recent decade son fine arts disciplines in the U.S. art curriculum and standardized testing has resulted in the exclusion of such critical aspects of visual culture in art education. In fact, these aspects of the visual arts have been given more attention in "non art" school subjects such as anthropology and sociology and feminist, cultural, and media studies (Collins, 1989; Mirzoeff, 1998; Scollon & Scollon, 1995; Sturken & Cartwright, 2001).
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 As a result, knowledge of what has traditionally been considered fine art objects and "good" taste can no longer be seen as the only visual cultural capital to serve elementary, secondary or higher education students. Fine art is still great value in Education and an important part of historical and contemporary visual culture; however, the Broader, creative, and critical exploration of visual culture, and its local, state, national, and Global meanings is a more appropriate focus if we want students to understand the importance of visual culture. However, the more that is learned about visual culture, the better we can grasp the concept of identity; and the more that is learned about the various members of a particular group, the more richly we can understand their visual culture (Stuhr, 1999). Others .It also helps us to understand why and how students respond to visual culture as they do (Ballengee-Morris& Stuhr, 2001; Freedman & Wood. 1999). We are now experiencing technology as reality and appropriate visual culture as life experience turning it into attitudes, actions, and even consciousness (Rushkoff, 1994). As a part of the process of concept formation in education, the arts have often been dichotomously categorized inhibiting understanding and reducing the complexity of visual culture. The process of learning new concepts does involve dichotomous distinctions. For example, children with pets may begin to learn that a cow is a cow by learning that is not a dog or a cat; they learn to discern one style of painting by learning its differences from other styles (Gardner, 1972). Making meaning from complex visual cultural forms occurs through at least three overlapping methods: (a) communication (b) suggestion and (c) appropriation (Freedman, 2003). The increasing number of visual culture objects and images shapes not only art education in the 2lst century but also the intergraphical and inter textual connections between visual forms (Freedman2, 000, 2003).The critical necessity of teaching visual culture in this context is seen in the lack of serious debate even in the "free" media as it becomes increasingly focused on entertainment (Aronowitz, 1994; Morley, 1992). In order to reconceptualize curriculum in this way, it is necessary to understand curriculum as a process rather than as a single text. The process of curriculum is its product. Curriculum is not a unified whole. It is a collage of bits of information based on knowledge (Freedman, 2000, 2003).Criteria for assessment must be developed through community debate, but not allowed to be trivialized through excessive fragmentation and over assessment (Boughton, 1991, 1997').
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 Art education is no different in the dissolution of its boundaries from other areas and disciplines. Postmodernism and advances in computer and media technologies have enabled boundary erosion that has prompted new ways of conceptualizing subject areas and what constitutes important disciplinary knowledge. As a result, new methods for investigation and data collection are continually being invented and developed. The arts figure prominently in these new methodological configurations (Barone & Eisner, 1997; Gaines & Renow, 1999: Prosser1998; Rose, 2001). The new conception of curriculum and student artistic inquiry opens up the possibility of moving away from these problems. A curriculum based on visual culture takes into consideration Students daily, postmodern experiences and their future lives. Most students will not be professional artists, but all students need to become responsible citizens of the world. In a democracy an aim of education is to promote the development of responsible citizens who think critically, act constructively in an informed manner and collaborate in the conscious formation of personal and communal identities. ln order for art curriculum to fulfill this aim in the contemporary context, students' studio experience must be thought to as part of visual culture and as a vital way to come to understand the visual milieu in which they live. Student studio experience is essential to teaching and learning about visual culture because it (a) is a process of creating/critical inquiry, (b) helps students understand the complexities of visual culture, and (c) connects and empowers people. Perhaps the people most influenced by visual culture are children and adolescents Students incorporate the social codes, language and values of visual culture into their lives (Freedman& Wood, 1999; Tavin, 2001).Visual culture influences student’s knowledge, affects their identity construction and shapes their aesthetic sensibilities. Recently, general curriculum theorists have been struggling with the project of re conceptualizing curriculum from postmodern perspectives (Giroux, 1992; Pinar, 1988; Pinar, Reynolds, Slattery, & Taubman, 1996). This project is a response to the many social and cultural changes that are now influencing students' lives. The project of developing appropriate educational responses to such change is increasingly important as societies and cultures leave the secure thinking of modernistic forms of education, where knowledge and inquiry methods are represented as stable and curriculum is intended to be reproduced. For example, postmodern curriculum theorists point out that
