Cognitive development
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Cognitive development

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  • (DevelopmentalMetacognition, Aspects in young children) Shows a gradual development of metacognition and theory of mind leading to what Piaget called “de-centering”, where the child can see from another perspective Also found that 4-5yr old children who had a metacognitive advantage kept that advantage during the two year study
  • Reciprocol teaching Summarizing: Identifying the main ideas of a reading passage Questioning: Asking oneself questions to check comprehension of ideas Clarifying: Taking steps to better understand a confusing point Predicting: Anticipating what points an author is apt to make laterScaffolding Cognitive modeling – Adult performs while verbalizing instructions Overt External guidance – Adult verbalizes instructions while child performs Overt self-guidance – Child repeats instructions while performing Faded, overt self-guidance – The child whispers instructions while performing Covert self-guidance – the child silently things about the instructions (inner speech) while performin
  • Partition the classroom into small areas that give children numerous optionsProvide realistic toys that suggest certain activities and functions as well as more versatile objects that allow children to engage in fantasy and imaginationProvide enough toys and equipment to minimize potential conflicts, but keep them limited enough in number that children must share and cooperate

Cognitive development Cognitive development Presentation Transcript

  • Cognitive Development:Piaget and Vygotsky
    Richard Poore
  • Piaget’s Theory
    Clinical Method
    Class Inclusion
  • Key Ideas to Piaget’s Theory
    Children are active and motivated learners
    Children organize what they learn from their experiences
    Schemes
    Operations
    Children adapt to their environment through:
    Assimilation
    Accommodation
  • Key Ideas to Piaget’s Theory
    Interaction with the physical environment is critical for cognitive development
    Interaction with other people is equally critical
    The process of equilibration promotes increasingly complex forms of thought
    Equilibrium
    Disequilibrium
    Children think in qualitatively different ways at different age levels
  • Piaget’s Stagesof Cognitive Development
    Sensorimotor Stage
    Birth through 2 years
    Preoperational
    2 through 6/7 years
    Concrete Operations
    6/7 through 11/12 years
    Formal Operations
    11/12 through adulthood
  • Sensorimotor Stage
    Trial and Error
    Goal Directed Behavior
    Object Permanence
    Symbolic Thought
  • Preoperational Stage
    Rapid Linguistic Ability
    Vocabulary and Syntax
    Extensive Pretend Play
    Intuitive Thought
  • Concrete Operations
    Distinctions Between
    One’s own and
    Others’ perspectives
    Class Inclusion
    Conservation
  • Formal Operations
    Reasoning about abstract
    hypothetical,
    And contrary-to-fact
    ideas
    Separation and control of
    variables
    Proportional Reasoning
    Idealism
  • Current Perspectives related toPiaget’s Theory
    Capabilities of different age-groups
    Effects of prior knowledge and experience
    Effects of culture
    Does cognitive development occur in stages?
    Neo-Piagetian theories
  • Key Ideas inNeo-Piagetian Theories
    Cognitive development is constrained by the maturation of information processing mechanisms in the brain
    Working memory
    Children acquire new knowledge through both unintentional and intentional learning processes
  • Key Ideas inNeo-Piagetian Theories
    Children acquire cognitive structures that affect their thinking in particular content domains
    Central Conceptual Structures
    Development in specific content domains can sometimes be characterized as a series of stages
  • Applying Piagetian Ideas
    Provide opportunities for children to experiment with physical objects and natural phenomena
    Explore children’s reasoning with problem-solving tasks and probing questions
    Keep Piaget’s stages in mind when interpreting children’s behavior and when planning activities, but don’t take the stages too literally.
  • Applying Piagetian Ideas
    Present situations and ideas that children cannot easily explain using their existing knowledge and beliefs
    Use familiar content and tasks when asking children to reason in sophisticated ways
    Plan group activities in which young people share their beliefs and perspectives with one another
  • Vygotsky’sSociocultural Theory
    Focused on tools – concepts, problem-solving strategies, etc – rather than physical objects
    Adult assistance
  • Vygotsky’s Key Ideas
    Some cognitive processes are seen in a variety of species; others are unique to human beings
    Through both informal interactions and formal schooling, adults convey to children the ways in which their culture interprets the world
    Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools that make daily living more effective and efficient
  • Vygotsky’s Key Ideas
    Thought and language become increasingly interdependent in the first few years of life
    Self-talk
    Inner speach
    Complex mental processes begin as social activities and gradually evolve into internal mental activities that children can use independently
    Internalization
  • Vygotsky’s Key Ideas
    Children acquire their culture’s tools in their own ideosyncratic manner
    Appropriation
    Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced and competent individuals
    Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth
    Zone of Proximal Development
  • Vygotsky’s Key Ideas
    Play allows children to stretch themselves cognitively
    Sociodramatic play
  • Current Perspectives related toVygotsky’s Theory
    Social construction of meaning
    Mediated learning experience
    Scaffolding
    Participation in adult activities
    Guided participation
    Aprenticeship
    Cognitive Aprenticeship
    Acquisition of teaching skills
  • Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas
    Help children acquire the basic cognitive tools of various activities and academic disciplines
    Use group learning activities to help children internalize cognitive strategies
    Reciprocal teaching
    Present challenging tasks, and provide sufficient scaffolding to enable children to accomplish them successfully
  • Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas
    Assess children’s abilities under a variety of work conditions
    Provide opportunities to engage in authentic activities
    Give children the chance to play
  • Piaget and VygotskyCommon Themes
    Constructive processes in learning
    Constructivism, social and individual
    Readiness
    Challenge
    Importance of social interaction
  • Piaget vs. VygotskyTheoretical Differences
    How essential is language for cognitive development?
    What kinds of experiences promote development?
    What social interactions are most valuable?
    How influential is culture?