Concrete
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
22,356
On Slideshare
21,363
From Embeds
993
Number of Embeds
6

Actions

Shares
Downloads
4,824
Comments
11
Likes
21

Embeds 993

http://cementmixerblog.cart-away.com 921
http://lecm.info 50
http://www.lecm.info 16
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 3
http://facebook.slideshare.com 2
http://www.lmodules.com 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Course Aggregate approx. 3/4 of volume Structural strength heavily dependent on MUST BE: Strong, clean Resistant to freeze-thaw Chemically stable Properly Graded - Through SIEVES For proper “packing” of materials Largest must fit between Reinforcing Generally < 3/4 of clear distance or 1/3 of slab thickness Fine Aggregate Portland Cement Water Admixtures (optional)
  • Course Aggregate approx. 3/4 of volume Structural strength heavily dependent on MUST BE: Strong, clean Resistant to freeze-thaw Chemically stable Properly Graded - Through SIEVES For proper “packing” of materials Largest must fit between Reinforcing Generally < 3/4 of clear distance or 1/3 of slab thickness Fine Aggregate Portland Cement Water Admixtures (optional)
  • Specified by 28 Day Compressive Strength (psi) POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH CONCRETE IN THEORY CONTINUES TO HARDEN - TYPICALL 28 STRENGTH Primarily Determined By: STRENGTH PRIMARILY DETERMINED BY Amount of Cement PROPORTION/ AMOUNT OF CEMENT Water-Cement Ratio WEIGHT OF H2O / WEIGHT OF WATER NEED MORE WATER THAN WHAT IS NEEDED FOR HYDRATION - PLACEMENT AND FINISHING TOO MUCH WATER EXTRA WATER EVAPORATES LEAVES VOIDS - REDUCE STRENGTH CAN REDUCE WATER AND STILL GET WORKABILITY WITH ADMIXTURES (AIR, WATER REDUCING AGENTS) Proper Aggregate & Gradation FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATE Strength Ranges: 2000 - 19,000+ psi COMMON - 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000psi
  • No Useful Tensile Strength GREAT IN COMPRESSION - LITTLE IN TENSION MOST STRUCTURAL MEMBERS IN BOTH NEED A MATERIAL FOR TENSION Reinforcing Steel - Tensile Strength Similar Coefficient of thermal expansion EXPAND AND CONTRACT SAME AMOUNT IF NOT, BREAK BOND Chemical Compatibility WON’T REACT W/ EACH OTHER & PROTECTS STEEL FROM CORROSION Adhesion Of Concrete To Steel ADHERES WELL Theory of Steel Location “ Place reinforcing steel where the concrete is in tension” SIMPLE BEAM - IN BOTTOM MULTIPLE SPAN OVER SUPPORT @ TOP
  • Reinforcing Support Chairs or bolsters WIRE OR PLASTIC SOME WITH PROTECTIVE COATINGS ON FEET - SOME MADE OF SS Properly position the steel VARIOUS HEIGHTS POSITION REINFORCING OFF FORMWORK FOR DESIGN LOCATION AND MINIMUM CONCRETE POTECTION FOR FIRE RATINGS Special Coatings Galvanized or Epoxy Coated Exposure to Salts or Sea Water
  • Type of Reinforcing Grid of “wires” spaced 2-12 inches apart STEEL WIRE Specified by wire gauge and spacing Typical Use - Horizontal Surfaces ELEVATED SLABS SOG USED IN SOME WALLS Comes in Mats or Rolls MATS FOR LARGER GAUGE WIRE Advantage - Labor Savings BUT CAN’T HANDLE LARGE LOADINGS
  • Location of Tension Forces Changes Midspan - Bottom in Tension At Beam Supports - Top in Tension NOTE; SLAB REINFORCING PRINCIPALS SIMILAR LIKE A LARGE/WIDE BEAM EXCEPT OFTEN ADD TEMPERATURE STEEL
  • Reinforced Concrete Members AT ANY LOCATION IN THE MEMBER Part of the member in compression Part of the member in tension Over half of the concrete Not carrying any load, it’s: “ Holding” reinforcing in position & Providing protective cover NOT GETTING THE FULL / EFFECTIVE USE OF THE MEMBER
