Physical and Chemical Changes Physical Change – Any process involving a substance’s change without alteration of the chemical composition. Does not make a new substance. Chemical Change – Any process in which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. Makes a new substance.4 signs a chemical change occurred: Solid Precipitate Forms1. _____________________________ Temperature Change2. _____________________________ Gas is produced3. _____________________________ Color Change4. _____________________________
Kinetic and Potential EnergyPotential Energy – The energy an object has because of its position or stored energy.How high it is above the Earth.Kinetic Energy – The energy of motion.Energy – The ability to do work.
• Answer for 2: Warm Ocean currents bring warm water from the equator causing the air above the warm water to warm up causing the coastal climate to become warm.• Answer for 3: Cold Ocean currents bring cold water from the poles causing the air above the cold water to cool off causing the coastal climate to become colder.• Answer for 4: Since a cold ocean current passes City A its climate will be cooler than City B.• Answer for 5: City C will have a cooler climate because the Peru ocean current brings cold water from the polar region. City D will have a warmer climate because the Brazil ocean current brings warm water from the equator.
Periods• When you look at a periodic table, each of the rows is considered to be a different period (Get it? Like PERIODic table.). In the periodic table, elements have something in common if they are in the same row. All of the elements in a period have the same number of energy levels or electron shells.
Groups• The periodic table also has a special name for its columns. When a column goes from top to bottom, its called a group. The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital. Those outer electrons are also called valence electrons.
Energy Levels• The first energy level can hold 2 electrons• The second energy level holds 8• The third holds 18.
Reactivity of Atoms• The further to the right of the periodic table you go the less reactive the elements are.• The most reactive elements are going to be on the left.• The more space for electrons an energy level has the more reactive it is.• Follow the group numbers – The bigger the group number the less reactive it is.
Protons PhysicalMetals Period Electrons Metalloids Atomic Mass Groups Coefficient SubscriptNonmetals
8 4Put a Circle around the Coefficient.Put a square around the subscript.
HR Diagram• Remember that the pattern that you see with the main sequence stars on the HR Diagram is that as the stars get “Brighter” the also get “Hotter.”• Quick Fact: The Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen into “Helium” in its core.
First Quarter W Waxing Gibbous Waxing Crescent New MoonFull MoonWaning Gibbous Waning Crescent Last Quarter
Waxing• Waxing means to “grow.” The light from the sun grows over the moon until it reaches a full moon. Remember “the light sides is the right side” meaning the in the waxing phase the light begins to grow starting on the right side.
Waning• Waning means to “shrink.” The light of the sun begins to shrink on the moon during the waning phase. The darkness begins on the right side in the waning phase until it becomes completely dark and a new moon.
FallWinter Summer Spring Remember that on the test they might place the sun somewhere else. Always remember that in the northern hemisphere when the axis is pointed towards the sun it is summer. When the axis is pointed away from the sun it is winter. Order of seasons: Summer, Fall, Winter, Spring.
What is a cold front?A cold front is a boundary between two air masses, one cold andthe other warm, moving so that the colder air replaces thewarmer air. It pushes the warm air upwards causing clouds toform and severe thunderstorms. When the cold front passes theweather is cold.
What is a warm front?A warm front is a boundary between two air masses, one cooland the other warm, moving so that the warmer air replaces thecooler air. This forms thunderstorms and when the storms passthe weather outside is warm.
Groundwater• Groundwater = water in the zone of saturation (water under the ground)• Porosity = the space between solid particles• of soil or rock that can be filled by fluids.• Permeability = the ease with which fluids can• pass through a body of soil or rock.• Aquifer = a body of soil or rock that can hold a useable amount of water (located underground).
Surface Water• That water which is above ground and visible to the eye:• Examples are: – Lakes – Rivers – Ponds – Reservoirs – Streams – creeks
Watershed• A watershed is an area of ground where precipitation falls, which will ultimately runoffs to a nearby body of water, be it a river, lake, stream, or creek.• It is the area of land made of all the water that is under it or that drains off of it and goes into the same place; this includes the groundwater and the surface water for that area.
Pollution of Watershed• Caused by rain and flood water washing over our nation’s landscapes, picking up pollutants such as dirt, oil, fertilizer, pesticides, animal waste and other substances• Substances are then deposited into our rivers, lakes, bays, coastal waters, ground water, and even drinking water supplies.• 88% of the impairment of our streams and rivers are caused by polluted runoff. (Human Impact)
Kingdoms• Kingdom is the second largest grouping in organism classification.• Domain is the largest grouping in the classification of organisms, above kingdom.• Types of Domains:• Eukarya - organisms made of eukaryotic cells.• Archaea - Organisms made of prokaryotic cells which live in extreme conditions.• Bacteria - Organisms made of prokaryotic cells which do not live in extreme conditions, found almost everywhere else.