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 curriculum is not a neutral enterprise; it is a matter of selection. As a result, the curriculum contains and reflects the interests of individuals and social groups. Patrick Slattery (1995) has argued that curriculum expresses autobiography because it is created by human beings who leave parts of themselves in their teaching and writing.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 2.2 Theory/Theories In Malaysia, there seems to be a perception that Art education is secondary to other subjects such as Mathematics, Science or English. This inferiority label has been a stigma to many Malaysian Art teachers. There seems to be an unspoken perception about the subject Visual Art being a sub-standard subject as compared to other subjects. Preference was not given to this subject over other subjects because they are deemed as being less “important”. This fact was verified not only by the Art teachers themselves, but also agreed by the person in authority at the Ministry level where there has been cases of schools channeling funds allocated for Visual Art subject to be used for other purposes or that other subjects were being taught during Visual Art period. The Visual Art Education subject is an elective subject offered at upper secondary level (form 4 and 5) and is mandatory at lower secondary (form 1, 2 and 3). Even though it is a compulsory subject at lower secondary level, this paper is not being offered at the form 3 Middle Secondary Examination (PMR). Whereas at the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination at form 5 (SPM), it is offered as an elective subject and is compulsory for all Art stream students. The Visual Art Education syllabus taught in Malaysian high schools has been without a formal text book since its inclusion in the Malaysian education syllabus. Teachers were being guided by a syllabus drawn up by the Curriculum Development Authority under the Ministry of Education (PPK). At the same time, there is also an unofficial teacher’s guide produced by PPK as well as numerous other independent book publishers published books in accordance to the art syllabus acting as supplementary teaching resources for the teachers. At the same time, there are suppliers who provide teaching aids to complement the teaching of this subject based on their own interpretation of the curriculum. Most often, schools with students taking Art as part of their mandatory subject in major examinations would be relying on these aids as part of their presentation in the class. They usually come in the form of colored transparencies to be used with an OHP, printed charts or as an example to tackle a particular exam question – depicting actual idea as interpreted by the supplier. On another note, the teaching of Visual Art as a subject relies quite heavily on the experience and interpretation of the teacher. This in a way closely resembles the master and apprentice
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 way of teaching. Being a subject which is unlike other subjects such as English, Science or Mathematics, in other word, an inexperience teacher would teach the student only up to the level of their own knowledge and exposure in Visual Art as compared to a teacher with vast experience in related field would be able to provide a more comprehensive knowledge of the subject at macro level 3.Therefore, discrepancies can be anticipated in the quality of teaching the subject between an experienced and a novice Art teacher. In 2007, the Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School (AISS) marked its 40 years of supporting students with visual impairments. The Open Education Program, which supports a total of 17 students with visual impairments, constitutes an integral part of the school’s provisions (AISS, 2007). 2.3 Important PSV (Visual Art) in secondary school student The most important is to coordinate with the Ministry of Education and the Lighthouse School to place students in integration or attachment centers and supporting and facilitating students' participation in the instructional program in class by providing Braille textbooks, worksheets, and practice papers; transcribing materials from Braille to print and print to Braille; recording printed material in audio formats; teaching students to use special equipment, such as talking scientific calculators, talking and braille dictionaries, and geometric drawing kits; and providing remedial lessons to students who have difficulty coping with class lessons. Other than that, teaching Braille to students with low or diminishing vision. However, teaching students to use computers with screen readers and related assistive technology and counseling students with problems related to academic studies, social interaction in and outside school, psychological stress, and personal decorum and social etiquette. Other than that, assisting students in participating in extracurricular activities and other programs of the school and upgrading. Beside that acquiring new equipment for the resource room and conferring with the mainstream teaching staff members about the needs and abilities of students with visual impairments.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 2.4 Conclusion Researches from previous studies have proved that PSV (visual art education)among student is one of the causes that make students do not want to participate in classroom and it is crucial to help students overcome this problem in order for them to be able to become active participants in visual art activities so that they can maximize the learning outcomes as well as to equip them with good creative skills that will need when they graduate from school.