Disabled people in Essex: understanding the demographics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Disabled people in Essex: understanding the demographics

on

  • 1,958 views

This paper provides an understanding of the demographic breakdown of Essex and how this relates to the members and client base of ECDP. This was written to help provide a basis to enable ECDP to ...

This paper provides an understanding of the demographic breakdown of Essex and how this relates to the members and client base of ECDP. This was written to help provide a basis to enable ECDP to understand who its primary audience is - i.e. disabled people in Essex - to shape and inform its work and services.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,958
Views on SlideShare
1,956
Embed Views
2

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0

1 Embed 2

http://www.slashdocs.com 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Disabled people in Essex: understanding the demographics Disabled people in Essex: understanding the demographics Document Transcript

  • Disabled people in Essex – understanding the demographics April 2010 Introduction 1. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the demographic breakdown of Essex and how this relates to the members and client base of ECDP. This knowledge will provide a basis to enable ECDP to understand who its primary audience is – i.e. disabled people in Essex – to inform its work and services. 2. With an understanding of the constituency, we can understand better who ECDP currently represents and where the gaps are. We can also begin to examine what clients and members want ECDP to be and how best we can represent them in this respect. Methodology 3. The following main sources have been used to inform this paper: • Joint Strategic Needs Assessment Essex (JSNA, 2008): http://www.essexpartnership.org/vip8/com/Community/content/binaries/do cuments/People_living_with_disabilities_(bookmarks).pdf • Office for National Statistics (2001) ECC Census Information: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/22.asp • Improving the Life Chances of Disabled People (2005) Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/cabinetoffice/strategy/assets/disabili ty.pdf • Living in Britain: General Household Survey (2002): http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Product.asp?vlnk=5756 • Digital Inclusion: The Evidence (2009) Helen Milner, UK Online Centres: http://digitalengagement.org/2009/04/26/digital-inclusion-the-evidence/ • Carers UK: http://www.carersuk.org/Home • Essex Trends: Understanding Our County (2006): http://www.essexcc.gov.uk/vip8/ecc/ECCWebsite/content/binaries/docume nts/01_Our_People.pdf?channelOid=null • Disabled People and the Workforce in Essex: www.exdra.co.uk/download.cfm?type=document&document=196 4. The statistics used in this paper are taken directly from the above sources. In some cases they are not current but are used because more up-to-date figures
  • are not yet available. They are useful in giving a good general picture of the demographic of Essex. 5. The figures used for ECDP membership are based on all members recorded in the OSCAR database (as at January 2010), who are not deceased and have a membership number, and for whom we have the relevant information. The sample size is given in each case. 6. As far as possible, the geographical area a figure relates to is quoted (e.g. Essex as a geographical county, or Essex/ Southend/ Thurrock as local authority areas). 7. Though there will always be methodological questions about what statistics are produced, how they are produced and how they are used, the information presented enables us to generate an overall picture of the population of Essex and ECDP’s membership. Page 2 of 14
  • SECTION 1: ESSEX Essex Population Numbers 8. The population of Essex is 1.66million (JSNA 2008). ONS data shows that between 1998 and 2008 the Essex population of Essex grew at an average rate of 0.7% per year and is projected to grow to over 1.9 million (14% increase) by 2029. Gender 9. Overall, men make up 48.8% of the population of Essex. Women make up 51.2% of the population. 10. Males slightly outnumber females up until the age of 30. Of the population aged 65+ around 56% are women and by the age of 85+ this figure has increased to over 68%. These differences are largely due to consistent patterns of longer life expectancy in women. Age / Life Expectancy 11. As the population continues to live longer, levels of impairment will continue to increase also. This means it is important to examine the age distribution of the county. 12. Compared to England as a whole, Essex has proportionately more younger and older people. 13. Tendring has the highest proportion of older people in the East of England, (1 in 3 residents over 65). Within this district Clacton-on-Sea and Frinton-on-Sea have a high population of retired people. Castle Point also has a relatively older population (1 in 4 residents over 65). 