  • Theory; “Place all the concrete of the member in compression” (take advantage of concrete’s compressive strength of the entire member) Advantages Increase the load carrying capacity or Reduce the member’s size
  • Stressing high strength steel stands either before or after concrete placement HIGH LOADS - 30,000 POUNDS/ STRAND Pretensioning Prior to concrete placement Generally performed at a “plant” HIGH LOADS - 30,000 POUNDS/ STRAND NEED SOMETHING TO JACK AGAINST Posttensioning After concrete placement (& curing) Generally performed at the jobsite JACK AGAINST THE POURED/CURED CONCRETE
  • “ Level surface of concrete supported on the ground” Loading; Carries little or no structural stress except: Transmission of superimposed loads LIVE LOADS - TRAFIC, EQUIPMENT, STORAGE Thickness & Reinforcing determined by: Continuity & Capacity of the soil STRENGHT / BEARING CAPACITY CONTINUITY OF SOIL CAPACITY Loads imposed
  • Materials Custom Built of Lumber & Plywood 2x & PLYWOOD BUILT FOR LOCATION/USE/PROJECT “ STICK” BUILT” Prefabricated steel, fiberglass PARTICULAR PROJECT/USE HIGH REUSE - SHEARWALLS Standardized prefabricated panels ASSEMBLE FOR USE / STANDARD SIZES COMBINATION GANG FROMS MAY INCORPORATE SEVERAL Choice Depends on : Number of uses, Irregularity of wall HIGH USE - STEEL/FIBERGLAS/MDO Wall finish & tie spacing, HIGH FINISH EXPOSED VS STRUCTURAL Availability & Cost
  • Layout, Install one side, anchor, & brace ANCHOR AND PLUMB Coat w/ Form Release EASE OF STRIPPING Install Reinforcing (or after form ties)
  • Install Form Ties “ Small diameter metal rods which hold the forms together (remain in the wall) MANY DIFFERENT TYPES HYDROSTATIC LOAD
  • One-Way Slab System “ Spans across parallel lines of support furnished by walls and/or beams” Limited Span Length One-Way Joist System Span Greater Distances, “Less Dead Load” DEAD LOAD OF SLAB / “TENSILE” CONCRETE Spaced ribs or joists w/ a thin top slab 3-5” SLAB Utilizes “pans” (metal, plastic, fiberglass) HIGH NUMBER OF REUSES Wide-Module or “Skip-Joist” System
  • Bay Spacing - Square or Irregular SQUARE - TWO WAY Span Length GREATER - JOIST VS FLAT SLAB Loading HIGHER LOADS - DEEPER SECTION Ceiling Treatment EXPOSED - FLAT SLAB Lateral Stability HIGH STABILITY - DEEPER SECTION
  • Prior to Formwork Construction Prepare, submit, & approve Engineered Shop Drawings MAY TAKE WEEKS FORMWORK DESIGN FORMWORK SUPPORT RESHORE AMOUNT & PLACEMENT ALL HAVE SOME IMPACT ON REQUIRED AMOUNT OF FORMWORK ALSO AFFECTED BY CONCRETE DESIGN & SCHEDULE FRPS supporting walls/columns
  • Set Beam Bottoms (if required) Erect Beam Sides Form Slab OPTIONS SCAFFOLD - SINGLE / GANGED TABLES LARGE COST - MINIMZE LABOR Install MPE sleeves, block outs, “Cast in” electrical roughin PENETRATIONS THROUGH SLAB OTHER OPTION - CORE Clean “Deck” & apply form release
  • Place Reinforcing Generally START FROM THE BOTTOM UP Beam reinforcing Slab bottom & then top reinforcing
  • Strip Formwork Re-shore May Extend 3-4 Floors Below Re-shore Purpose Support Construction Load Support the Weight of the next Floor
  • Can be used with any framing system Reduce member size and/or Extend span capacity

Transcript

  • 1. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION “ Concrete is a plastic material susceptible to the impressions of the imagination.” Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 2.
