An Analysisof Educational Technology        JournalsRichard E. West, Geri Clements, Buck Harrison, &               Wendy W...
Plethora of Publications       • Hundreds of publications in “our field”       • Each with their own unique history, trend...
Overview of Series       • Studies conducted by students in a         Foundations/Trends & Issues course       • Primary g...
Questions       • Main topics?       • Article types (research methodologies)?       • Prominent scholars in this communit...
Our Approach       • Access all articles from 2001-2010       • Note authorship       • Code for methodologies       • Use...
The Journals       • Journal of Research on Technology in Education       • Internet and Higher Education       • Performa...
Others in the Series       • Published: ETRD, Distance Education, AJDE, JLS,         JTATE       • In preparation: C&E, JC...
British Journal ofEducational Technology
About BJET      • First issue: 1970      • 6 issues/year      • Shorter articles (2K-3K)      • IF= 2.139      • 19 citati...
WilsonWeb Keyword AnalysisAnalysis of Journals                AECT Conference, 2012
A Few Trends      • Electronic games: from 2/5 years to 18        in 5 years      • Virtual reality: 0/5 to 15/2 years    ...
Article Types                                  Theoretical grew                                  from 22% (2001)          ...
Authorship                                 Author                        Number         *Cher P. Lim                      ...
Citation Patterns     Year       Citat’n         Authors                              Article                   s   2009  ...
Performance Improvement        Quarterly
PIQ Topics: ERICAnalysis of Journals                      AECT Conference, 2011
PIQ Topics: Trends                        Higher Education                        Organizational Development              ...
PIQ Topics: AbstractsAnalysis of Journals                       AECT Conference, 2011
PIQ MethodologiesAnalysis of Journals                       AECT Conference, 2011
PIQ Authorship     Author Name             Number of Articles   Score                                     9             20...
PIQ CitationsYear    Citations                Authors                                                  Article2009        ...
Contemporary Issues ofTechnology and Teacher      Education
CITE: Main Topics                                                                             Occurrence                  ...
CITE: Dominant MethodologiesAnalysis of Journals          AECT Conference, 2012
CITE              Collaborative Authorship TrendsNumber of         200          200   200          200               200  ...
Citation Patterns: Publish or PerishYear Citat’n                   Authors                                                ...
Journal of Research onTechnology in Education
About JRTE      • Official journal of the International        Society for Technology in Education      • Established in 1...
ERIC Subject Terms AnalysisAnalysis of Journals                 AECT Conference, 2012
A Few Trends      • Strong correlation to ISTE’s goals of        advancing the effective use of        technology in PK-12...
Article Types                                         More                                    sophisticated               ...
Authorship                              Author                          Number         Neal Strudler                      ...
Citation PatternsYear   Citat’n       Authors                             Article          s2009     90      Schmidt, Bara...
Internet and Higher     Education
Main Article Topics   Freq. Key Words                          Freq. Key Words   66          Communication                ...
Main Article Topics      15 most frequently used key words
Main Research Methods            Research Method    # of Articles   % of Articles   Inferential                     190   ...
Theoretical Articles
Inferential Articles
Prominent Scholars - Authorship             • 254 published articles             • 470 authors             • 65% of articl...
Prominent Scholars - Authorship   Articles     Author(s)   14           Alfred P. Rovai                    8            Ra...
Citation Analysis – by Year Published  Year        # Citations      Authors                                Article  2001  ...
Citation Analysis – by Year Published  Year        # Citations      Authors                                       Article ...
Thank you!                       For more information: rickwest@byu.edu Papers began running in 2011 volume of Educational...
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What are we talking about? Analysis of journals in the field of educational technology

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  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • 122 research articles published by AJDE 2001-2010
  • Out of the 122 articles, there were a total of 258 authors, averaging 2.2 authors per paper. Authors who were published multiple times are shown in Table 5. Only one author, Dr. Peter K. Oriogun of the London Metropolitan University and the American University of Nigeria published more than two research articles during this time period, perhaps indicating that AJDE has more of an international audience than its name would suggest.
