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  • Joint Reinforcing PLACED IN THE “BED” JOINT TYPICALLY FOR CMU INCREASED WALL STRENGTH TWO TYPES - TYPICAL TYPICALLY - GALVANIZED WIRE OFTEN PLACED EVERY OTHER COURSE Ladder LOOKS LIKE A LADDER Truss LOOKS LIKE A TRUSS Brick & Stone Veneer Anchorage ANCHOR BRICK TO “BACK-UP WALL TYPICALLY - GALVANIZED WIRE CAST IN JOINT, OR “NAILED” TO SURFACE
  • Size Range Depth; 4” to 36” Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft Uses - Beams & Columns Proportions - Shape Tall &Narrow - Beams Square - Columns & Piles
  • USES Short “beams” supporting light loads EX - Lintels Connectors Diagonal bracing
  • “Mass” produced steel trusses SERIES OF SMALL ANGLES, ROD, ETC. Common Uses Floor Support Roof Support Joist Spacing Depends on; Load Span capability of decking Typically 2 to 10 feet

Transcript

  • 1. Masonry Loadbearing Wall…….NOT!
  • 2.  
  • 3. Anchorage & Ties
  • 4. Anchorage & Ties Fig. 10.1
  • 5. Anchorage & Ties
  • 6. Grout
    • A “high performance” mortar
      • High slump easier to flow
      • Reinforcing in cells and between wythes of masonry
      • For adhesion (epoxy grout)
      • For bearing (under concrete and steel columns) to level and transfer loads
  • 7. flashing over wall openings
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Post-tensioning : threaded high-strength bars joined with threaded couplers. At the base the bar is anchored to a threaded insert epoxied into a drilled hole in the concrete foundation. At the top, the bar passes through a steel plate. the nut at the top end of the bar is tightened, the masonry wall is placed in greater compression..
  • 10.
    • Composite Walls
      • More economic
      • Multiple wythes
        • Stone/brick on exterior
        • CMU (back-up) on interior
      • Joined together with reinforcing
      • Grout or mortar between wythes
  • 11.
    • Cavity Walls
      • Exterior walls
      • Two wythes
        • Inner wythe for structural support
        • Outer wythe for veneer
      • Resists moisture and heat transfer
      • Wythes separated by airspace
        • Insulation & Drainage
      • Wythes joined with masonry ties
  • 12. Reinforced Masonry Walls
  • 13. Monadnock building, 1891
    • Last unreinforced masonry load bearing highrise structure built based on traditional “rules”
    • 215 ft high
    • 16 story
    • 6 ft thick wall at base
    • Interior cast iron frame
    • Very small ground floor spaces
  • 14. Texas School Book Depository Loadbearing brick masonry walls Internal timber columns and beams Type 3 – Ordinary Construction
  • 15. Vertical reinforcement required to resist loads
  • 16. Structural bond beams support floor and roof
  • 17. Detail of 16 inch structural bond beam
  • 18. Exterior CMU bearing wall and steel joist
  • 19. Detail: Steel joist bears on bond beam, end inserted into void in wall
  • 20. Floor joists supported on reinforced concrete bond beam
  • 21. Location of reinforcement in CMU wall
  • 22. Interior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slab
  • 23. Detail: hollow-core floor slab @ CMU wall
  • 24. Exterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slab
  • 25. Exterior CMU bearing wall and wood light frame
  • 26. Effects of modularity on dimensions
  • 27. Sloped coping at top of wall
  • 28. Applications for masonry walls
  • 29. Masonry Wall Types
    • Reinforced Walls
    • Composite Walls
    • Cavity Walls
  • 30.  
  • 31. Anchorage & Ties
    • Holds masonry to wall
      • Ties wythes of masonry
        • to one another
        • To supporting substrates (wood, concrete, steel)
    • Must resist lateral loads but…..
      • Must allow for horizontal and vertical movement
    • Usually hot-dipped galvanized coated or stainless steel
    • Many different methods & types used
  • 32. Reinforcing & Anchorage
    • Brick & Stone Veneer Anchorage
      • Anchor brick to “back-up wall
      • Typically - galvanized wire
      • Cast in joint, or “nailed” to surface
  • 33.  
  • 34. Flashing
    • Prevents and directs moisture/water out
    • External
      • To prevent moisture penetration at
        • Wall intersections
        • Wall/roof intersections
        • Changes in material
    • Internal
      • Directs moisture in the wall out through weep holes
  • 35.