    • Rocklike Material
    • Ingredients
      • Portland Cement
      • Course Aggregate
      • Fine Aggregate
      • Water
      • Admixtures (optional)
  • 3. Concrete Properties
    • Versatile
    • Pliable when mixed
    • Strong & Durable
    • Does not Rust or Rot
    • Does Not Need a Coating
    • Resists Fire
  • 4. Santiago Calatrava
    • Generic Term
    • Man Made Product
    • Fine gray powder
    • Glue (Binder)
    • Curing & Hydration
    Portland Cement
  • 5. Concrete
    • APPROX. COST OF CONCRETE
    • 25% - 30% concrete
      • Placing concrete
      • Finishing concrete
    • 20% - 25% steel reinforcement
      • Placing rebar
      • Making rebar cages, etc.
    • 50% - 55% formwork
      • Percent even higher in highly complex shapes and forms
  • 6. Meditation Center for UNESCO Paris, France 1995 Tadao Ando, Architect “ a space of prayer for world peace” “ A rchitecture, to me , is an endless search of one’s engagement with oneself and with society From the construction of an abstract concept to its realization.” TADAO ANDO AIA Gold Medal 2003
  • 7. TADAO ANDO Oyamazaki Villa Museum Yagi house
  • 8.  
  • 9. Hoover Dam
    • A Brief History of Concrete
    • 1824 - Aspidin patented Portland Cement - named after English Portland limestone
    • 1850s; reinforced concrete
    • 1900s applied to building construction
    • 1920s; prestessed concrete
  • 10. Concrete Properties
    • Versatile
    • Pliable when mixed
    • Strong & Durable
    • Does not Rust or Rot
    • Does Not Need a Coating
    • Resists Fire
  • 11. Portland Cement
    • Generic Term
    • Man Made Product
    • Fine gray powder
    • Glue (Binder)
    • Curing - Hydration (a chemical process)
    • Air-entraining admixtures
    • Water-reducing admixtures
    • High range water-reducers - superplasticizers
    • Accelerating & retarding admixtures
    • Fly ash
    • Workability agents
    • Fibrous admixtures
    • Coloring agents
    Admixtures: used to alter concrete properties
  • 12. Type III - High Early Type I - Normal
    • Type I Normal (most applications)
    • Type II & V Moderate and High Sulfate Resistance
    • Type III High Early Strength
    • Type IV Low Heat of Hydration
    • Type 1A, IIA, IIIA - Air Entrained
  • 13. Lightweight Aggregates
    • Vermiculite is Substituted for sand / crushed stone
    • Structural Lightweight
      • Density approx. 80% of reg. concrete
      • Purpose; Reduces dead weight
      • Often made from shale in Nonstructural Lightweight concrete
      • Density 20-25% of regular weight
      • Purpose: Insulating material - under roofs
    • AIR ENTRAINING
    • Causes microscopic air
    • bubbles in concrete
    • Usually 5% - 8% of volume
    • Properties:
      • Improved workability
      • Increased freeze-thaw
      • resistance
    • Paving & Exposed concrete
  • 14.
    • Specified by:
    • 28 Day Compressive Strength
      • PSI - pounds per square inch
    • Primarily Determined By:
      • Amount of Cement
      • Water-Cement Ratio
      • Admixture(s)
    • Strength Ranges: 2000 - 22,000+ psi
    Concrete Compressive Strength
  • 15.
    • Concrete with High W/C ratio is easier to place
    • Balance workability with desired qualities
    Water-Cement Ratio Concrete Compressive Strength
  • 16. CONCRETE Vs Other Building Materials
    • Material Tension Compression
    • Wood 700 psi 1,100 psi
    • Brick 0 psi 250 psi
    • Steel 22,000 psi 30,000 psi
    • tp 60,000psi
    • Concrete 0 psi 2,000 psi to
    • 22,000+ psi
  • 17. Sample collected Slump Measured Cone Removed and Concrete Allowed to ‘Slump’ Slump Cone Filled
  • 18. Measuring the Slump Walls/columns 4-5 in. Beams 4-5 in. Slabs 3-4 in.
