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The Material Wood

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engineered wood

engineered wood

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  • Bark PROTECTIVE LAYER OUTSIDE IS DEAD - INSIDE ALIVE Cambium VERY THIN CREATES NEW CELLS Sapwood STORE NUTRIENTS & TRANSMITS SAP THICK - LIVING Heartwood DEAD WOOD PROVIDES STRUCTURAL STABILITY Pith EARLY YEARS GROWTH SMALL - WEAK
  • Primarily Hollow, Cylindrical Cells - “TRACHEIDS” Axis running parallel to the tree Tough Cellulose bond by Lignin IMAGINE A GROUP OF STRAWS Impact on the properties of wood PARALLEL WITH GRAIN (TUBE) STRONG PERPENDICULAR - WEAK
  • Springwood (earlywood) Faster growth Cells larger and less dense Summerwood (latewood) Slower growth Cells smaller and denser APPEARS DARKER HENCE - THE RINGS
  • Softwoods - Coniferous Trees “ SOFT” OR “HARD” NOT NECESSARILY LITERALLY SIMPLE MICROSTRUCTURE COARSE UNINTERESTING GRAIN PINE, SPRUCE, FIR, CEDAR MOST OF THE LUMBER USED IN BUILDING WHY??? GROWS FASTER, MORE PLENTIFUL, MORE ECONOMICAL Hardwoods - Broad leafed trees MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURE BEAUTIFUL GRAIN PATTERNS PRIMARILY - FINE CABINETRY & DOORS, TRIMS / ACCENTS OAK, POPULAR, WALNUT, MAPLE
  • Structural Framing GENERALLY PINE, FIR OR SPRUCE Subfloors and Roof decking GENERALLY WOOD PANELS Siding - Structural & Exposed STRUCTURAL - OFTEN WOOD PANELS EXPOSED - NATURALLY DECAY RESISTANT OR TREATED CEDAR, CYPRESS Finish cabinetry and Trim PAINTED OR LAMINATED - PANELS OR SOFTWOODS “ EXPOSED”/ FINISHED - HARDWOODS
  • 1ST CUT (LOG) AND TRANSPORT TO THE MILL Plain Sawing Maximum Yield Varying grain pattern CAUSES DRYING DISTORTIONS DIFFERENT SURFACE APPEARANCE LESS DURABILITY Most common use - Framing lumber WHY??? NOT SEEN STRUCTURAL QUALITIES ACCEPTABLE ECONOMICAL
  • WHY DRY WOOD??? WATER IS 30% TO 300% OF DRY WT. Seasoned lumber @ 19% or less HEAVY, WEAKER, LESS STABLE Drying Types Air CUT & STACKED IN OPEN AIR DRIED - CAN TAKE MONTHS Kiln CUT & STACKED KILN DRIED - A MATTER OF DAYS FASTER, HIGHER QUALITY PROCESS Drying Effects Shrinkage LENGTH - NEGLIGIBLE RADIAL - MEASURABLE AMOUNT 12’ BOARD - 30% TO 15% (2% SHRINKAGE - 1/4”) TANGENTIAL - UP TO 50% > RADIAL (STRESSES INDUCED) Reduced weight Increase of strength and stiffness More dimensional stable
  • Purpose; Smooth Dimensional precision Designations; S2S, S4S FRAMING - S4S SOME HARDWOODS - S2S Performed primarily after drying WHY??? “ SHRINAGE DURING DRYING
  • Growth defects Knots & knot holes LIMBS / BRANCHES Decay and/or insect damage MOIST CONDITIONS, BORES Manufacturing Defects Splits & checks Crook, bow, cup, and/or twist WHAT CAUSES THESE DEFECTS??? DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE
  • Strength & Stiffness, or STRUCTURAL OR FRAMING LUMBER VARIES - SPECIES AND IMPERFECTIONS Appearance NON-STRUCTURAL OR FINISH LUMBER Effect on price Grade HIGHER GRADE HIGHER ALLOWABLE STRESSES HIGHER PRICE #1 SELECT - DIFFICULT TO FIND #2 &3 MOST COMMON FOR FRAMING Appearance BETTER APPEARANCE HIGHER PRICE EXAMPLE; 1 x 12 (priced in 2001) # 3 $1 / BF #2 TWICE (2) THE PRICE OF #3 #1 FIVE (5) TIMES PRICE OF #3
  • Thickness - “Nominal” < 2 inches - Boards FRAMING LUMBER - MOST 2 to 4 inches - Dimension Lumber = to or > 5 inches - Timbers Widths - “Nominal” Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches WHY NOT Typically WIDER??? Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.)