    • External Flashing
      • Types
        • Cap flashing -
          • Top of walls
          • Edge of roofs
        • Counter flashing
          • Wall / roof intersection
          • Often two pieces - one in wall / one attached
  • 36. Flashing
  • 37. Flashing
    • Internal Flashing
      • “ Through Wall” or Concealed Flashing
        • Continuous sheet of
        • Copper, plastic, rubber/bituminous
        • Attached to backup wall & run through to the outside of the masonry
      • Collects water
        • that has penetrated wall
        • Allows it drain
  • 38.
    • Internal Flashing
      • Drainage Through “Weeps”
        • Placed 24 to 32 in o.c.
        • Rope, plastic, metal, raked or full head vent
      • Placement
        • Bottom of wall cavity
        • Interruptions of cavity
          • Over doors / windows
          • Window sills
          • Shelf angles
  • 39. Flashing Materials
    • Copper (reacts with mortar)
    • Lead (malleable)
    • Lead Coated Copper
    • Aluminum (reacts with mortar)
    • Membranes
      • Bituminous and rubber membranes more popular
        • do not corrode
        • more flexible
        • easier to install
    • Synthetic Rubber membranes
  • 40. Weeping
    • Wick
      • Rope laid in the mortar joint
        • Should be removed after mortar sets up
    • Tube
      • 3/8” diameter tubes laid in the mortar joint
        • Can be removed or left in joint
    • Raked Head Joint
      • Mortar let out of the head joint
        • Most effective weep joint
  • 41. Insulation in CMU cells Insulation in Cavity Insulation in Cavity External Insulation
  • 42.
    • Expansion Joints
      • Allows for movement
      • A complete separation
  • 43.
    • Control Joints
      • Controls movement for a single material
      • Lines of weakness that cause cracking to occur along that line
        • Concrete walks
        • Slabs
  • 44. Expansion Joint
  • 45.
    • Efflorescence
      • White “chalky” substance on the face of masonry
      • Usually salts in masonry or mortar left from migrating moisture
      • Indicates that moisture is present
      • Normal for new construction
      • In existing construction, it usually means a leak
  • 46.  
  • 47.
    • Spalling
      • Physical failure (breakage) of the masonry material or mortar
      • Deterioration from moisture in the wall
      • Damage from freeze/thaw cycles
  • 48.
    • Tuck Pointing
      • Partial removal of an existing mortar joint and replacement with new mortar
      • For severely damaged mortar joints
      • May be for aesthetic or functional reasons
      • Mortar removed to a third of the width
      • New mortar put back to seal joint
  • 49. Structural Shapes Wide Flange
    • Size Range
      • Depth; 4” to 40”
      • Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft
    • Uses - Beams & Columns
    • Proportions - Shape
      • Tall &Narrow - Beams
      • Square - Columns & Piles
  • 50. Wide Flange Designations
    • W 12 X 26
    • W = Wide Flange Designation
    • 12 = Nominal Depth (inches)
    • 26 = Weight (lbs.) per foot
        • W12x26 - 12’-0” long weights:
        • 12’ x 26#/lf = 312#
    Depth
  • 51. Steel Angles
    • USES
    • Short beams supporting light loads
      • EX - Lintels
    • Connectors
    • Veneer / Skin Support
    • Edge support (edge angle)
    • Diagonal bracing
  • 52. Steel Angle Designations
    • L 4 X 4 X 1/2
    • L = Angle Designation
    • 4 X 4 = Size of the legs (inches)
    • 1/2 = Thickness of the legs (inches)
    • NOTE: Legs can be equal or unequal
    Size Thickness
  • 53. Channels (C Shaped)
    • Uses
      • Truss members, bracing, lintels, etc.
    • Designations
    • C 9 X 13.4
      • C = Channel Designation
      • 9 = Nominal Depth (inches)
      • 13.4 = Weight / ft. (lbs.)
    Depth
  • 54. Open Web Steel Joists
    • Mass produced steel trusses
    • Common Uses
      • Floor Support
      • Roof Support
    • Joist Spacing Depends on;
      • Load
      • Span capability of deck
      • Typically 2 to 10 feet
    Spans; K-series (up to 60’), LH(Longspan) to 96’, DLH(Deep Longspan) to 144’
  • 55. Joist used for floor support
  • 56. Roof Support
  • 57. Joist Girder Joist “Seat”
  • 58. Joist Joist Seat
  • 59. Joist Seat Welded to Support Beam
  • 60. Joist Bridging
  • 61.
    • Edge Angles
      • Forms the Slab”Edge”
      • Anchorage of exterior “skin”