Types of Cells• Prokaryota is a type of cell without a nucleus.• Eukaryota is a type of cell with a nucleus.• Unicellular is an organism made of only one cell.• Multicellular is an organism made of more than one cell.
How Organisms get Food• Autotrophic is an organism which makes its own food through photosynthesis. Ex: Plants• Heterotrophic is an organism which eats other organisms to get energy. Ex: Animals
Asexual Reproduction• A new organism is produced from one organism.• Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism and creates very few changes (diversification) of the species. – Types: • Budding • Regeneration • Fission (Binary fission)
Sexual Reproduction• A new organism is produced from two similar organisms• Requires two sex cells – egg, carrying ½ of the female chromosomes, and sperm, carrying ½ of the male chromosomes, join to form an entirely new organism.• Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms and can create many changes (diversification) of the species
Circulatory System• The Circulatory System is the main transportation system for the human body• The Circulatory System is made of: – the Heart – Artery – Vein – Capillary – Blood – red blood cells – White blood cells
The Integumentary System• Composed of: – skin – sweat – oil glands, hair, and nails.• Major roles are protection from invasion of germs, excretes waste in the form of sweat and oils, helps rid the body of heat and synthesizes vitamin D.• Varies in thickness from 1.5 to 4.0 mm.• 2 layers of the skin: – Epidermis—top layer on outside – Dermis—lies below the Epidermis
Digestive System• Digests the food we eat• Converts food into simpler substances for the body to absorb as nutrients• Provides energy for all body functions• Absorbs water• Eliminates waste
Mechanical and Chemical Changes in the Digestive system.Mechanical digestion – Causes physical changes to the food. – Example is chewing• Chemical digestion – Causes chemical changes to the food. – Examples are saliva and stomach acids
Digestive System Functions• Digests food: – Mouth, Teeth, and Tongue – Esophagus – Stomach – Small intestine – Large intestine• Absorbs nutrients for the body: – Small Intestine – Pancreas – Liver – Gall Bladder
Muscular System• Muscle-an organ that contracts and relaxes to cause movement.• Muscles apply force by pulling not pushing.• Types of Muscle: – Skeletal – Muscle that move bones. – Smooth Muscle – Cardiac Muscle – Only found in the heart.
Muscle Movement•Involuntary- Automatically move without you thinking about it.•Voluntary- Brain sends message to muscle. You control the movements.
Excretory System• Removes excess water, H O, urea, carbon dioxide, 2 CO , and other wastes from our blood. 2• Parts of the Excretory System: – Kidneys – filter out excess water and urea – Lungs – filter out carbon dioxide, CO , from the blood. 2 (lungs are also included in Respiratory System) – Skin – excretes water, as sweat, which contains some trace chemical wastes, including urea.
Excretory Parts continued:– Ureters – tubes that take urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.– Urinary Bladder – a sack that stores urine.– Urethra – small tube that leads urine out of the body.
Nervous System Sends messages in the form of electrical impulses Detects information from the environment Controls body systems• Parts: Brain Spinal Chord Nerves
Skeletal System• Holds organs in place, provides structural support, stores minerals, and generates new blood cells.• Includes: – bones – joints The spongy bone of the femur, humerus, and sternum contains red marrow which produces red blood cells (carry oxygen), white blood cells (fight infection), and platelets (help stop bleeding).
Connective Tissues •• Cartilage – Allows joints to move easily, cushions bones, and supports soft tissue• Ligament – • Hold bones in place at the joints • Joins muscle to muscle or muscle to bone • Tendon –
Respiratory System• The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply oxygen to the blood in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body.• Through breathing, the body inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide.• Parts Include: – trachea – lungs – diaphragm – alveoli
Endocrine System• The endocrine system controls growth, reproduction and metabolism.• releases hormones (messengers) directly into bloodstream• Glands – group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals (hormones) to bloodstream directly.• Hormones –chemical substances created and distributed by the body to act as “messengers” and coordinate functions of various body parts.
The Endocrine System regulates Calcium Water Response Growth Reproduction Metabolism and glucose balance to stress levelsby means by means by means by means by means by means of the of the of the of the of the of the Pituitary Testes Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Ovaries Parathyroids