  • Nominal not equal to “Actual” dimensions LUMBER “SAWN” Close to Nominal Then dried and surfaced Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less WHY THE “BREAK AT 6”??? MORE DISTORTION & SHRINKAGE TO ACCOMMODATE DURING SURFACING
  • Typically; Two (2) foot increments Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ WHY NOT Typically LONGER??? Exceptions; 93 inch studs WHY 93 INCHES??? Special order lengths
  • FACTORS YOU MUST DECIDE ON WHY DOES SIZE AFFECT COST / BF???
  • Lamination Process SELECT LUMBER, GRADE JOINTS - FINGER OR SCARF ADHESIVES BASED ON EXPECTED MOISTURE Why Laminate? Create a size not available naturally Create Shapes ARCHES, CURVES, ETC. Improved Quality PROCESS CONTROLLED DEFECTS REMOVED / CONSIDERED GRAIN DIRECTION CONTROLLED USES CHURCHES LARGE RESIDENTIAL LODGES, RESTAURANTS
  • Why Panelize? More “controlled” product (strength, shrinkage, etc.) Efficient use of forest products Increase labor productivity Types Plywood Composite panels Veneered panels
  • Thin layers of veneer glued together VENEERS - ROTARY CUT Odd number of veneers Alternating direction of veneers Face veneers parallel USES SAME AS OSB EXPOSED/PAINTED SURFACES FORMWORK COST MORE THAN OSB
  • Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D B and better sanded smooth Price Variances (2001) 23/32 Exterior A/C = $31 per panel 23/32 Exterior B/C = $20 per panel MOST FORMWORK B/C FINISH AREAS MAY REQUIRE “A”
  • INTRODUCED IN THE EARLY 80’s GETTING WIDESPREAD USE Long strand like wood particles Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers) Compressed / glued Strongest of the Non-veneered WHY IS IT THE STRONGEST??? ORIENTATION OF STANDS Generally more economical than Plywood Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding WHY IS IT GETTING WIDESPREAD USE??? STRUCTURALLY SOUND ECONOMICAL - SUBBSTITUTE FOR PLYWOOD NEW GROWTH TREES
  • Established by American Plywood Association (APA) Standards based on; Structural adequacy Dimensional Stability UNDER VARYING MOISTURE CONDITIONS Durability of Adhesive
  • Panel Grade Span Rating IN INCHES PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORT LARGER # - ROOF SPAN SMALLER # - FLOOR SPAN
  • Thickness Exposure Durability Exterior - siding or continuous exposure Exposure I; Waterproof glue - but veneers are not as high of quality as exterior grade (subfloors, sheathing) - most common rating Exposure II; Minimum wetting
  • Combustibility FIRE RETARTANT IMPREGNATED UNDER PRESSURE Decay & Insect PRESSURE IMPREGNATED UP TO 30 YEAR LIFE TYPES CREOSOTE PENTACHOROPHENOL - OILY, CAN’T PAINT WATERBORNE SALTS - GREENISH - CAN PAINT Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) being phased out HIGH MOISTURE USES – WHY NOT USE DECAY RESISTANT WOODS??? (CEDAR, REDWOOD, CYPRESS) COST & STRENGTH
  • Common flat heads, used mostly for structural connections Finish Nails virtually headless, finish woodwork Common - Used for Framing, Large Shank & Head Box - Smaller Shank, less chance for splitting wood, Used Shingles, Rough Casings Casing, Finish, Brad - Finish Components, Sink Head Deformed Shank - Very Hard to Remove, DW & Flr. Concrete - Masonry & Concrete Cut - Finish Flooring - SQ Head Reduces Cracking Roofing - One of Many, Some Have lead/Rubber Washers
  • Size - Measured in “pennies” (Price of 100 nails long ago) Corresponding Lengths Same for Common & Finish Most Common Light Frame Nails - 16d for 2”, 10D AND 8D Coatings Bright/ Plain uncoated steel MOST COMMON USED - NON CORROSIVE OR CONCEALED CONDITION Corrosion-resistant “ EXPOSED TO WEATHER RUST OR STAIN LUMBER GALVANIZED, ALUM., SS Resin/Vinyl Decrease Drive & Increase Holding This nail has a smaller shaft – commonly called a ‘sinker’
  • Anchorage Face - Perpendicular to Grain End - Parallel Toe - Angle to Grain Which Has the Most Holding Power??? Which is most common???