  • 19. Test Cylinders Filled with a Sampling of the Concrete Mix
  • 20. Test Cylinders Curing and then strength tested (upper right)
  • 21. Concrete Placement (1929)
    • Not a Liquid - an Unstable mixture
    • Will segregate if handled improperly
    • Deposit in Formwork (methods)
      • Direct From the Truck
      • Bucket
      • Pump
    Concrete Placement
  • 22. Placement Today - not too much has changed!
  • 23. Concrete Bucket being Filled
  • 24. Placement of a Wall with a Crane & Concrete Bucket
  • 25. Placement with a Concrete Pump
  • 26. Placement with a Concrete Pump Placement with a Concrete Pump
  • 27. Placement with a Conveyor
  • 28. Improperly Consolidated - “Honeycomb” Segregation - Mix “Separates” Results - Non-uniformity & Unsatisfactory properties Common Causes Excessive Vibration Dropping From Excessive Heights Moving Concrete Horizontally
  • 29. Improperly consolidated Concrete
  • 30. Extensive Reinforcing Can Make Placement & Consolidation Difficult
  • 31. “ Cold” Joint First lift hardened prior to the placement of the 2 nd lift
  • 32.  
  • 33. Formwork Materials Steel Wall Form Round Steel Column Form Wood - Panelized
    • TYPES:
      • Wood
      • Metal
      • Plastic/Fiberglass
      • Cardboard
  • 34. Concrete Reinforcing
    • Concrete - No Useful Tensile Strength
    • Reinforcing Steel - Tensile Strength
      • Similar Coefficient of thermal expansion
      • Chemical Compatibility
      • Adhesion Of Concrete To Steel
    • Theory of Steel Location
    • “ Place reinforcing steel where the
    • concrete is in tension”
    Sizes Eleven Standard Diameters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18 Number refers to 1/8ths of an inch Grades 40, 50, 60 Steel Yield Strength (in thousands)
  • 35. Reinforcing Markings
    • Concrete is used in conjunction with steel to provide tensile strength
      • Thermal expansion the same for both materials
        • No stress created due to differential expansion and contraction
      • Steel bonds well to concrete
        • Chemical bond
        • Mechanical bond, enhanced by using deformed steel rebar
      • Reinforcing steel commonly available in
        • 40,000 psi (grade 40) - used when bars must be field bent
        • 60,000 psi (grade 60) - most common, difficult to bend
  • 36.  
  • 37. Reinforcing Support
    • Chairs or bolsters
    • Properly position the steel
  • 38.  
  • 39. Reinforcing Special Coatings
    • Galvanized or Epoxy Coated
    • Exposure to Salts or Sea Water
    Epoxy Coating
  • 40. WWF – Sheet (mat)
  • 41. Welded Wire Fabric (WWF)
    • Type of Reinforcing
    • Grid of “wires” spaced 2-12 inches apart
    • Specified by wire gauge and spacing
    • Typical Use - Horizontal Surfaces
    • Comes in Mats or Rolls
    • Advantage - Labor Savings
  • 42. Wall Reinforcing being secured with Wire Ties
  • 43. Long Bridge Pier Requiring Reinforcing Splicing
  • 44. Reinforcing Stirrups
    • Position Beam Reinforcing
    • Resist Diagonal Forces / Resist Cracking
  • 45. Reinforcing a Continuous Concrete Beam
    • Most Beams are not simple span beams
    • Location of Tension Forces Changes
    • Midspan - Bottom in Tension
    • At Beam Supports - Top in Tension
  • 46. Conventionally Reinforced Concrete
    • Reinforced Concrete Members
    • Part of the member in compression
    • Part of the member in tension
    • Over half of the concrete
    • Not carrying any load, it’s: Holding reinforcing in position & providing protective cover
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. Prestressing
    • Theory; “Place all the concrete of the member in compression” (take advantage of concrete’s compressive strength of the entire member)
    • Advantages
      • Increase the load carrying capacity
      • Increase span length, or
      • Reduce the member’s size
  • 51. Prestressing - Pretensioning
  • 52. Prestressing - Posttensioning
      • Cables positioned prior to concrete placement
      • Stressed after concrete placement (& curing)
      • Generally performed
        • at the jobsite
  • 53. Post-Tension Cable Strands or Coils
    • Install (position) unstressed steel strands
      • Often Draped
      • Positioned to follow tensile forces
    • Place and Cure Concrete
    • Stress steel stands w/ hydraulic jack
      • From one or both ends of the stand
    • Anchor the ends of the stands
    • Trim cables (& patch)
    Coated / Sheathed to prevent bonding and Precut to Length
  • 54. Plastic-sheathed to prevent bonding to concrete (note the cable is lubricated)
  • 55. Draped to be positioned in “Tension” area of slab
  • 56. Cables can be ‘Bundled’
  • 57. Cable attachment to Edge Form
  • 58. Hydraulic Jacking Machine to Stress Cables
  • 59. Elongated Strands after Stressing (Jacking)
  • 60. Slab-on-Grade (SOG)
    • Level surface of concrete supported on the ground
  • 61.