14. Thurrock has a much younger population (only 1 in 7 people aged 65 or over) and 21% children (aged 0-15). 15. Life expectancy (indicating many other social and economic factors) varies hugely across Essex. In Southend it is 78.1 and in Thurrock it is 78.2 (this is still near the average for England, which is 78.3), but in Uttlesford it is 88.7 (potentially indicating a better quality of life or care). 16. Lower life expectancies are more common in vulnerable groups, such as gypsies/travellers or those with serious mental illness. Disability Statistics 17. According to the General Household Survey 2002, about 21% of the total adult population is disabled Page 3 of 14
  • 18. No robust figure for an equivalent figure for Essex currently exists. However, approximately 16% of the Essex population declared they have a limiting long- term illness – a reasonable proxy measure. Among Essex working-age population (16-64) around 121,000 people (2005 figures) declare an impairment. 19. Disability across Essex can be split by impairment group as follows1: Table 1: Impairment groups as percentage of total population (by area) 20. 21. Physical/temporary Sensory 22. 23. Learning impairment Impairment Disability2 National 2.7% 0.22% 0.39% Essex3 3.2% (higher) 0.12 %(lower) 0.35% (lower) 4.6 % when but 0.44% are including those registered with a with a secondary learning or mild disability (this impairment rises to 7.2 in Tendring and 6.6 in Colchester) Southend 3.0% (higher) 0.17% (lower) 0.39% (equal) Thurrock 1.69% (lower) 0.07% (lower) 0.27% (lower) Average across 2.63% 0.12% 0.34% Essex Older People, Disability and social care 24. It can be difficult to estimate the rate of impairment in older people for a number of reasons. Firstly, perhaps having had few or no health issues throughout their lives, they may not consider that the health problems they have acquired at a later stage in life qualify as impairments. Secondly, they may not qualify for (or seek) the type of the care that includes them in statistics such as those below. Finally, older people can be overlooked in medical and care systems and some individuals may have undiagnosed or untreated conditions. The rate of long term illnesses is at its highest among older people. 25. In 2005-6 the rate of older people (over 65s) receiving social care in England was 15.77%. Locally, the figures were: • Essex: 15.11% (lower than national average) • Southend: 14.71% (lower) • Thurrock: 10.65% (lower) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Groups 1 Information in grey indicate comparison to the national figure 2 Number of people with a learning disability supported by social services 3 In this instance, Essex refers to the area covered by ECC, excluding the unitary boroughs Page 4 of 14
  • 26. The government estimates that between 5 and 7% of the population is lesbian, gay or bisexual. We do not have any specific statistics relating to Essex. Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Groups 27. According to the 2001 Census, people from non-Caucasian groups made up 5.5% of Essex residents compared to across England where 13.0% of people belonged to BME groups. In 2001, people from BME groups made up 2.9% of Essex residents. White minority groups (such as Polish people) made up 2.6% of the Essex population. 28. Recent estimates, however, state that 8.6% of Essex’s residents are from BME groups, which demonstrates the Essex BME population is growing in line with national averages. Gypsy and Traveller Community 29. There are 11 registered Gypsy / Traveller sites in Essex (with the capacity for 305 caravans) which are residential rather than transient. The county is host to over a third of the East of England's unauthorised developments, many of which are in Basildon. Essex hosts the largest Traveller site in Europe and has the highest concentration of Travellers nationally. Broader equality indicators 30. The following points, regarding finance/ income, education/ employment, health inequalities and the digital divide are not areas that ECDP can compare directly to its membership. However, they are included here because they are factors which are typically linked to disability equality and are therefore of interest in understanding ECDP’s primary audience. Finance/ Income 31. Essex has some of the most affluent and some of the most deprived areas in the country. 32. At district level, Tendring and Southend are the most deprived but there are pockets of deprivation overshadowed by overall affluence in most districts / boroughs. 33. There is an acute shortage of affordable housing, especially in rural areas and for local workers whose salaries do not compete with that on offer in London. Nearly 36,000 households (approx 5%) are on local authority waiting lists for housing, with demand highest in Chelmsford, Harlow and Epping Forest. 34. 2,500 households a year are accepted as homeless, with Harlow showing a significantly higher rate than elsewhere. Drug, alcohol and mental health conditions are inextricably linked with a large section of the homeless client group. Research shows that 83% of homeless people take some form of drug Page 5 of 14