  • use of the Publish or Perish software (Harzing, 2011) - based on Google Scholar citations the American Journal of Distance Education had an average of 21.26 citations per paper for the period of 2001-2010—an average of almost 379 citations a year three important caveats: 1) Google Scholar counts many kinds of citations whose worth may be debatable, 2) like all scholarly databases it is not completely comprehensive, and 3) during many of these years, the difference in citation numbers between articles was very close, and will continue to fluctuate
  • Top ten topics in decade according to keywords from the educational resources information center ebsco database. Broad topics were removed from analysis such as instructional design and performance technology. Similar terms were combined, for example adult education is was combined with adult learning, continuing education, and andragogy.
  • The increase in higher education and decrease in work environment may be attributed to the Schwen, Kalma, and Evans 2006 article which called for new scholarship in HPT. (A framework for new scholarship in human performance technology). The increase in organizational development and intervention may indicate a trend toward organization-wide changes as opposed to individualized instruction.
  • 2 and 3 word phrases. Abstracts provide a much more specific set up phrases. Self-efficacy topped the phrase frequency, however did not show up in the ERIC keywords. We recommend that authors provide their own keywords if they want their specific purposes to be apparent when searched. NOT SHOWN. Training was the most frequent word with 216 mentions, these findings reinforce the notion that instruction is still the predominant technique for improving performance.
  • First 5 – Interpretive and Conceptual/Theoretical. From 2006 – 2010 there was over a 60% increase in the number of inferential articles published. 26% decrease in interpretive articles. An earlier content analysis by Marker, Huglin, and Johnsen (2006) from 2000 – 2005 showed an 18% increase in empirical research. PIQ editors call for more empirical articles (Cassidy and Medsker, 2003).
  • Score = 3 points 1 st , 2 points 2 nd , 1 point 3 rd and up. Table shows the top six authors in the journal. Top ten authors contributed 21% of the research articles reviewed.
  • 4.52 citations per paper average. 120.45 citations per year average. Google scholar citations. 30% of top cited articles focused on instructional design, 90% were collaborative.
  • 122 research articles published by AJDE 2001-2010
  • Stated Research Focus: a focus on research where the principal technology is the Internet, and subfields of distance education such as online learning, e-learning, distributed learning, asynchronous learning, and blended learning
  • Lee et al. (2004) noted a rising frequency of quantitative studies in distance education, a method they argued was “not yet held to the standards of experimental research in other fields of social science” (p. 239). They called for “a more critical examination of research methodology . . . that might involve more stringent application of research methods” (p. 240), and argued that “new research methodology and paradigms are needed to advance distance education research” (p. 239). Half a decade later, quantitative research is slowly increasing its weight among the published articles of AJDE , now comprising 24.6% of the articles, the second-highest method used (see Table 4), and methodological innovations seem to still be infrequent. The most frequently used methodology is survey-based research, the method used in more than one-quarter (26.2%) of the studies published by AJDE. With students dispersed geographically, survey research may often be the most convenient method. Even so, we may consider as a community of scholars whether we want survey research to be our primary research method? Or, rather, do we feel that other methods such as content analysis, qualitative or interpretative methods, and mixed methods might contribute more to our discussion? Qualitative methods, for example, were used for 11 articles in the first three years analyzed (2001-2003), but only 3 articles thereafter (2004-2010). If our field is moving away from qualitative methods, what are we gaining and what may be lost?
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • use of the Publish or Perish software (Harzing, 2011) - based on Google Scholar citations the American Journal of Distance Education had an average of 21.26 citations per paper for the period of 2001-2010—an average of almost 379 citations a year three important caveats: 1) Google Scholar counts many kinds of citations whose worth may be debatable, 2) like all scholarly databases it is not completely comprehensive, and 3) during many of these years, the difference in citation numbers between articles was very close, and will continue to fluctuate
  • 122 research articles published by AJDE 2001-2010
  • There is also a trend towards the use of more sophisticated statistical analysis in the latter half of the decade. Generalized linear models and multivariate methods replaced the earlier frequent use of t – test procedures.
  • In the 10 years studied, 66 of 510 authors (13%) had more than one article published by the journal, with an average of 1.9 authors per article.