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 CHAPTER 3 3.1 INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to look at genders critical thinking style. This study attempts to ascertain the relationship between critical thinking and academic achievement. The variable is genders and academic achievements among Art Education Students of UiTM Shah Alam. In this chapter, the researcher will discuss about the methods and the steps which will be carried out in this research. The research methodology is one of the vital parts in doing research because without these methods planned beforehand, every research and study shall find a dead end. Besides, in this methodology chapter, the researcher has to state a few important matters which are research design, the setting of the research, the research samples and the population of the research, the research instrument, also data collection. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN This survey employs a survey method and it is descriptive in nature. This study adopts a quantitative approach since the area of research has been theoretically grounded. Students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups using the Research Randomizer (Urbaniak&Plous, 1997) where blocks of three were filled as students completed eligibility criteria. The independent variable for this study was critical thinking programs. The dependent variables were post-test scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test2000 and the students' academic achievement as determined by their final grade. A demographic survey to collect descriptive data about the subjects in this study was one of the instruments used in this study. Developed by this researcher, the survey was composed of few questions regarding the characteristics of the sample population. Basic descriptive statistics were used to summarize students' demographic information from the demographic survey such as sex, age, class level, and school.
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 As for the questionnaires, they will be only be divided into 4 Section A, and B. The division is made to facilitate the respondents to answer the given questions and also to help the researcher to analyze the answer later. (i) Section A – Students’ demographic information The purpose of section A is to gather the information and data on the respondents’ personal details such as gender, form and age. This section will use nominal scales in which numbers and symbols in some categories are used. 1. Gender [ ] Male [ ] Female Figure 3.1: Example of a Nominal item (ii) Section B – Critical Thinking Test 15 items for each motivation and interest have been used from Visual Art (2008). 3.3 INSTRUMENT There are various types of instrument which can be used to join and collect the information and the data needed for this ongoing research. If any of the research, the research instrument is important to achieve the objective required in one research. While for this research, the instrument that will be used is the survey method. This instrument was administered to students in class and students were given 30 minutes to respond to the 15 items in the questionnaire were given. The items for questionnaire are based on critical thinking for students. There are four passages in this test. Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 passage, they need to choose the correct answer option. They may refer to the passages as often as necessary. 3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLES There were 168 students, from 168 students. This research sample will be done by 50 Students of School in Shah Alam who come from two classes. The questionnaires will be given and distributed to these respondents of lower secondary school student and upper secondary school student. Overall, a total of 50 questionnaires will be handed to the Secondary School Students in Shah Alam. These students are chosen because they pursue a Secondary School Students in Shah Alam. Besides that, respondents from form 3 and form 4 are a little bit have extra free time compared to students from form 5. Semester Number of respondents Percentage (%) 1 25 50 2 25 50 Total 50 100 In this section, the respondents have to answer 15 questions which contain multiple choices of questions (MCQ) which use the multiple choices scale. 3.5 DATA COLLECTIONS In this chapter researcher has started collecting the research problems with collected data related. The purpose of this data collection is to analyze information afar. Permission to conduct this research was this research was sought from the lecturer from the subject to use his or her time for students form 3 and form 4 answer the questionnaire. After getting permission to distribute a questionnaire, the researcher does a pilot study to check validity and reliability of the instruments from the expert. After meeting teacher from the class, she gives researchers to
  • The important of PSV among secondary school students EDU 702 relief class for 40 minutes, after 40 minutes researcher has collected the GEFT test from the students at the same day. 50 GEFT tests were distributed and 50 GEFT tests were collected. 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS It can be used to do a lot of statically analysis and data management in the graphic management (ZaidatunTasir& M. Salleh Abu, 2003). In order to examine research objective number one, is to examine the level of academic achievement among secondary school students in Shah Alam this research use frequency and statistic. In order to examine research objective number two, where to investigate the relationship between motivation and academic achievement among secondary school students in Shah Alam by use Pearson correlation. In order to examine research objective number three is there any significant difference between motivation and academic achievement among secondary school students in Shah Alam by use regression. In order to examine research objective number four, is to examine the level of critical thinking among secondary school students in Shah Alam m by frequencies and percentage.
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