  • APPLICATIONS FRAMING SHEATHING ROOFING
  • “ Head” type PHILLIPS SLOTTED SQUARE HEAD PAN, FLAT, ROUND, ETC. Sizing - Gauge & Length WIRE GAUGE (SAMPLES #8 & #10) LENGTH IN INCHES (AND FACTIONS) Installation HAND SCREW DRIVER “ SCREW GUN”, OR DRILL HOLDING POWER TIGHTER, STRONGER THAN NAILS CAN BE “BACKED” OUT, & REINSERTED Uses CABINETWORK SOME FRAMING APPLICATIONS DECKING - BETTER HOLD - LESS SQUECK
  • Lag Screws Large screws Very LARGE Screws, Wrench, ¼ “@ 2-6 in., ½ to 10” FOR HEAVIER STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS Square or octagonal head Installed w/ wrench Drywall screws Used to attach drywall Drywall Screws (Size, 1 ¼, 1 5/8, 2 “, Screw Gun - Fast, Wood or Metal,
  • Heavier structural connections COMMONLY USED W/ TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Sizes 1/4 inch to 1 inch+ LENGTH; ABOUT ANY (PRACTICALLY 10-12”) Types Machine SQUARE OR OCTAGONAL HEAD USED WITH WASHER Carriage ROUND BUTTON HEAD SQUARE SHANK INHIBITS TURNING Washers DISTRIBUTE THE COMPRESSIVE FORCE
  • NUMEROUS TYPES AND SHAPES MOST COMMON - JOIST HANGER LIGHT WOOD FRAMING - ATTACHED WITH SCREWS OR NAILS HEAVY TIMBER - ATTACHED WITH BOLTS / LAGS
  • ON SITE LESS USES BECAUSE OF NEED TO CLAMP USES FLOOR SHEATHING BASE (SOLE) PLATES WALL PANELS PANELING (WHERE THERE IS A NEED FOR CONCEALED FASTENERS) INCREASE STIFFNESS, ELIMINATE “SQUEAK”
  • Uses FLOORS & ROOFS Sizes Typically, 9-1/2” TO 24 “ DEEP LENGTH UP TO 40 FEET+ Composition & cost TOP & BOTTOM - LUMBER OR Laminated WEB - OSB, PLYWOOD COST - COMPARABLE TO 2x
  • Transcript

    • 1. “ Crisscrossing light wood frame recalls Gothic and surrounding trees while lifting the mind skyward.” E. Fay Jones and Associates. Thorncrown Chapel Eureka Springs, Arkansas 1980 WOOD
    • 2. Qualities of Wood
      • Strong & Stiff
      • Light
      • Easily worked / shaped
      • Fastened quickly & economically
      • Recyclable
      • Biodegradable
      • Renewable Resource
    • 3. Undesirable Characteristics of Wood
      • Not perfectly straight nor precise
      • Size & shape affected by moisture
      • Contains growth defects
      • Can spilt & warp
      • Burns easily
      • Decays
      • Susceptible to Insect Damage
    • 4. Tree Composition
      • Bark
      • Cambium
      • Sapwood
      • Heartwood
      • Pith
    • 5. Softwoods : Conifer Trees (pine, fir, spruce) for framing and sheathing
    • 6. Hardwoods - Deciduous trees (leaf trees) Like maple, oak ash, beech, birch Used for Flooring, moldings, furniture
    • 7. Tree Cells
      • Primarily Hollow, Cylindrical Cells
        • Axis running parallel to the tree (grain direction)
        • Tough Cellulose bound by Lignin
      • Impacts the properties of wood
    • 8. Tree Growth
      • Springwood (earlywood)
        • Faster growth
        • Cells larger and less dense
      • Summerwood (latewood)
        • Slower growth
        • Cells smaller and denser
    • 9. Types of Trees / Woods Oak Poplar Pine
    • 10. Construction Uses for Wood
      • Structural Framing
      • Subfloors and Roof Sheathing
      • Siding - Structural & Exposed
      • Finish cabinetry and Trim
    • 11. Lumber Production - Sawing
      • Plain Sawing
        • Maximum Yield
        • Varying grain pattern
        • Common use - Framing lumber
    • 12. Lumber Production - Sawing
      • Quarter Sawing
        • Perpendicular to annual rings
        • Less yield, but consistent grain pattern
        • Improved wearing quality, less distortion
    • 13. Typical Sawing Method
    • 14. Lumber Drying
      • Drying Methods
        • Air
        • Kiln
      • Drying Effects
        • Shrinkage
        • Reduced weight
        • Increase of strength and stiffness
        • More dimensional stable
    • 15. Differential Shrinkage (between radial & tangential) during drying can cause distortions
    • 16. Lumber Surfacing
      • Purpose;
        • Smooth
        • Dimensional precision
      • Designations; S2S, S4S
      • Surfacing typically performed before or after drying?