      • Reinforcing Purpose - Prevent cracking from
        • Shrinkage,
        • Temperature stresses
        • Concentrated loads,
        • Frost heaving
        • Ground Settlement
    Slab-on-Grade with Vapor Barrier & WWF (Note lapping of WWF)
  • 62. Placement with a Pump
  • 63. Laser-screed Often used for ‘superflat’ floors
  • 64. Finishing Rotary Power Trowel (Rider - Double Blade) Finishing Rotary Power Trowel (Walk behind)
  • 65. Casting a SOG (cont.)
    • Joints
    Control Joint (tooled) Control Joint (sawed) Note the Broom Finish
  • 66. Snap ties
  • 67. Ties inserted through pre-drilled holes
  • 68. Clamp placed over endloop of tie
  • 69. Waler placed over clamp and locked down
  • 70. Vertical stiffback attached to assembly
  • 71. Stiffback locked in place
  • 72. Completed connection: plywood, waler, tie & stiffback
  • 73. Casting a Concrete Wall
    • Materials
    • Stick Built of Lumber & Plywood
    • Standardized prefabricated panels
    • Prefabricated steel, fiberglass
    • Insulated Concrete Forms
    • Choice Depends on:
      • Number of uses, Irregularity of wall
      • Wall finish & tie spacing,
      • Availability & Cost
  • 74. Panelized Systems
    • Built in-Place with:
      • Panelized Sections
      • Multiple Sizes
      • Rent or Buy
    • Materials: (often)
      • Higher Quality Facing Mat’l
      • Metal “support system”
      • Ties appropriate for the “system”
    • Tie Spacing
      • Spaced @ or > “Stick built”
    • Uses
      • Multiple Reuses
      • Regular shapes
  • 75. Panelized System with its Own Tires Panelized System
  • 76. Metal & Fiberglass
    • Often Built:
      • Specifically for a project
      • Examples:
        • Multi-level Shear Walls
        • Exposed /Architectural
    • Materials: (often)
      • High Quality Facing Mat’l
      • Higher “quality / strength” Ties
    • Tie Spacing
      • Larger spacing
    • Uses
      • Multiple Reuses
      • Irregular or Regular shapes
  • 77. Gang Forms
    • Assemble formwork into large sections
      • Stick built, Panels, or any other system
      • Minimizes labor, increases equipment requirements,
      • Increases speed of construction
      • Generally used only for large, similar & repeated wall elements
  • 78. Gang Forms
  • 79. Casting A Concrete Wall (cont)
    • Layout, Install one side, anchor, & brace
    • Coat w/ Form Release
  • 80. Casting A Concrete Wall (cont)
    • Install Form Ties
      • “ Small diameter metal rods which hold the forms together (generally remain in the wall)
    Snap Tie
  • 81.  
