Chapter 1: Intro to Funds of Programming


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Chapter 1: Intro to Funds of Programming

  1. 1. 11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />1<br />Chapter 1<br />Introduction<br />
  2. 2. What is a computer system?<br />A computer is an electronic machine that can accept, process, and produce results of information.<br />A computer is a system because it is made up of parts where each has an assigned function to do yet it works together as one together with the other parts.<br />A computer system includes not only the computer, but also any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function.<br />A computer system both hardware and software components.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Hardware and software<br />The HARDWARE components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts.<br />Example are: processor, main memory, secondary memory, input devices, output devices<br />The SOFTWARE components are the intangible parts: the data and the computer programs.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Input units<br />An input device is any peripheral (a piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />4<br />
  5. 5. KEYBOARD<br />Is the most common input device. Pressing its keys do certain action such as: typing of letters, number, or symbols, and to execute an instruction or command.<br />A &apos;keyboard&apos; is a human interface device which is represented as a layout of buttons.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />5<br />
  6. 6. MOUSE<br />Is the most common pointing input device. Clicking the buttons of the mouse sends signal to the computer and instruct it to do an action.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />6<br />
  7. 7. TRACKBALL<br />Is like a mouse positioned upside down with larger ball on top of it. Rotating its ball tells the computer to do certain action or command.<br />The user rolls the ball with the thumb, fingers, or the palm of the hand to move a cursor.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />7<br />
  8. 8. JOYSTICK<br />Is an input device that allows you to control the objects on the screen by moving its stick or by clicking its buttons.<br />Joysticks are often used to control video games, and usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read by the computer.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />8<br />
  9. 9. GAME PAD<br />Is a game controller device that has a programmable buttons used to control the fast movement of picture on the screen.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />9<br />
  10. 10. DIGITIZER OR DIGITIZING TABLET<br />Is a flat writing device that uses pen or stylus to enter commands into the computer.<br />The image generally does not appear on the tablet itself but, rather, is displayed on the computer monitor.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />10<br />
  11. 11. MICROPHONE<br />Is an input voice modulator device.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />11<br />
  12. 12. WEB CAMERA<br />Takes shots on the viewer to be seen in the other computer.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />12<br />
  13. 13. SCANNER<br />Used to copy image, or read information or numbers. They read the data by scanning it and send them to the computer.<br />Kinds of scanners<br />Flatbed scanner<br />Scans the information printed on a piece of paper then transfers it to the computer.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Bar Code Scanner<br />Reads the product’s bar code according to the thickness and spacing of the displayed black lines. The signal is sent to the computer which is then translated into a numeric value.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Card reader scanner<br />Reads the encrypted information of customer’s credit card for verification purposes.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Activity 1.1<br />Group yourselves into 2 and select at least 3 input devices and define the importance of each devices to the computer system. Explain it to the class for 10 minutes.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Assignment 1.1<br />Give at least 5 OUTPUT UNITS and define each.<br />Place in a ½ crosswise of yellow paper.<br />To be submitted next meeting ( Nov. 12, 2009)<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Output units<br />Output devices are peripherals used by the computer to give out the processed data. It could be by displaying the images, hearing the sounds, or printing the information.<br />Are things we use to get information out of a computer.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />18<br />
  19. 19. CRT(cathode ray tube) MONITOR<br />Is the most common output device. It displays the text, numbers, and graphics done in the computer.<br />the CRT monitor contains a large cathode ray tube that uses an electron beam of varying strength to “paint” a picture onto the color phosphorescent dots on the inside of the screen. CRT monitors are heavy and use more electrical power than flat panel displays, but they are preferred by some graphic artists for their accurate color rendition, and preferred by some gamers for faster response to rapidly changing graphics.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />19<br />
  20. 20. FLAT PANEL MONITOR<br />A flat panel display usually uses an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen to display output from the computer. The LCD consists of several thin layers that polarize the light passing through them. The polarization of one layer, containing long thin molecules called liquid crystals, can be controlled electronically at each pixel, blocking varying amounts of the light to make a pixel lighter or darker. Other types of flat panel technology exist (such as plasma displays) but LCDs are most commonly used in computers, especially laptops.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />20<br />
  21. 21. SPEAKERS and HEADPHONE or EARPHONES<br />Are output devices used by the computer to hear the sounds from your computer<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />21<br />