      Rough sawn (not surfaced) S4S
    • 17. Lumber Defects
      • Growth defects
        • Knots & knot holes
        • Decay and/or insect damage
      • Manufacturing Defects
        • Splits & checks
        • Crook, bow,
        • Cup, and/or twist
    • 18.  
    • 19. Lumber Grade & Species
      • Graded by:
      • Strength & Stiffness (Structural Lumber), or
      • Appearance (Finish Lumber)
      • Lumber sold by - Species and Grade
      • Better Grade  Higher price
      • Scarce or Higher Quality Species  Higher price
    • 20. Spruce, Fir, or Pine Stud Surfaced Dry No 2 Lumber Kiln Dried (19% moisture)
    • 21. Lumber Thickness and Width - NOMINAL
      • Thickness
        • < 2 inches - Boards
        • 2 to 4 in. - Dimension Lumber
        • = to or > 5 inches - Timbers
      • Widths
        • Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches
        • Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.)
    • 22. Lumber Thickness and Width - ACTUAL
      • Nominal not equal to Actual dimensions
      • Lumber SAWN Close to Nominal
      • Then dried and surfaced
      • Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less
      • Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less
    • 23. Lumber Lengths
      • Typically; Two (2) foot increments
      • Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ (longer available)
      • Exceptions;
        • 93 inch studs
        • Special order lengths
    • 24. Lumber Pricing Factors
      • Species
      • Grade (& drying process)
      • Lumber Size
    • 25. Lumber Pricing Unit - Board Feet
      • One board foot = 1 inch X 12 inch X 1 foot
      • Calculation based upon Nominal dimensions
      • # of board feet =
      • [(thickness” X width”) / 12] X length’
      • Example; 2x8 that is 10 feet long
      • [(2x8)/12] X 10 = 13.33 board feet (bf)
    • 26. Laminated Wood ( Glulam )
      • Lamination Process
      • Why Laminate?
        • Create a size not available naturally
        • Create Shapes
        • Improve Quality
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29. Structural Composite Lumber (PSL)
    • 30.  
    • 31. Wood Panel Products
      • Why Panelize?
