Masonry Part 2 F 09


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  • Joint Reinforcing
    Brick & Stone Veneer Anchorage
  • Size Range
    Depth; 4” to 36”
    Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft
    Uses - Beams & Columns
    Proportions - Shape
    Tall &Narrow - Beams
    Square - Columns & Piles
  • USES
    Short “beams” supporting light loads
    EX - Lintels
    Diagonal bracing
  • “Mass” produced steel trusses
    Common Uses
    Floor Support
    Roof Support
    Joist Spacing Depends on;
    Span capability of decking
    Typically 2 to 10 feet
  • Masonry Part 2 F 09

    1. 1. Masonry Loadbearing Wall…….NOT!Masonry Loadbearing Wall…….NOT!
    2. 2. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties
    3. 3. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties Fig. 10.1
    4. 4. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties
    5. 5. GroutGrout • A “high performance” mortarA “high performance” mortar • High slump easier to flowHigh slump easier to flow • Reinforcing in cells and betweenReinforcing in cells and between wythes of masonrywythes of masonry • For adhesion (epoxy grout)For adhesion (epoxy grout) • For bearing (under concrete andFor bearing (under concrete and steel columns) to level andsteel columns) to level and transfer loadstransfer loads
    6. 6. flashing over wall openings
    7. 7. Post-tensioning : threaded high- strength bars joined with threaded couplers. At the base the bar is anchored to a threaded insert epoxied into a drilled hole in the concrete foundation. At the top, the bar passes through a steel plate. the nut at the top end of the bar is tightened, the masonry wall is placed in greater compression..
    8. 8. • Composite WallsComposite Walls • More economicMore economic • Multiple wythesMultiple wythes • Stone/brick on exteriorStone/brick on exterior • CMU (back-up) on interiorCMU (back-up) on interior • Joined together with reinforcingJoined together with reinforcing • Grout or mortar between wythesGrout or mortar between wythes
    9. 9. • Cavity WallsCavity Walls • Exterior wallsExterior walls • Two wythesTwo wythes • Inner wythe for structural supportInner wythe for structural support • Outer wythe for veneerOuter wythe for veneer • Resists moisture and heat transferResists moisture and heat transfer • Wythes separated byWythes separated by airspaceairspace • Insulation & DrainageInsulation & Drainage • Wythes joined with masonryWythes joined with masonry tiesties
    10. 10. Reinforced Masonry WallsReinforced Masonry Walls
    11. 11. Monadnock building,Monadnock building, 18911891 Last unreinforced masonry load bearing highrise structure built based on traditional “rules”  215 ft high  16 story  6 ft thick wall at base Interior cast iron frame Very small ground floor spaces
    12. 12. Texas School Book DepositoryTexas School Book Depository Loadbearing brick masonry walls Internal timber columns and beams Type 3 – Ordinary Construction
    13. 13. Vertical reinforcement required toVertical reinforcement required to resist loadsresist loads
    14. 14. Structural bondStructural bond beams supportbeams support floor and rooffloor and roof
    15. 15. Detail of 16 inch structural bondDetail of 16 inch structural bond beambeam
    16. 16. Exterior CMU bearing wall and steel joistExterior CMU bearing wall and steel joist
    17. 17. Detail: Steel joist bears on bond beam,Detail: Steel joist bears on bond beam, end inserted into void in wallend inserted into void in wall
    18. 18. Floor joists supported onFloor joists supported on reinforced concrete bond beamreinforced concrete bond beam
    19. 19. Location of reinforcement in CMULocation of reinforcement in CMU wallwall
    20. 20. Interior CMU bearing wall and hollow-coreInterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slabslab
    21. 21. Detail: hollow-core floor slab @ CMU wallDetail: hollow-core floor slab @ CMU wall
    22. 22. Exterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-coreExterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slabslab
    23. 23. Exterior CMU bearing wall and wood lightExterior CMU bearing wall and wood light frameframe