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • This is a screenshot from my list of journals --- showing we have over 314 at least
  • What are we talking about? Analysis of journals in the field of educational technology

    1. 1. An Analysisof Educational Technology JournalsRichard E. West, Geri Clements, Buck Harrison, & Wendy Woodfield Brigham Young University
    2. 2. Plethora of Publications • Hundreds of publications in “our field” • Each with their own unique history, trends, discussions, and community of scholarsAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    3. 3. Overview of Series • Studies conducted by students in a Foundations/Trends & Issues course • Primary goals: 1) inform the students and 2) develop research/writing skills • Educational Technology accepted as a recurring series of articlesAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    4. 4. Questions • Main topics? • Article types (research methodologies)? • Prominent scholars in this community? • Citation patterns and key articles?Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    5. 5. Our Approach • Access all articles from 2001-2010 • Note authorship • Code for methodologies • Use EBSCO and key phrase analysis tools • Analyze citations with Publish or PerishAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    6. 6. The Journals • Journal of Research on Technology in Education • Internet and Higher Education • Performance Improvement Quarterly • Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education • British Journal of Educational TechnologyAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    7. 7. Others in the Series • Published: ETRD, Distance Education, AJDE, JLS, JTATE • In preparation: C&E, JCAL, IRRODL, Instructional ScienceAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    8. 8. British Journal ofEducational Technology
    9. 9. About BJET • First issue: 1970 • 6 issues/year • Shorter articles (2K-3K) • IF= 2.139 • 19 citations/paper (2001-2005); 7 citations/paper (2006-2011); overall : 11.47 citations/paperAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    10. 10. WilsonWeb Keyword AnalysisAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    11. 11. A Few Trends • Electronic games: from 2/5 years to 18 in 5 years • Virtual reality: 0/5 to 15/2 years • Similar trends: Computers in testing; Electronic discussion groupsAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    12. 12. Article Types Theoretical grew from 22% (2001) to 40% (2010)Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    13. 13. Authorship Author Number *Cher P. Lim 4 *James Hartley 4 *Sara De Freitas 4 Elizabeth Murphy 4 Betty Collis 4 Kerry Shephard 4 Rob Koper 4 Gilly Salmon, Sugata Mitra, Terry Goodison, John Trushell, Minjuan Wang, Yi-Shun Wang, David Hung, David Nicol, John T. E. Richardson, Robert A. Ellis, Sherry Y. Chen 3 *authors who published 7 times as first authorAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    14. 14. Citation Patterns Year Citat’n Authors Article s 2009 67 Warburton Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching 2008 381 Bennett, Maton, The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the Kervin evidence 2007 66 Kanuka, Rourke, The influence of instructional methods on the Laflamme quality of online discussion 2006 85 Dicheva, Dichey TM4L: Creating and browsing educational topic maps 2005 159 Dickey Three-dimensional virtual worlds and distance learning: Two case studies… 2004 100 Murphy Recognising and promoting collaboration in an online asynchronous discussion 2003 138 Brusilovsky Adaptive navigation support in educational hypermedia: The role of student knowledge level and the case for meta-adaptation 2002 186 Huang Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments 2001 181 Ford, Chen Matching/mismatching revisited: An empirical study of learning and teaching stylesAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    15. 15. Performance Improvement Quarterly