  • (other than alcohol); one in four tenants with mental health problems risks losing their home; and 25% of offenders known to NACRO (National Association of the Care and Rehabilitation of Offenders) have mental health conditions. Poor quality housing is associated with poor health and psychological problems. Education/ Employment 35. 59% of pupils in Essex gained five or more high-grade GSCEs in 2006 (equal to the average of England). In Tendring and Maldon results were below the 50% mark, and in Rochford they were nearer 80%. 36. Only 21% of working-age adults in Essex have a level 4 qualification or above, the rate for England is 27%. 17% have no qualifications compared to 14% in England. 37. Parts of Essex suffer from an even greater skills deficit: in Maldon, Tendring and Uttlesford more than a fifth have no qualifications and in Maldon and Castle Point the proportion with level 4 qualifications is half that for England. Disability 38. Disabled people are half as likely to be employed and half as likely to have no educational qualification. 39. 6% of first class honours degrees are gained by students known to have a disability. 40. According to the Employers Forum on Disability, one in five disabled people in the UK are unemployed but want to work; this compares to one in 15 of non- disabled people. 41. At 30%, the poverty rate for disabled adults in the UK is twice that for non- disabled adults. Health Inequalities 42. Although Essex Trends reports that overall ‘Essex’s health services are good’, it also states that ‘there are dramatic health inequalities at local level.’ Around 26,000 Essex live in clusters of health deprivation around Clacton, Basildon and Colchester. Digital divide (in England) 43. Access to the internet and digital technologies are not evenly distributed throughout the population, as follows: • 29% of all adults and 35% of all households do not have any access to the internet • 25% of adults have never used the internet and this extends to 70% of the population over 65 Page 6 of 14
  • • 49% of those without internet access are in social grade D / E (i.e. unskilled or unemployed), which is more than double their incidence in the population • 70% of people who live in social housing aren’t online and this same group make up 28% of the total number of people who are not online • Only 15% of people living in deprived areas have used a government online service or website in the last year • 75% of those not online do not work. Carers in Essex4 44. Carers UK define carers as people who ‘provide unpaid care and support to ill, frail or disabled friends or family members… over 3 in 5 people in the UK will become carers at some time in their lives.’ They state that: • The UK currently has 6 million carers • Each year 2.3 million people become carers • 26% of these carers work full-time and also provide over 20 hours care per week. 45. ECC social services support 0.69% of the Essex population as carers. National statistics state that 1.25% of population are carers. 4 We will add to this section over time as we become aware of further data relating to carers in Essex. Page 7 of 14
  • SECTION 2: ECDP’S MEMBERSHIP 46. The information below analyses ECDP’s current membership (as at January 2010), both in itself and in comparison to the Essex population as described above. The purpose of this is to highlight the areas of the demographic currently well represented by ECDP or areas underrepresented where more work needs to be done. 47. It is worth noting initially that nationally 21% of the adult population is disabled. With a population of 1.66 million, Essex’s total population of disabled people is potentially more than 348,600. With a current membership of 1,636 people, ECDP currently represents a very small portion of this total. Disability / Impairment Table 2: ECDP members by impairment Primary impairment Total % Learning disability 182 21.6 Long-term health condition 57 6.8 Mental health condition 44 5.2 Other 44 5.2 Physical impairment 472 55.9 Sensory impairment 45 5.3 Total 844 48. Of the ECDP members where impairment is known, over half (55.9%) have a physical impairment and just under a quarter (21.6%) have a learning disability. 49. Although the same data does not exist for the county wide demography we can still see that, when looking at an average of Essex, Southend and Thurrock, there are eight times more people with a physical impairment than a learning disability. However, ECDP’s membership only contains twice as many people with a physical impairment. 50. On average in Essex 0.12% of the total population are affected by a sensory impairment, which is 22 times less than those with a physical impairment. ECDP’s membership contains 10 times less people with a sensory impairment compared with those who have a physical impairment. 51. As a result, whilst it appears as though ECDP has a larger number of members with physical impairments, when compared to the Essex equivalent they are not as over represented in ECDP’s membership as they are in the general population. Essex does have a relatively small number of people with sensory impairments and learning disabilities, and this is reflected in ECDP’s membership numbers. Page 8 of 14
