Sem Sep – Dec 2013
Instruction: Answer all questions.
Part A (10 marks)
1. Descriptive, associational and intervention are the general research types. Which of the
following statement is true about the general research?
I. Single-subject research is classified under descriptive research
II. Surveys research is classified under descriptive research.
III. Correlation research is classified under associational research.
IV. Experimental research is classified under intervention research
A. I & II only
B. II & III only
C. II , III and IV only
D. I, II, III and IV
2. Which of the following is not a good research question?
A. Does the e-Biology strategy increase analytic thinking skill?
B. To what factors do successful teachers attribute their success?
C. Is it good to introduce role play as an important teaching method?
D. Is the mathematical thinking skill higher for students who attend the course than for
those who do not?
Which of the following statement is FALSE?
A. The essential characteristic of a researchable question is that there is some sort of data
that can be collected in an attempt to answer a question.
B. The essential characteristic of a researchable question is that by answering the
question a significant positive consequence will effect society.
C. In order for a question to qualify as a research question, the researcher must be able to
make observations and then analyze these to find an answer.
D. Good research questions are feasible, clear, significant, and ethical.
4. The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment is called as indicated below
A. Manipulated variable
B. Dependent variable
C. Independent variable
D. Experimental or treatment variable
5. Which of the following statement is FALSE?
A. Each study must has hypothesis
B. Most intervention and associational research is conducted to test a research hypothesis.
C. Descriptive research is conducted to describe the characteristics of what is studied.
D. A hypothesis can be described as a prediction of some sort regarding the possible
outcomes of a study.
6. Which of the following statement is TRUE?
A. All subjects in a research study should be made aware that data collected during
research is available to the scientific community at large.
B. If some of the results in a research study are different from the others, it is
appropriate to delete the different ones.
C. Children as research subjects present problems for researchers that are no different
from those of adult subjects.
D. Involving a group of fifth-graders in a research study that may harm them
psychologically without informing them of this fact is considered an ethical practice.
7. Educational researchers ultimately want the answer to a research question to pertain to
A. target population
B. accessible population
8. If a researcher selected five schools at random and then interviewed each of the
teachers in those five schools, the researcher used
A. simple random sampling
B. cluster random sampling
C. stratified random sampling
D. two-stage random sampling
9. Which of the following statement is true about sampling?
I. Convenience sampling is an example of a nonrandom sampling method.
II. Cluster random is a random sampling method.
III. Systematic sampling is not a random sampling method.
IV. Two-stage random sampling is an example of a random sampling method.
I & II only
II & III only
II , III and IV only
I, II, III and IV
10. Which of the following statement is true about sampling?
A two-stage random sample is a sample selected because the individuals have
special qualifications of some sort, or because of prior evidence of
II. A simple random sample is a sample selected from a population in such a
manner that all members of the population have an equal chance of being
III. When a study is replicated, it is repeated with a new sample and sometimes
under somewhat new conditions.
IV. A group of individuals that is conveniently available to be studied is called a
I & II only
II & III only
II , III and IV only
I, II, III and IV
Part B (10 marks)
The following are descriptions about studies conducted by a researcher. .
A study is conducted to learn a group of targeted local residents’ lifestyles in a
village. The researcher spends six months living with the residents. The researcher
interviews many residents, participates as much as possible in daily activities, and
documents the activities of daily living.
A study to find out if using concept maps can increase achievement.
A study to find out how a faculty feels about a particular administrator.
A study to find out what sorts of arguments have been made in the past as to what
should be included in the social studies curriculum for year two students in a
A study to identify better ways to serve special education students in a specified
A study to see if any relationships exist between students’ study habits and their
achievement in mathematics.
Based on the above information, answer the following questions:
a) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be an experimental research
b) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be a correlation research study?
c) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be a survey research study?
d) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be an ethnographic research
e) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be a historical research study?
f) Which of the above research studies is most likely to be an action research study?
A researcher conducted an experiment to see if increasing water consumption lessens the
visible effects of rosacea, a common skin condition.
a) The dependent variable in this experiment is _______
b) The independent variable in this experiment is _________
c) The response variable in this experiment is ________
d) The experimental variable in this experiment is ________
Part C (5 marks): Answer one of the following question
1. Define characteristics of studies that use the scientific method
2. Briefly describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative research.
2. a) the visible condition of the skin
b) the amount of water consumed
c) the visible condition of the skin
d) the amount of water consumed
the research procedures are public. Methods must be clearly identified in a study so
that others can replicate the study
the research outcomes are public. Results must be clearly identified in a study so that
others can replicate the study
conclusions are tentative and subject to change. A single study provides a tentative
answer to a research question. This answer might have to be modified as the results of
similar studies become available. This does not invalidate the scientific method since
there is no method of knowing that provides complete proof or truth. The scientific
method is a systematic means for using several methods of knowing to arrive at
rational conclusions that can be publicly scrutinized
Quantitative researchers usually base their work on the belief that fact and feelings can be
separated and the world is a single reality made up of facts that can be discovered.
Additionally, quantitative researchers try to establish relationships between variables and look
for and explain the causes of relationships. Quantitative research has general formulated steps
that guide researchers in their work, and their research designs generally are pre-established.
The ideal role in quantitative research is detached observer and, in most, the prototypical
study is the experiment and quantitative researchers want to establish generalizations that go
beyond the immediate situation.
In contrast, qualitative researchers assume that the world is made up of multiple
realities, socially constructed by different individual views of the same situation. Additionally,
qualitative researchers are concerned with understanding situations and events from the
viewpoint of the participants. Qualitative researchers have greater flexibility in strategies and
techniques; their designs emerge during the course of the research. The prototypical study is
an ethnography. Qualitative researchers typically do not generalize beyond the particular
situation; and if they do generalize, it is very limited.