    16. 16. PIQ Topics: ERICAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    17. 17. PIQ Topics: Trends Higher Education Organizational Development Intervention Work EnvironmentAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    18. 18. PIQ Topics: AbstractsAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    19. 19. PIQ MethodologiesAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    20. 20. PIQ Authorship Author Name Number of Articles Score 9 20 379Schwen, Thomas M. 6 18Hardré, Patricia L. Total number of authors 6 16Huglin, Linda M.Guerra, Ingrid J. 5 15 322Holton III, Elwood 5 12 One time only authorsF.Klein, James D. 5 11 43.6% One author only articles Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    21. 21. PIQ CitationsYear Citations Authors Article2009 9 Gilley, Gilley, & McMillan Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness2008 12 Ertmer, Stepich, York, Stickman, How Instructional Design Experts Use Knowledge and Experience to Solve Ill‐ Wu, Zurek, & Goktas Structured Problems2007 8 Wheatley Leadership of Self‐Organized Networks: Lessons from the War on Terror2006 18 Gangani, McLean, & Braden A Competency‐Based Human Resource Development Strategy 18 Hara & Schwen Communities of Practice in Workplaces2005 27 Peterson & Arnn Self‐Efficacy: The Foundation of Human Performance2004 20 Christensen & Osguthorpe How Do Instructional‐Design Practitioners Make Instructional‐Strategy Decisions?2003 44 Condly, Clark, & Stolovich The Effects of Incentives on Workplace Performance: A Meta‐analytic Review of Research Studies2002 40 Kirschner, Carr, van Merriënboer, How Expert Designers Design & Sloep2001 22 Holton, Swanson, & Naquin Andragogy in Practice: Clarifying the Andragogical Model of Adult Learning Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    22. 22. Contemporary Issues ofTechnology and Teacher Education
    23. 23. CITE: Main Topics Occurrence Rank Keyword s 1 Educational Technology 101 2 Pre-service Teacher Education 80 3 Teachers 64 4 Professional Development 56 5 Teaching Methods 44 6 Mathematics 31 7 Social Studies* 29 8 Integration 28 9 Elementary Education 28 10 Secondary Education 26 11 English Language Arts 22 12 Sciences 22 13 Students 22 14 Literacy 21 15 Computers 20 16 Internet 20 17 Information Sciences* 19 18 Multimedia 18 19 Video 18 20 Assessment & Evaluation & Learning Outcomes* 17Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    24. 24. CITE: Dominant MethodologiesAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    25. 25. CITE Collaborative Authorship TrendsNumber of 200 200 200 200 200 Total Authors 1 2002 3 4 2005 6 2007 2008 9 2010 s (%) 1 3 6 6 8 8 7 15 4 5 8 70 (34.8) 2 7 6 7 9 12 8 8 10 8 8 83 (41.3) 3 2 2 1 6 4 . . 3 4 4 26 (12.9) 4 . 2 3 1 1 2 . . 4 . 13 (6.5) 5 . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 7 (3.5) 6 . . 1 . . . . . . . 1 (.5) 7 . . . . . . . . . . 0 8 . . . . . . . . . . 0 9 . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 (.5) Totals 12 16 19 25 26 18 24 18 22 21 201 (100) Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    26. 26. Citation Patterns: Publish or PerishYear Citat’n Authors Article s2009 140 Koehler & Mishra “What is technological pedagogical content knowledge?”2008 65 Bull, Thompson, Searson, “Connecting informal and formal learning experiences in the age of participatory Garofalo, Park, Young & Lee media”2007 53 Dabbagh “The online learner: Characteristics and pedagogical implications”2006 57 A. Herrington, J. Herrington, “The design of an online community of practice for beginning teachers” Kervin & Ferry2005 128 Papert "Teaching Children Thinking"* 60 Black “The use of asynchronous discussion: Creating a text of talk”2004 41 Heafner “Using technology to motivate students to learn social studies”2003 531 Taylor "The Computer in School: Tutor, Tool, Tutee"* 101 Whitworth & Berson* “Computer technology in the social studies: An examination of the effectiveness literature (1996-2001)”2002 51 Jacobsen, Clifford & Friesen “Preparing Teachers for Technology Integration: Creating a Culture of Inquiry in the Context of Use”2001 39 Bell “Preparing tomorrows teachers to use technology: Perspectives of the leaders of twelve national education associations cross-disciplinary dialog goals for integrating technology in teacher preparation” Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    27. 27. Journal of Research onTechnology in Education
    28. 28. About JRTE • Official journal of the International Society for Technology in Education • Established in 1990 • Originally JR on Computing in Education • 273 articles from 2001-2010 • 27.09 cites/paperAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    29. 29. ERIC Subject Terms AnalysisAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    30. 30. A Few Trends • Strong correlation to ISTE’s goals of advancing the effective use of technology in PK-12 and teacher education • Very few occurrences of adult education; 0 occurrences 2007-2010 • DE a strong emphasis throughoutAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    31. 31. Article Types More sophisticated statistical analysis later in the decade Nearly ½ of theoretical articles were in 2010Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    32. 32. Authorship Author Number Neal Strudler 6 Peggy A. Ertmer 5 Gerald A. Knezek, Richard C. Overbaugh, Ann D. Thompson, M. D. Roblyer 4 Angeli Charoula, John K. Lee, Laura M. O’Dwyer, Michael Russell, Lynne Schrum, Michael J. Spector, Keith Wetzel, Angela F. K. Wong 3Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2012