  • Table 3: Impairment groups as a percentage of each age range Impairment/ Learning Long-term Mental health Other Physical Sensory Total Age Disabilities health condition impairment Impairment condition N % N % N % N % N % N % Under 16 28 41.8 0 0 0 0 13 19.4 24 35.8 2 3.0 67 16 to 24 64 63.4 1 1 1 1 6 6 24 23 5 5 101 25 to 34 38 46.3 6 7.3 3 3.7 0 0 31 37.8 4 4.9 82 35 to 44 21 17.7 13 10.6 6 4.9 2 1.6 73 59.3 8 6.5 123 45 to 54 18 13.7 13 9.9 12 9.5 1 0.8 78 59.5 9 6.9 131 55 to 64 9 6.8 12 9.1 12 9.1 3 2.3 91 68.9 5 3.8 132 Over 65 3 1.5 12 5.9 9 4.4 19 9.3 149 73.0 12 5.9 204 Grand Total 181 57 43 44 470 45 N=840 Table 4: Impairment/ age groups as a percentage of the total membership Impairment/ Age Learning Long-term Mental Other Physical Sensory Total Disabilities health health impairment Impairment condition condition N % N % N % N % N % N % Under 16 28 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 13 1.5 24 2.9 2 0.2 67 8.0 16 to 24 64 7.6 1 0.1 1 0.1 6 0.7 24 2.9 5 0.6 101 12.0 25 to 34 38 4.5 6 0.7 3 0.4 0 0.0 31 3.7 4 0.5 82 9.8 35 to 44 21 2.5 13 1.5 6 0.7 2 0.2 73 8.7 8 1.0 123 14.6 45 to 54 18 2.1 13 1.5 12 1.4 1 0.1 78 9.3 9 1.1 131 15.6 55 to 64 9 1.1 12 1.4 12 1.4 3 0.4 91 10.8 5 0.6 132 15.7 Over 65 3 0.4 12 1.4 9 1.1 19 2.3 149 17.7 12 1.4 204 24.3 Total 181 21.6 57 6.8 43 5.2 44 5.2 470 55.9 45 5.3 N=840 Page 9 of 14
  • 52. The above tables show both the number of members in each age range/impairment group and also what percentage of the age range and total membership they make up. 53. Unsurprisingly, we see many more members with learning disabilities in the younger age groups and many more people with long-term health conditions and physical and sensory impairments in older age groups. Age and gender Table 5: Age groups of ECDP’s members (by gender) Age Range Female Male Total Number % Number % Number % Under 16 45 5.6 108 17.0 153 10.6 16 to 24 64 8.0 97 15.2 161 11.2 25 to 34 68 8.5 75 11.8 143 9.9 35 to 44 109 13.5 79 12.4 188 13.0 45 to 54 141 17.5 101 15.9 242 16.8 55 to 64 126 15.7 79 12.4 205 14.2 Over 65 252 31.3 98 15.4 350 24.3 Total 805 637 1442 54. Recall that: 1) Essex has slightly more women (51.2%) than men (48.8%) and that 2) men slightly outnumber women up until 30, but then over 65 women outnumber men (56% to 44%). These trends are exaggerated amongst ECDP’s membership: • 56% of our members are women and 44% are men. • Over 65s are the biggest portion of ECDP’s members (24.3%). Of these, there are over 2.5 times more women than men • Under 24s make up the next biggest age group. Within this group, there are just under twice as many men (14.2%) as there are women (7.5%). BME Groups Table 6: BME background of ECDP’s members BME group Total Percentage of Total BME members Asian 7 1.0 4.8% Black 7 1.0 Chinese 2 0.3 Mixed 8 1.1 White – Other 10 1.4 White – British 681 95.2 95.2% 713 members where ethnicity Total members 1636 is known 55. Recall that, according to the 2001 Census, people from non-Caucasian groups made up 5.5% of Essex residents (compared to 13.0% across England). More recent estimates used by Essex County Council show approximately 8.6% of Page 10 of 14
  • people in Essex are from BME backgrounds. If this estimate is correct, the total figure for ECDP members from BME groups (4.8%) is not currently representative of the population as a whole. Table 7: BME groups as a percentage of each age range White- White- Asian Black Chinese Mixed Other British Total Numbe r % N % N % N % N % N % Under 16 3 6.7 1 2.2 0 0 3 6.7 2 4.4 36 80.0 45 16 to 24 1 1.2 1 1.2 0 0 2 2.6 0 0 76 95 80 25 to 34 1 1.4 1 1.4 0 0 0 0 1 1.4 66 94.2 69 35 to 44 0 0 3 2.9 0 0 1 1 2 2 98 93.3 104 45 to 54 1 0.9 0 0 0 0 2 1.7 1 0.9 111 95.7 115 55 to 64 0 0 1 0.8 0 0 0 0 1 0.8 117 96.6 119 Over 65 1 0.6 0 0 2 1.1 0 0 3 1.7 175 95.0 181 Total Sample members 7 1.0 7 1.0 2 0.3 8 1.1 10 1.4 681 95.5 = 713 56. Given increasing migration in recent years, one might expect the highest number of members from BME groups to be in the youngest age groups. Although this trend is reflected (with more people from BME groups in the under 16 age range than in any other), there is still a distribution of BME members through the older age groups (as to be expected from ECDP’s membership age profile). Gypsy and Traveller Community 