WHAT IS LITERATURE?INTRODUCTION TOLITERATUREInstructor : Salirick S. AndresCourse : Literatures of the World
Objectives To define what literature is To appreciate the importance of literature To identify the different literary standards To determine various literary approaches
What is Literature? Comes from the Latin word “Litera” which literally means an “acquaintance with letters” It is a body of work, either written, oral, or visual, containing imaginative language that realistically portrays thoughtd, emotions, and experiences of the human condition.
What is Literature?(continued…) is a product of particular culture that concretizes man’s array of values, emotions, actions and ideas. It is therefore a creation of human experiences that tells about people and their world.
What is Literature?(continued…) Literature is an art that reflects the works of imagination, aesthetics and creative writing which are distinguished for the beauty of style or expression. “Literature raises life to a new level of meaning and understanding, and in the process restores sanity and justice in an insane and unjust world.” – Cirilo F. Bautista “Literature is life.” - Unknown
Importance of Literature Studying literature is like looking at the mirror of life where man’s experiences, his innermost feelings and thoughts are reflected. Through literature, we learn the culture of people across time and space. We understand not only the past life of a nation but also its present. Moreover, we become familiar not only with the culture of neighboring countries but also with that of others living very far from us.
Importance of Literature(continued..)“Perhaps what makes literature a more delightful and enriching study than the rest that deal withthe past is its potential of making readers identify with what they read through values learned.” – JF Loria According to her, “when one reads literature, life unreels itself in its many dimensions-belief, emotions, pains, joys, anguish, glories and the like that make up the litany of earthly endeavors. The all too familiar words heard everyday come back in deeper meanings and newer light.”
Literary Standards 1. Universality – Literature appeals to everyone, regardless of culture, race, gender, and time 2. Artistry – Literature has an aesthetic appeal and thus possess a sense of beauty 3. Intellectual Value – Literature stimulates critical thinking that enriches mental processes of abstraction and reasoning, making man realize the fundamental thruths of life and its nature. 4. Suggestiveness – Literature unravels and conjures man’s emotional power to define symbolisms,
Literary Standards(continued…) ... nuances, implied meanings, images, andmessages, giving and evoking visions above andbeyond the plane of ordinary life and experience.5. Spiritual Value – Literature elevates the spirit and the soul and thus has the power to motivate and inspire, drawn from the suggested morals or lessons of the different literary genres.6. Permanence – Literature endures across time and drwas out the time factor: timeliness (occuring at a particular time) and timelessness (remaining invariable throughout time).
Literary Standards(continued…)7. Style – Literature presents peculiar way/s on how man sees life as evidenced by the formation of his ideas, forms, structures, and expressions which are marked by their memorable substance.
Literary Approaches 1. Formalistic or Literary Approach Literature is viewed intrinsically, independent of the author, age, or any other extrinsic factor. The study of the selection is more or less based on the so-called “literary elements”.
Literary Approaches(continued…)2. Moral or Humanistic Approach Literature is viewed to discuss man and its nature. It presents man as essentially rational; that is, endowed with intellect and free will; or that the piece does not misinterpret the true nature of man. The approach is close to the “morality” of literature, to questions of ethical goodness or badness.
Literary Approaches(continued…)3. Historical Approach Literature is seen both as a reflection and product of the times and circumstances in which it was written. It operas on the premise that the history of a nation has telling effects on its literature and that the piece can be better understood and appreciated if one knows the times surrounding its creation.
Literary Approaches(continued…)4. Sociological Approach Literature is viewed as the expression of man within a given social situation which is reduced to discussions on economic, in which men are somewhat simplistically divided into haves and haves not, thus passing into the “proletarian approach” hitch tends to underscore the conflict between the two classes. The sociological approach stresses on social “relevance”, social “commitment,” contemporaneity, and it deems communication with the reader important.
Literary Approaches(continued…)5. Cultural Approach Literature is seen as one of the manifestations and vehicles of a nation’s or race’s culture and tradition. It includes the entire compels of what goes under “culture” – the technological, artistic, sociological, ideological aspects; and considers the literary piece in the total cultural milieu in which it was born. The thrust is to make full use of the reciprocal function between culture and literature. The approach is one of the richest ways to arrive at the culture of people and one of the most pleasurable ways of appreciating the literature of people.
Literary Approaches(continued…)6. Psychological Approach Literature is viewed as the expression of “personality,” of “inner drives” or “neurosis”. It includes the psychology of the author, of the characters, and even the psychology of creation. It has resulted in an almost exhausting and exhaustive “psychological analysis” of characters, of symbols and images, of recurrent themes, and others.
Literary Approaches(continued…)7. Impressionistic Approach Literature is viewed to elucidate “reacting- response” which is considered as something very personal, relative and fruitful. Unconditioned by explanations and often taking the impact of the piece as a whole, it seeks to see how the piece has communicated.