  • 82. Column Form Materials
  • 83. Panelized Formwork
  • 84. Formed and Braced
  • 85. Sonotube – Waxed Cardboard Column Form Material
  • 86. Stripped Column Note the spiral formwork markings
  • 87. Elevated Framing Systems
    • One-Way System
      • Spans across parallel lines of support furnished by walls and/or beams
    • Two-Way System
      • Spans supports running in both directions
  • 88. One Way Elevated Framing Systems
    • One-Way Flat-Slab
      • Limited Depth
      • Limited Spans
      • Shorter Story Hghts
      • Underside often exposed
  • 89. One Way Elevated Framing Systems
    • One-Way Joist System
      • Span Greater Distances, Less Dead Load
      • Spaced ribs or joists w/ a thin top slab
      • Utilizes pans (metal, plastic, fiberglass)
  • 90. One Way Elevated Framing Systems
    • Wide-Module or Skip-Joist System
  • 91. One-Way Slab & Beam
  • 92. One-Way Slab & Beam
  • 93. Elevated Framing Systems
    • Two-Way Framing Systems
      • Often more economical than One-Way if:
        • Bay spacing (columns) square
      • Can be accomplished with a flat slab, joists, beams, etc.
      • Often associated with higher loadings
  • 94. Two-Way Flat Slab
    • Flat slab w/ reinforcing beams
    • With, or w/o Capitals or drop panels
    Drop Panel Drop Panel w/ Capital Flat Plate
  • 95. Two-Way Waffle Slab
  • 96. Elevated Framing Systems Factors to Consider
    • Bay Spacing - Square or Irregular
    • Span Length
    • Loading
    • Ceiling Treatment
    • Lateral Stability
  • 97. Elevated Slab Preparation
    • Prior to Formwork Construction
    • Prepare, submit, & approve Engineered Shop Drawings
    • FRPS supporting walls/columns
  • 98. Elevated Slab Sequence
    • Set Beam Bottoms (if required)
    • Erect Beam Sides
    • Form Slab
  • 99. Beam Formwork Form Beam Bottoms & Sides
  • 100. Elevated Slab Sequence (cont.)
    • Place Reinforcing
      • Beam reinforcing
      • Slab bottom &
      • Then top reinforcing
  • 101. Elevated Slab Sequence (cont.) Place, Consolidate, & Finish and Cure
  • 102. Elevated Slab Sequence (cont.)
    • Strip Formwork & Re-shore
    • Re-shore (May Extend 3-4 Floors Below)
    • Re-shore Purpose - Support
    • Construction Load
    • Weight of the next Floor
  • 103. Elevated Slab Sequence
    • The following group of photos shows the sequence for installation of a one-way elevated slab.
    • (Slab & Beam with Reinforcing & Post-Tensioning)
  • 104. Columns Placed & Form Support (Scaffolding) Being Erected
  • 105. Form Support (Scaffolding) Being Erected
  • 106. Decking Support Beams Being Erected
  • 107. Plywood Decking Being Erected
  • 108. Plywood Decking and Beam Sides Being Erected
  • 109. Plywood Decking and Beam Sides Being Erected
  • 110. Plywood Decking & Beam Sides Erected
  • 111. Plywood Decking and Beam Sides Erected on a Portion
  • 112. Deck Support System (Scaffolding)
  • 113. Beam Reinforcing Installation
  • 114. Beam Reinforcing Installation
  • 115. Beam Reinforcing Installation
  • 116. Beam Reinforcing Installed
  • 117. Beam & Deck Reinforcing Installed
  • 118. Post-Tensioning Installation
  • 119. Post-Tensioning Installation
  • 120. Post-Tensioning Installed
  • 121. Post-Tensioning Complete and MPE Sleeves Installed
  • 122. Slab Poured & Cured Stripping & Post Shores
  • 123. Stripping formwork
  • 124. Stripping formwork
  • 125. Formwork Stripped and Reshores Installed
  • 126. Site Cast Post-tensioning Systems
    • Can be used with any framing system
    • Reduce member size and/or
    • Extend span capacity
  • 127. Lift-slab (Note the slab supports at the columns)
  • 128. Tilt-Up Walls cast Horizontally & “Tilted” into Place Commonly used in Warehouse, Distribution, Retail
  • 129. The following group of photos shows the tilt-up sequence used for construction of a Home Depot
  • 130. Slab-on-Grade Placed
  • 131. Formwork for Panels
  • 132. Edge form & reinforcing installed Slab-on-Grade Placed
  • 133. Opening Installed
  • 134. Panels formed and reinforced
  • 135. Panels Formed and Reinforced (Note the Inserts)
  • 136. Inserts for Panel Braces, Steel Framing Anchorage, & Panel Lifting Weld Plate for Joist Attachment Insert for Brace Insert for Lifting Bracket
  • 137. Panels Poured
  • 138. Lifting Inserts Stripped
  • 139. Placement of Exterior Footing Panels SOG
  • 140. Crane for Panel Installation
  • 141. Braces Installed Prior to ‘tilting-up’ the panels
  • 142. Attachment of Lifting Bracket
  • 143. Panel being lifted (tilted into place)
  • 144. Panel being lifted (tilted into place)
  • 145. Panel being lifted (tilted into place)
  • 146. Panel being lifted (tilted into place)
  • 147. Panel being placed on shims set to proper elevation
  • 148. Panels being braced
  • 149. Panels braced
  • 150. Panel grouted between footing & panel
  • 151. Roof support structure anchored to panels
  • 152. Subgrade prepared for panel structural connection to Slab-on-Grade
  • 153. Slab-on-Grade perimeter poured to anchor the panel bottom.