57. ECDP does not have information on the number of Gypsies or Travellers in its membership. However, given that it is often the case that Gypsy and Traveller communities are isolated from the wider one, it is highly likely that ECDP does not represent these groups sufficiently, especially as Essex has a high number of Travellers compared to other areas in the East of England. ECDP support service clients, by impairment group Table 8: PASS and SDSS clients and ECDP members by impairment group (as percentage of users of each service)5 ECDP members, % SDSS clients, % PASS clients, % (N=844) (N=308 per (N=1356) annum) Carer 1.2 6 Child 17.9 17.7 Older 24.3 44.1 20.5 Person 5 Essex only. Grey boxes represent data that is currently unavailable. Data based on monitoring reports from April-December 2009. 6 Unfortunately, it is not possible to include a figure for the number of people under 18 who are ECDP members. We currently only hold reliable data for people under 16 or those between 16-24. Page 11 of 14
  • ECDP members, % SDSS clients, % PASS clients, % (N=844) (N=308 per (N=1356) annum) Learning 21.6 10.9 19.2 Disability Mental 5.2 8.2 8.1 Health Condition Unknown 1.1 Physical / 61.2 19.1 32.2 Sensory Long- 6.8 term health condition ‘Other’ 5.2 58. This table suggests that ECDP’s client base is reasonably well distributed amongst all different impairment groups. This is particularly the case for our payroll service (PASS), but also the case for our information, advice and guidance service (SDSS). 59. From the table, we can see that: • PASS has proportionately fewer clients who are older people, or people with a learning disability or physical / sensory impairment than ECDP has members. • SDSS has proportionately more clients who are older people than ECDP has members, but fewer clients with a learning disability or physical / sensory impairment than ECDP members. • Both PASS and SDSS have proportionately more clients with mental health conditions than ECDP has members. Page 12 of 14
  • SECTION 3: KEY FINDINGS 60. The following represents the key findings of this paper in relation to ECDP’s membership compared to the general Essex population: Disability 61. We estimate Essex’s total population of disabled people to be potentially more than 348,600. 62. ECDP’s current membership (at January 2010) is 1,636 people. Of these: • 21.6% have a learning disability • 6.8% have a long-term health condition • 5.2% have a mental health condition • 61.2% have a physical or sensory impairment 63. ECDP’s membership reflects the wider Essex population. The relative gap between impairment groups within ECDP’s membership is smaller than that for the wider population of Essex. For example, across Essex, Southend and Thurrock there are eight times more people with a physical impairment than a learning disability. However, ECDP’s membership only contains twice as many people with a physical impairment than a learning disability. Age / gender 64. Overall, 56% of our members are women and 44% are men. 65. ECDP’s membership profile exaggerates the age profile of Essex: • Over 65s are the biggest portion of ECDP members (24.3%). Of these, there are over 2.5 times more women than men • Under 24s make up the next biggest age group. Within this group, there are just under twice as many men (14.2%) as there are women (7.5%). BME 66. Just under 5% of our members are from BME backgrounds 67. According to the 2001 Census, 5.5% of Essex residents are from BME backgrounds, meaning ECDP is broadly representative of the Essex population. However, recent estimates show approximately 8.6% of people in Essex are from BME backgrounds, suggesting ECDP’s membership is not currently representative of the population as a whole. 68. Furthermore, it is highly likely that ECDP does not represent Gypsy or Traveller groups sufficiently, especially as Essex has a high number of Travellers compared to other areas in England. ECDP’s support service clients Page 13 of 14
  • 69. ECDP’s client base is reasonably well distributed amongst all different impairment groups. This is particularly the case for our payroll service (PASS), but also the case for our information, advice and guidance service (SDSS). 70. Of our clients: • Some 19.2% of our PASS clients have a learning disability – a figure which drops to 10.9% for SDSS clients • Just over 8% of our clients in PASS or SDSS have mental health conditions. • ECDP has proportionately far fewer clients with physical or sensory impairments than we do members: just over 32% of PASS clients and 19% of SDSS clients fall into this group, compared to just over 61% of ECDP members. • Though 24.3% of our members are older people, some 20.5% of PASS clients and 44.1% of SDSS clients are over 65. All 3 measures are higher than the average for older people receiving social care in Essex (15.1%). • Nearly 18% of all our clients are children with disabilities. Page 14 of 14