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Masonry Part 2 F 09


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  • Joint Reinforcing
    Brick & Stone Veneer Anchorage
  • Size Range
    Depth; 4” to 36”
    Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft
    Uses - Beams & Columns
    Proportions - Shape
    Tall &Narrow - Beams
    Square - Columns & Piles
  • USES
    Short “beams” supporting light loads
    EX - Lintels
    Diagonal bracing
  • “Mass” produced steel trusses
    Common Uses
    Floor Support
    Roof Support
    Joist Spacing Depends on;
    Span capability of decking
    Typically 2 to 10 feet
  • Transcript

    • 1. Masonry Loadbearing Wall…….NOT!Masonry Loadbearing Wall…….NOT!
    • 2. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties
    • 3. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties Fig. 10.1
    • 4. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties
    • 5. GroutGrout • A “high performance” mortarA “high performance” mortar • High slump easier to flowHigh slump easier to flow • Reinforcing in cells and betweenReinforcing in cells and between wythes of masonrywythes of masonry • For adhesion (epoxy grout)For adhesion (epoxy grout) • For bearing (under concrete andFor bearing (under concrete and steel columns) to level andsteel columns) to level and transfer loadstransfer loads
    • 6. flashing over wall openings
    • 7. Post-tensioning : threaded high- strength bars joined with threaded couplers. At the base the bar is anchored to a threaded insert epoxied into a drilled hole in the concrete foundation. At the top, the bar passes through a steel plate. the nut at the top end of the bar is tightened, the masonry wall is placed in greater compression..
    • 8. • Composite WallsComposite Walls • More economicMore economic • Multiple wythesMultiple wythes • Stone/brick on exteriorStone/brick on exterior • CMU (back-up) on interiorCMU (back-up) on interior • Joined together with reinforcingJoined together with reinforcing • Grout or mortar between wythesGrout or mortar between wythes
    • 9. • Cavity WallsCavity Walls • Exterior wallsExterior walls • Two wythesTwo wythes • Inner wythe for structural supportInner wythe for structural support • Outer wythe for veneerOuter wythe for veneer • Resists moisture and heat transferResists moisture and heat transfer • Wythes separated byWythes separated by airspaceairspace • Insulation & DrainageInsulation & Drainage • Wythes joined with masonryWythes joined with masonry tiesties
    • 10. Reinforced Masonry WallsReinforced Masonry Walls
    • 11. Monadnock building,Monadnock building, 18911891 Last unreinforced masonry load bearing highrise structure built based on traditional “rules”  215 ft high  16 story  6 ft thick wall at base Interior cast iron frame Very small ground floor spaces
    • 12. Texas School Book DepositoryTexas School Book Depository Loadbearing brick masonry walls Internal timber columns and beams Type 3 – Ordinary Construction
    • 13. Vertical reinforcement required toVertical reinforcement required to resist loadsresist loads
    • 14. Structural bondStructural bond beams supportbeams support floor and rooffloor and roof
    • 15. Detail of 16 inch structural bondDetail of 16 inch structural bond beambeam
    • 16. Exterior CMU bearing wall and steel joistExterior CMU bearing wall and steel joist
    • 17. Detail: Steel joist bears on bond beam,Detail: Steel joist bears on bond beam, end inserted into void in wallend inserted into void in wall
    • 18. Floor joists supported onFloor joists supported on reinforced concrete bond beamreinforced concrete bond beam
    • 19. Location of reinforcement in CMULocation of reinforcement in CMU wallwall
    • 20. Interior CMU bearing wall and hollow-coreInterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slabslab
    • 21. Detail: hollow-core floor slab @ CMU wallDetail: hollow-core floor slab @ CMU wall
    • 22. Exterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-coreExterior CMU bearing wall and hollow-core slabslab
    • 23. Exterior CMU bearing wall and wood lightExterior CMU bearing wall and wood light frameframe