  • 154. Panels erected
  • 155. Architectural Concrete
    • Concrete that is left exposed as finished interior or exterior surfaces.
  • 156.  
  • 157. Exposed ‘Architectural’ Concrete at the University of Iowa
  • 158. Exposed ‘Architectural’ Concrete at the University of Iowa
  • 159. Exposed ‘Architectural’ Concrete (Note the rough finish )
  • 160. Architectural Concrete Finishes
    • Exposed Aggregate
      • clean off paste
      • & expose aggregate
    • Key
      • Aggregate choice
      • Mix Placement
  • 161.  
  • 162. Architectural Concrete Finishes
    • Mechanically remove the paste
      • Sand Blast
      • Bushhammer
  • 163. Architectural Concrete Finishes
    • Liners & Form mat’ls
      • Multiple # of Finishes
    Form Liner & Bush-hammer
  • 164. Architectural Concrete with “Bushhammered” Finish
  • 165. Architectural Concrete with “Bushhammered” Finish
  • 166. Simulated Stone Form Liner
  • 167. Considerations / Challenges Rustication Location Form Tie Location
  • 168. Considerations / Challenges Formwork Joint Formwork Blemishes
  • 169. Considerations / Challenges Form Tie Holes
  • 170. Considerations / Challenges Rusted Bar Supports
  • 171. Patching
  • 172. Designing Economically
    • Of three elements - conc., reinf., formwork -
      • Formwork is generally the most expensive element
      • Formwork - high % of labor
    • Economies - simplification & standardization
      • Identical bay spacing
      • Flat plate - when possible
      • Standardize column & beam sizes
  • 173. Site Cast Concrete & Building Codes
    • Fire resistant
      • Assuming adequate re-steel coverage
      • Most uses - Unlimited Height & Area
    • Resistance to lateral loading
      • Rigid joints
  • 174. PRECAST STRUCTURAL & ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE
  • 175.  
  • 176.  
  • 177. Precast Hollowcore Planks/Decking Double Tee’s Single Tee’s
  • 178.  
  • 179. Prestressing process and finished product
  • 180. Tarping process for vapor curing of hollow cure planks Parking Garage both sitecast and precast concrete
  • 181. Correctional Facility in Texas
  • 182.  
  • 183.  
  • 184. PRECAST CONCRETE + POURED IN PLACECONCRETE
    • PRETENSIONED
    • PRESTRESSED
  • 185.
    • Hollowcore Precast Concrete Plank
    • precast, prestressed concrete continous
    • voids reduce weight, cost
    • electrical or mechanical conduits
    • top surfaces can be prepared for the installation of floor covering
    • underside can be used as a finished ceilling
    • excellent fire resistance
    SPANCRETE
  • 186.  
  • 187.  
  • 188.  
  • 189. http:// www.pff.org.uk/PDFs/PFF_Hollowcore_and_prestressed.pdf
  • 190. http://webs.demasiado.com/forjados/tipologia/prefa/hormigon/alveolar2.htm
  • 191. CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE
  • 192. http://www.archprecast.org/
  • 193.  