  22. 22. PRINTER<br />Kinds of Printer<br />Dot Matrix Printer <br />Uses ribbon to print<br />It prints the text and graphics on the paper by hammering its ends of pins against a ribbon to form dots.<br />The hammering action of this printer is the reason why it is called an Impact Printer.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Inkjet Printer<br />Uses cartridge or liquid ink<br />It sprays out the ink on the paper to form the text and graphics<br />It gives better quality printout than a dot-matrix<br />The spray-out action of this printer is the reason why it is called a Bubble Printer<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Laser Jet Printer<br />Uses toner cartridge or powdered ink<br />It has laser emitting diode (LED) that melts the powdered ink to form refined figure on the paper<br />Laser printers gives the most quality print out among all printers<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Input/output devices<br />Are peripheral devices that do double function. It can be used as an input and as well as an output device. <br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Headset<br />Has a microphone as input device to communicate or record voice. At the same time it has a headphone as output device to hear the sound.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Touch Screen<br />Uses the screen as input device to enter the information and at the same time uses the same screen as output device to show the result of what has been entered.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Memory<br />The memory of a microcomputer is where programs and data are stored when they are currently in active use. We will cover different kinds of memory your microcomputer contains:<br />RAM<br />ROM<br />CMOS<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />28<br />
  29. 29. RAM (Random Access Memory)<br />RAM is the main memory space of your computer. The term RAM means Random Access Memory, and it comes from the early days of computers when mainframes had two types of memory: Random access, in which any bit of memory could be addressed at any moment; and Sequential memory (such as data stored on tape) where bits could only be accessed in a certain order. All of the memory in your computer is random access, so don’t worry about sequential memory.<br />The RAM is the workspace of your computer. If your computer has more RAM, it can open more and larger programs and documents simultaneously. It’s like you having a large worktable to spread work papers out on instead of a tiny desk. The documents you are currently editing (and the programs your computer is using to let you do it) are stored in the RAM.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />29<br />
  30. 30. ROM (Read-Only Memory<br />Microcomputers also have some ROM (Read Only Memory) on the motherboard. ROM does not need power to remember its contents, so this is where a computer stores the programs that are needed to start up (boot up) the computer system. (The instructions can’t be stored in RAM, since RAM loses its contents when the computer is off; and they can’t be kept on the hard disk, since just reading data from a hard disk requires programs.) <br />When the computer is first turned on, the program stored in the ROM is feed to the processor. This initial program checks to see that everything is in order and looks for storage devices on which it can locate a copy of the operating system; it then loads the first part of the OS into RAM, then hands control over to that program to finish the boot process.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />30<br />
  31. 31. CMOS<br />      The “CMOS memory” of a computer is a small amount of “semi-permanent” storage where changeable data can be stored that needs to remain available while the computer is turned off. A small battery on the motherboard keeps the CMOS ‘alive’ when power is off.<br />The CMOS memory (called PRAM, or “Parameter RAM” on the Macintosh) can store such information such as what hard drive or copy of the OS you want to boot from, what are your default monitor settings, etc. The BIOS picks up this information and uses it during boot up. The CMOS memory can also hold the time and date so that your computer remembers this even when power its has been off. If your computer can’t remember the proper time, or can’t remember system settings when it’s off, the small battery may need to be replaced. <br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Processors<br />The microprocessor is the component of the personal computer that does the actual processing of data. A microprocessor is a central processing unit (CPU) that fits on one microchip. It is the “brain” of the computer, but that is a rather pretentious term since it it really just a very complex switching circuit that executes simple instructions very rapidly.<br /> The microprocessor integrated circuit package holds a silicon chip that contains millions of transistors and other components fabricated into the silicon. Because the transistors on the chip are very tiny, even a small zap of high voltage current (such as from static electricity) can destroy a chip. This is why all large-scale integrated circuits must be handled in ways that minimize the possibility of static electric discharge.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Activity 1.2<br />Group yourselves into 3 and choose one of the following to be discussed in the class. Give your own idea about the topic:<br />Output unitand input/output devices<br />Memory<br />Processor<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Assignment 1.2<br />What are the components of the CPU?<br />Send your answer to my email add: before the end of the day (Nov. 17, 2009)<br />The best assignment will be uploaded to our website. Use powerpoint for you assignment.<br />Tips: Include some pictures to make your assignment much informative.<br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />34<br />
  35. 35. References/sources<br />Computer Concepts by Ma. Minerva J. Gorres<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />11/12/2009<br />Fundamentals of Programming by RMG<br />35<br />