    24. 24. Effects of modularity on dimensionsEffects of modularity on dimensions
    25. 25. Sloped coping at top of wallSloped coping at top of wall
    26. 26. Applications for masonry wallsApplications for masonry walls
    27. 27. Masonry Wall TypesMasonry Wall Types • Reinforced WallsReinforced Walls • Composite WallsComposite Walls • Cavity WallsCavity Walls
    28. 28. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties • Holds masonry to wallHolds masonry to wall • Ties wythes of masonryTies wythes of masonry • to one anotherto one another • To supporting substrates (wood, concrete, steel)To supporting substrates (wood, concrete, steel) • Must resist lateral loads but…..Must resist lateral loads but….. • Must allow for horizontal and vertical movementMust allow for horizontal and vertical movement • Usually hot-dipped galvanized coated or stainless steelUsually hot-dipped galvanized coated or stainless steel • Many different methods & types usedMany different methods & types used
    29. 29. Reinforcing & AnchorageReinforcing & Anchorage • Brick & Stone VeneerBrick & Stone Veneer AnchorageAnchorage • Anchor brick to “back-upAnchor brick to “back-up wallwall • Typically - galvanizedTypically - galvanized wirewire • Cast in joint, or “nailed” toCast in joint, or “nailed” to surfacesurface
    30. 30. FlashingFlashing Prevents and directs moisture/water outPrevents and directs moisture/water out • ExternalExternal • To prevent moisture penetration atTo prevent moisture penetration at • Wall intersectionsWall intersections • Wall/roof intersectionsWall/roof intersections • Changes in materialChanges in material • InternalInternal • Directs moisture in the wall out throughDirects moisture in the wall out through weep holesweep holes
    31. 31. External FlashingExternal Flashing • TypesTypes • Cap flashing -Cap flashing - • To p o f wallsTo p o f walls • Edg e o f ro o fsEdg e o f ro o fs • Counter flashingCounter flashing • Wall/ ro o f inte rse ctio nWall/ ro o f inte rse ctio n • Ofte n two pie ce s - o ne in wall/ o ne attache dOfte n two pie ce s - o ne in wall/ o ne attache d
    32. 32. FlashingFlashing
    33. 33. FlashingFlashing Internal FlashingInternal Flashing • ““Through Wall”Through Wall” oror Concealed FlashingConcealed Flashing • Continuous sheet ofContinuous sheet of Copper, plastic,Copper, plastic, rubber/bituminousrubber/bituminous • Attached to backup wallAttached to backup wall & run through to the& run through to the outside of the masonryoutside of the masonry • Collects waterCollects water • that has penetrated wallthat has penetrated wall • Allows it drainAllows it drain
    34. 34. Internal FlashingInternal Flashing • Drainage Through “Weeps”Drainage Through “Weeps” • Placed 24 to 32 in o.c.Placed 24 to 32 in o.c. • Rope, plastic, metal, raked or full head ventRope, plastic, metal, raked or full head vent • PlacementPlacement • Bottom of wall cavityBottom of wall cavity • Interruptions of cavityInterruptions of cavity • Over doors / windowsOver doors / windows • Window sillsWindow sills • Shelf anglesShelf angles
    35. 35. Flashing MaterialsFlashing Materials • CopperCopper (reacts with mortar)(reacts with mortar) • LeadLead (malleable)(malleable) • Lead Coated CopperLead Coated Copper • AluminumAluminum (reacts with mortar)(reacts with mortar) • MembranesMembranes • Bituminous and rubber membranes more popularBituminous and rubber membranes more popular • do not corrodedo not corrode • more flexiblemore flexible • easier to installeasier to install • Synthetic Rubber membranesSynthetic Rubber membranes
    36. 36. WeepingWeeping • WickWick • Rope laid in the mortar jointRope laid in the mortar joint • Should be removedShould be removed after mortar sets upafter mortar sets up • TubeTube • 3/8” diameter tubes laid in3/8” diameter tubes laid in the mortar jointthe mortar joint • Can be removed or leftCan be removed or left in jointin joint • Raked Head JointRaked Head Joint • Mortar let out of the headMortar let out of the head jointjoint • Most effective weepMost effective weep jointjoint
    37. 37. Insulation in CMU cells Insulation in Cavity Insulation in CavityExternal Insulation