    • 24. Effects of modularity on dimensionsEffects of modularity on dimensions
    • 25. Sloped coping at top of wallSloped coping at top of wall
    • 26. Applications for masonry wallsApplications for masonry walls
    • 27. Masonry Wall TypesMasonry Wall Types • Reinforced WallsReinforced Walls • Composite WallsComposite Walls • Cavity WallsCavity Walls
    • 28. Anchorage & TiesAnchorage & Ties • Holds masonry to wallHolds masonry to wall • Ties wythes of masonryTies wythes of masonry • to one anotherto one another • To supporting substrates (wood, concrete, steel)To supporting substrates (wood, concrete, steel) • Must resist lateral loads but…..Must resist lateral loads but….. • Must allow for horizontal and vertical movementMust allow for horizontal and vertical movement • Usually hot-dipped galvanized coated or stainless steelUsually hot-dipped galvanized coated or stainless steel • Many different methods & types usedMany different methods & types used
    • 29. Reinforcing & AnchorageReinforcing & Anchorage • Brick & Stone VeneerBrick & Stone Veneer AnchorageAnchorage • Anchor brick to “back-upAnchor brick to “back-up wallwall • Typically - galvanizedTypically - galvanized wirewire • Cast in joint, or “nailed” toCast in joint, or “nailed” to surfacesurface
    • 30. FlashingFlashing Prevents and directs moisture/water outPrevents and directs moisture/water out • ExternalExternal • To prevent moisture penetration atTo prevent moisture penetration at • Wall intersectionsWall intersections • Wall/roof intersectionsWall/roof intersections • Changes in materialChanges in material • InternalInternal • Directs moisture in the wall out throughDirects moisture in the wall out through weep holesweep holes
    • 31. External FlashingExternal Flashing • TypesTypes • Cap flashing -Cap flashing - • To p o f wallsTo p o f walls • Edg e o f ro o fsEdg e o f ro o fs • Counter flashingCounter flashing • Wall/ ro o f inte rse ctio nWall/ ro o f inte rse ctio n • Ofte n two pie ce s - o ne in wall/ o ne attache dOfte n two pie ce s - o ne in wall/ o ne attache d
    • 32. FlashingFlashing
    • 33. FlashingFlashing Internal FlashingInternal Flashing • ““Through Wall”Through Wall” oror Concealed FlashingConcealed Flashing • Continuous sheet ofContinuous sheet of Copper, plastic,Copper, plastic, rubber/bituminousrubber/bituminous • Attached to backup wallAttached to backup wall & run through to the& run through to the outside of the masonryoutside of the masonry • Collects waterCollects water • that has penetrated wallthat has penetrated wall • Allows it drainAllows it drain
    • 34. Internal FlashingInternal Flashing • Drainage Through “Weeps”Drainage Through “Weeps” • Placed 24 to 32 in o.c.Placed 24 to 32 in o.c. • Rope, plastic, metal, raked or full head ventRope, plastic, metal, raked or full head vent • PlacementPlacement • Bottom of wall cavityBottom of wall cavity • Interruptions of cavityInterruptions of cavity • Over doors / windowsOver doors / windows • Window sillsWindow sills • Shelf anglesShelf angles
    • 35. Flashing MaterialsFlashing Materials • CopperCopper (reacts with mortar)(reacts with mortar) • LeadLead (malleable)(malleable) • Lead Coated CopperLead Coated Copper • AluminumAluminum (reacts with mortar)(reacts with mortar) • MembranesMembranes • Bituminous and rubber membranes more popularBituminous and rubber membranes more popular • do not corrodedo not corrode • more flexiblemore flexible • easier to installeasier to install • Synthetic Rubber membranesSynthetic Rubber membranes
    • 36. WeepingWeeping • WickWick • Rope laid in the mortar jointRope laid in the mortar joint • Should be removedShould be removed after mortar sets upafter mortar sets up • TubeTube • 3/8” diameter tubes laid in3/8” diameter tubes laid in the mortar jointthe mortar joint • Can be removed or leftCan be removed or left in jointin joint • Raked Head JointRaked Head Joint • Mortar let out of the headMortar let out of the head jointjoint • Most effective weepMost effective weep jointjoint