        • More “controlled” product
        • Efficient use of forest products
        • Increase labor productivity
      • Types
        • Plywood panels
        • Composite panels
        • Nonveneered panels
    • 32. Veneered Panels - Plywood
      • Thin layers of veneer glued together
      • Odd number of veneers
      • Alternating direction of veneers
      • Face veneers parallel
      • Size: 4’x8’ panels
      • Thickness: ¼” to 1”
    • 33. Veneer Grades
      • Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers
      • Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D
      • Price Variances
      C Grade C Plugged A Grade
    • 34. Non-veneered Panels
      • Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
      • Waferboard
      • Particleboard
      • Fiberboard
      Particleboard Fiberboard
    • 35. Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
      • Long strand like wood particles
      • Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers)
      • Compressed / glued
      • Strongest of the Non-veneered
      • Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding
    • 36. Waferboard & Particleboard
      • Waferboard
        • Large wafer-like particles - No orientation
        • Uses; Low moisture areas
      • Particleboard
        • Small wood particles
        • No orientation
        • Uses; Low moisture areas
    • 37. Panel Standards & Grading
      • Established by American Plywood Association (APA)
      • Standards based on;
        • Structural adequacy
        • Dimensional Stability
        • Durability of Adhesive
    • 38. Structural Ratings
      • Specified by Thickness or Span Rating
      • Span Rating
        • Grade Stamp
        • For veneered &
        • nonveneered
        • Long dimension
        • perpendicular to
        • the support
    • 39. Exposure Durability Classifications
      • Exposure Durability
        • Exterior - siding or continuous exposure
        • Exposure I; waterproof glue but lower quality veneers
        • Exposure II; protected environments & minimum wetting
    • 40. PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD
      • Waterborne Preservatives
        • ACQ (alkaline copper quat
        • CA (copper azole)
        • SBX (sodium borates)
        • CCA (copper, chromate, arsenic)
      • Creosote
        • Distillate of coal tar
      • Oil-borne
        • Penta(chlorophenol)
    • 41. Wood Polymer Composite Planks proprietary name: TREX
      • Advantages:
        • Decay Resistance
        • Easy Workability
    • 42. Wood Fasteners
      • Nails
      • Wood & Lag Screws
      • Bolts
      • Toothed Plates
      • Sheet Metal & Metal Framing Devices
      • Machine Driven Staples & Nails
      • Adhesives
    • 43. Nails
      • Sharpened metal pins
      • Installation: Hammer or mechanical nail gun
      • Common Nails
      • Finish Nails
      • Other types
    • 44. 16d Galvanized 16d Sinker Deformed Shank 10d Galv. Spiral Finish Nail Roofing Nail (far right)
    • 45. Nails
      • Size - Measured in pennies
      • Coatings
        • Bright/ Plain
        • uncoated steel
        • Galvanized Corrosion-resistant
        • Resin/Vinyl
    • 46. Anchorage
        • Face, End, or Toe
    • 47. Machine Driven Nails & Staples
      • Nail Guns, Staple guns
      • Pneumatic (or electric)
      • Pre-packaged fasteners (collated nails)
      • Improved Productivity
      • Used in many applications
      • Power actuated fasteners
      Battery Powered Electric Nailer Collated Nails
    • 48. Wood Screws
      • Head type
      • Sizing -
        • Gauge & Length
      • Installation
      • Holding power
      • Uses
      Deck Screws Types of ‘Heads’
    • 49. Lag & Drywall Screws
      • Lag Screws
        • Large screws
        • Square or octagonal head
        • Installed w/ wrench
      • Drywall screws
        • Used to attach drywall
    • 50. Bolts
      • Heavier structural connections
      • Sizes
      • Types
        • Machine
        • Carriage
      • Washers
    • 51. Toothed Plates
      • Sheet metal plate w/ numerous teeth
      • Used with roof & floor trusses
      • Pressed into members
      • Very effective fasteners
    • 52. Sheet Metal Framing Devices
      • Light Wood Framing
        • Joist Hangers
        • Framing anchors
        • Angle anchors
        • Rafter anchor
      • Heavy Timber or Laminated Framing
    • 53. Adhesives
      • Widely used in the manufacture of wood products
        • Wood panels
        • Laminated wood
        • Cabinetry
      • On Site Uses
        • Sheathing
    • 54. Engineered Wood
      • Trusses
      • Wood I-Joists
      • Beams (gluelams)
      • Panel Components
    • 55. Trusses
      • Types of Trusses - Floor & Roof
      Floor Trusses Roof Trusses
    • 56.  
    • 57. Trusses (cont.)
      • Where and How Built?
        • Most factory built (pre-engineered)
        • Most 2X4 or 2X6 w/ toothed fasteners
      • Order how?
        • Span
        • Loads
        • Pitch (roof)
        • Overhang
    • 58. I-Joists
      • Uses
      • Sizes
      • Composition
      • Cost
    • 59. Why Use Trusses or I-Joists?
      • Less material (less weight)
      • More efficient use of wood
      • Increased Span
      • Increased dimensional stability
      • Installation savings (labor)
    • 60. Sustainability in Wood Construction
      • Only major renewable structural material
      • Forestry Practices
        • Sustainable forestry
        • Clearcutting & replanting
      • Mill Practices – Lumber Recovery Factor (LRF)
      • Transportation
      • Embodies Energy Content

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