    38. 38. Expansion JointsExpansion Joints • Allows for movementAllows for movement • A complete separationA complete separation
    39. 39. Control JointsControl Joints • Controls movement for a single materialControls movement for a single material • Lines of weakness that cause cracking to occurLines of weakness that cause cracking to occur along that linealong that line • Concrete walksConcrete walks • SlabsSlabs
    40. 40. Expansion Joint
    41. 41. • EfflorescenceEfflorescence • White “chalky”White “chalky” substance on the facesubstance on the face of masonryof masonry • Usually salts inUsually salts in masonry or mortar leftmasonry or mortar left from migratingfrom migrating moisturemoisture • Indicates thatIndicates that moisture is presentmoisture is present • Normal for newNormal for new constructionconstruction • In existingIn existing construction, it usuallyconstruction, it usually means a leakmeans a leak
    42. 42. • SpallingSpalling • Physical failure (breakage) of thePhysical failure (breakage) of the masonry material or mortarmasonry material or mortar • Deterioration from moisture in theDeterioration from moisture in the wallwall • Damage from freeze/thaw cyclesDamage from freeze/thaw cycles
    43. 43. • Tuck PointingTuck Pointing • Partial removal of anPartial removal of an existing mortar jointexisting mortar joint and replacementand replacement with new mortarwith new mortar • For severelyFor severely damaged mortardamaged mortar jointsjoints • May be for aestheticMay be for aesthetic or functional reasonsor functional reasons • Mortar removed to aMortar removed to a third of the widththird of the width • New mortar put backNew mortar put back to seal jointto seal joint
    44. 44. Structural ShapesStructural Shapes Wide FlangeWide Flange • Size RangeSize Range • Depth; 4” to 40”Depth; 4” to 40” • Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ftWeight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft • Uses - Beams & ColumnsUses - Beams & Columns • Proportions - ShapeProportions - Shape • Tall &Narrow - BeamsTall &Narrow - Beams • Square - Columns & PilesSquare - Columns & Piles
    45. 45. Wide Flange DesignationsWide Flange Designations W 12 X 26W 12 X 26 W = Wide Flange DesignationW = Wide Flange Designation 12 = Nominal Depth (inches)12 = Nominal Depth (inches) 26 = Weight (lbs.) per foot26 = Weight (lbs.) per foot W12x26 - 12’-0” long weights:W12x26 - 12’-0” long weights: 12’ x 26#/lf = 312#12’ x 26#/lf = 312# Depth
    46. 46. Steel AnglesSteel Angles USESUSES Short beamsShort beams supporting light loadssupporting light loads EX - LintelsEX - Lintels ConnectorsConnectors Veneer / Skin SupportVeneer / Skin Support Edge support (edge angle)Edge support (edge angle) Diagonal bracingDiagonal bracing
    47. 47. Steel Angle DesignationsSteel Angle Designations L 4 X 4 X 1/2L 4 X 4 X 1/2 L = Angle DesignationL = Angle Designation 4 X 4 = Size of the legs4 X 4 = Size of the legs (inches)(inches) 1/2 = Thickness of the legs1/2 = Thickness of the legs (inches)(inches) NOTE: Legs can be equal or unequalNOTE: Legs can be equal or unequal Size Thickness
    48. 48. Channels (C Shaped)Channels (C Shaped) • UsesUses • Truss members, bracing, lintels, etc.Truss members, bracing, lintels, etc. • DesignationsDesignations C 9 X 13.4C 9 X 13.4 C = Channel DesignationC = Channel Designation 9 = Nominal Depth (inches)9 = Nominal Depth (inches) 13.4 = Weight / ft. (lbs.)13.4 = Weight / ft. (lbs.) Depth
    49. 49. Open Web Steel JoistsOpen Web Steel Joists • Mass produced steel trussesMass produced steel trusses • Common UsesCommon Uses • Floor SupportFloor Support • Roof SupportRoof Support • Joist Spacing Depends on;Joist Spacing Depends on; • LoadLoad • Span capability of deckSpan capability of deck • Typically 2 to 10 feetTypically 2 to 10 feet Spans; K-series (up to 60’), LH(Longspan) to 96’, DLH(Deep Longspan) to 144’
    50. 50. Joist used for floor support
    51. 51. Roof Support
    52. 52. Joist Girder Joist “Seat”
    53. 53. Joist Joist Seat
    54. 54. Joist Seat Welded to Support Beam
    55. 55. Joist Bridging
    56. 56. Edge Angles •Forms the Slab”Edge” •Anchorage of exterior “skin”
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