    • 37. Insulation in CMU cells Insulation in Cavity Insulation in CavityExternal Insulation
    • 38. Expansion JointsExpansion Joints • Allows for movementAllows for movement • A complete separationA complete separation
    • 39. Control JointsControl Joints • Controls movement for a single materialControls movement for a single material • Lines of weakness that cause cracking to occurLines of weakness that cause cracking to occur along that linealong that line • Concrete walksConcrete walks • SlabsSlabs
    • 40. Expansion Joint
    • 41. • EfflorescenceEfflorescence • White “chalky”White “chalky” substance on the facesubstance on the face of masonryof masonry • Usually salts inUsually salts in masonry or mortar leftmasonry or mortar left from migratingfrom migrating moisturemoisture • Indicates thatIndicates that moisture is presentmoisture is present • Normal for newNormal for new constructionconstruction • In existingIn existing construction, it usuallyconstruction, it usually means a leakmeans a leak
    • 42. • SpallingSpalling • Physical failure (breakage) of thePhysical failure (breakage) of the masonry material or mortarmasonry material or mortar • Deterioration from moisture in theDeterioration from moisture in the wallwall • Damage from freeze/thaw cyclesDamage from freeze/thaw cycles
    • 43. • Tuck PointingTuck Pointing • Partial removal of anPartial removal of an existing mortar jointexisting mortar joint and replacementand replacement with new mortarwith new mortar • For severelyFor severely damaged mortardamaged mortar jointsjoints • May be for aestheticMay be for aesthetic or functional reasonsor functional reasons • Mortar removed to aMortar removed to a third of the widththird of the width • New mortar put backNew mortar put back to seal jointto seal joint
    • 44. Structural ShapesStructural Shapes Wide FlangeWide Flange • Size RangeSize Range • Depth; 4” to 40”Depth; 4” to 40” • Weight; 9#/ft to 730#/ftWeight; 9#/ft to 730#/ft • Uses - Beams & ColumnsUses - Beams & Columns • Proportions - ShapeProportions - Shape • Tall &Narrow - BeamsTall &Narrow - Beams • Square - Columns & PilesSquare - Columns & Piles
    • 45. Wide Flange DesignationsWide Flange Designations W 12 X 26W 12 X 26 W = Wide Flange DesignationW = Wide Flange Designation 12 = Nominal Depth (inches)12 = Nominal Depth (inches) 26 = Weight (lbs.) per foot26 = Weight (lbs.) per foot W12x26 - 12’-0” long weights:W12x26 - 12’-0” long weights: 12’ x 26#/lf = 312#12’ x 26#/lf = 312# Depth
    • 46. Steel AnglesSteel Angles USESUSES Short beamsShort beams supporting light loadssupporting light loads EX - LintelsEX - Lintels ConnectorsConnectors Veneer / Skin SupportVeneer / Skin Support Edge support (edge angle)Edge support (edge angle) Diagonal bracingDiagonal bracing
    • 47. Steel Angle DesignationsSteel Angle Designations L 4 X 4 X 1/2L 4 X 4 X 1/2 L = Angle DesignationL = Angle Designation 4 X 4 = Size of the legs4 X 4 = Size of the legs (inches)(inches) 1/2 = Thickness of the legs1/2 = Thickness of the legs (inches)(inches) NOTE: Legs can be equal or unequalNOTE: Legs can be equal or unequal Size Thickness
    • 48. Channels (C Shaped)Channels (C Shaped) • UsesUses • Truss members, bracing, lintels, etc.Truss members, bracing, lintels, etc. • DesignationsDesignations C 9 X 13.4C 9 X 13.4 C = Channel DesignationC = Channel Designation 9 = Nominal Depth (inches)9 = Nominal Depth (inches) 13.4 = Weight / ft. (lbs.)13.4 = Weight / ft. (lbs.) Depth
    • 49. Open Web Steel JoistsOpen Web Steel Joists • Mass produced steel trussesMass produced steel trusses • Common UsesCommon Uses • Floor SupportFloor Support • Roof SupportRoof Support • Joist Spacing Depends on;Joist Spacing Depends on; • LoadLoad • Span capability of deckSpan capability of deck • Typically 2 to 10 feetTypically 2 to 10 feet Spans; K-series (up to 60’), LH(Longspan) to 96’, DLH(Deep Longspan) to 144’
    • 50. Joist used for floor support
    • 51. Roof Support
    • 52. Joist Girder Joist “Seat”
    • 53. Joist Joist Seat
    • 54. Joist Seat Welded to Support Beam
    • 55. Joist Bridging
    • 56. Edge Angles •Forms the Slab”Edge” •Anchorage of exterior “skin”