    33. 33. Citation PatternsYear Citat’n Authors Article s2009 90 Schmidt, Baran, Technological pedagogical content knowledge Thompson, (TPACK): The development and validation of an Mishra, Koehler, assessment instrument for preservice teachers Shin2008 39 Mouza Learning with laptops: Implementation and outcomes in an urban, under-privileged school2007 65 Merrill A task-centered instructional strategy2006 113 Penuel Implementation and effects of one-to-one computing initiatives: A research synthesis2005 84 Vonderwell, Factors that influence participation in online Zachariah learning2004 157 Vannatta, Teacher dispositions as predictors of classroom Fordham technology use2003 154 Jonassen Using cognitive tools to represent problems2002 213 Christensen Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students2001 217 Pierson Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise
    34. 34. Internet and Higher Education
    35. 35. Main Article Topics Freq. Key Words Freq. Key Words 66 Communication 22 Faculty 57 Social/Network/Environment 22 Information 54 Community 22 Courses 35 Students 21 Evaluation 28 Collaboration/Team 20 Blended 27 Technology 13 Accessibility 24 Management 13 Satisfaction 22 TeachingAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    36. 36. Main Article Topics 15 most frequently used key words
    37. 37. Main Research Methods Research Method # of Articles % of Articles Inferential 190 38% Theoretical 122 24% Interpretive 72 14% Descriptive 52 10% Combined 34 7% Content Analysis 28 6% Of 498 article publishedAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    38. 38. Theoretical Articles
    39. 39. Inferential Articles
    40. 40. Prominent Scholars - Authorship • 254 published articles • 470 authors • 65% of articles co-authored • 24 authors contributed to 3+ articlesAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    41. 41. Prominent Scholars - Authorship Articles Author(s) 14 Alfred P. Rovai   8 Randy D. Garrison   7 J.B. Arbaugh   5 Philip Ice   4 William Y. Lan, Katrina A. Meyer, Radia Pavlina, Paul Stapleton, Karen Swan, Mary K. Tallent-Runnels, Martha Cleveland-Innes   3 Anthony R. Artino, Jr., Jason D. Baker, Arthur Bangert, Curtis J. Bonk, Sandra Cooper, Nachmias Rafi, M.D. Roblyer, Lynne Schrum, Greg Simco, Glenn G. Smith, Steven R. Terrell, Julie A. Thomas, Mervyn J. WightingAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    42. 42. Citation Analysis – by Year Published Year # Citations Authors Article 2001 334 Johnson A survey of current research on online communities of practice. 2002 228 Rovai Development of an instrument to measure classroom community.   2003 184 Vonderwell An examination of asynchronous communication experiences   and perspectives of students in an online course: a case study.   2004 468 Garrison & Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in Kanuka higher education.   2005 216 Kiili Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model.  Analysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    43. 43. Citation Analysis – by Year Published Year # Citations Authors Article 2006 68 Shea, Sau Li, & A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in Pickett fully online and web-enhanced college courses.   2007 124 Garrison & Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and Arbaugh future directions.   2008 65 Ajjan & Investigating faculty decisions to adopt Web 2.0 technologies: Theory and Hartshorne empirical tests.     2009 26 Arbaugh, Research in online and blended learning in the business disciplines: Key Godfrey, findings and possible future directions. Johnson,   Pollack, Neindorf, Wresch 2010 34 Roblyer, Findings on Facebook in higher education: A comparison of college faculty McDaniel, and student uses and perceptions of social networking sites. Webb, Herman,   WittyAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
    44. 44. Thank you! For more information: rickwest@byu.edu Papers began running in 2011 volume of Educational TechnologyAnalysis of Journals AECT Conference, 2011
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