  • 194.  
  • 195. Readily available colors. But any color can be custom ordered.
  • 196. Home Products Form Liners For architectural concrete surfaces  
    • Wood Patterns
    • Ribbed Patterns
    • Fractured Patterns
    • Other Patterns
    • Form Liner Materials
    Home | Products | MSDS Index | Contact Us | International | Careers | Site Map | Search © 2006 SYMONS                                                                      BY DAYTON SUPERIOR 200 East Touhy Avenue Des Plaines, IL 60018 800-800-SYMONS [email_address]                                     Wood Patterns
    • Patterns include:
    • 4" Wide Aged Cedar
    • 2" Wide Aged Wood
    • 4" Wide Aged Wood
    • Barnwood
    • 6" Wide Cedar
    • Cedar Stake
    • Grooved Barnwood
    • Rough-Sawn Plank
    • Extra Rough-Sawn
    • 1½" Variable Sawn
    • Tongue and Groove
  • 197. Form Liners For architectural concrete surfaces   A Guide Specification Form Liner "Cut Sheet" Detail
  • 198. Ground-supported isolated concrete slab, cont’d
    • Joints
      • Control joints
        • accommodate shrinkage, reduce random cracking
        • Extend about 1/4 of depth of slab
        • Typically 1/8 inch wide, sawcut or tooled
      • Isolation joints
        • Isolates slab from structural components
        • full depth of slab
      • Construction joint (cold joint)
        • Non-movement joint
        • Used where concrete cannot be placed in one operation
        • Shear key
          • prevents differential movement
          • Assures aggregate interlock
  • 199. Section through control joint
  • 200. Isolation joints & control joints in interior isolated slab
  • 201. Section: isolated slab at load-bearing wall
  • 202. Keyed construction joint in slab
  • 203. Construction joint between column & footing
  • 204. Horizontal construction joint in wall
  • 205. Ground-supported isolated concrete slab, cont’d
    • Joints
      • Control joints
        • accommodate shrinkage, reduce random cracking
        • Extend about 1/4 of depth of slab
        • Typically 1/8 inch wide, sawcut or tooled
      • Isolation joints
        • Isolates slab from structural components
        • full depth of slab
      • Construction joint (cold joint)
        • Non-movement joint
        • Used where concrete cannot be placed in one operation
        • Shear key
          • prevents differential movement
          • Assures aggregate interlock
  • 206. Section through control joint
  • 207. Isolation joints & control joints in interior isolated slab
  • 208. Section: isolated slab at load-bearing wall
  • 209. Keyed construction joint in slab
  • 210. Construction joint between column & footing
  • 211. Horizontal construction joint in wall
  • 212. Beam and girders with slab floors increase spans, decrease economy
  • 213. One-way and two-way slabs
    • Slabs become thicker as spans increase
      • Uneconomical when slab exceeds 8 inches
      • Dimensions maximized
        • One-way slab, 16 fts wide
        • Two-way, square slab 24 ft. wide
    • Beams and girders can be added to slabs to increase spans & reduce slab thickness
      • Beam and girder sizes vary
        • Increase cost and complexity of formwork
      • Not commonly used due to lack of economy
  • 214. One-way joist floor viewed from below
  • 215. Standard module formwork with beam reinforcement laid
  • 216. Standard module pan sizes
  • 217. Tapered pans, widened joist ends
  • 218. Wide-module pans
  • 219. Flat plate slab: light occupancies, lower ceiling height, small, square bays
  • 220. Flat slab has round column and drop panels
  • 221. Section through hollow core slab
  • 222. Precast concrete hollow core slabs rest on site-cast concrete columns and beams
  • 223. Section through double-tee floor
  • 224. Double-tee units on precast inverted T-beams
  • 225. Double-tee meet at column and beam
  • 226. Inverted T-beam
  • 227. Fire resistance of concrete members
    • Thickness of member
    • Type of course aggregate
    • Covering of reinforcement and prestressing tendons
  • 228. Building separation joint: Single column, site cast
  • 229. Slip joint assembly
  • 230. Slip joint assembly
  • 231. The End