Codes And Zoning Fall09
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  • Typically Imposed by Local Authorities CITY, COUNTY, STATE Typically Govern PROPERTY USE FUNCTION - HOTEL, INDUSTRIAL, RES., ETC. SIZE, SETBACKS, APPEARANCE SF, HEIGHT, % OF LAND USED DISTANCE OFF PROP. LINES SIGNAGE, LIGHTING, LANDSCAPING, EXTERIOR APPEARANCE ACCESS, PARKING STREET ACCESS, # AND HOW PARKING REQUIRMENTS CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES NOISE WORK HOURS
  • Model Codes - International Building Code Established in 2000 Developed in cooperation with the 3 previous ‘Models’ Uniform Building Code (UBC) WEST AND MIDWEST (SEISMIC) BOCA Building Code EAST AND MIDWEST (SNOW) Standard Building Code (SBC) SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST (WIND/HURRICANE) All Define “ USE” Groups Assembly, Business, Industry, Institutional, Res., Etc. Construction Type FIRE RESISTANT TO COMBUSTIBLE Concrete/Protected Steel to Light Wood Frame Establish Standards Natural Lighting (example - % windows) Ventilation (EX - RR exhaust, Smoke Exhaust) Emergency Egress (get in and out) Structural Design / Design Loads Floor, Wall, Ceiling, and Roof Construction Energy Efficiency, etc. Additional Examples Minimum Ceiling Height Stair width, Handrail Construction Anchorage of gypsum drywall (CODES provide MINUTE DETAIL)
  • Building Material Manufacturer WHY? SO that their product can be used. Construction Trade Organizations TYPICALLY - MANUFACTURERS ORGANIZATIONS APA, ACI, CRSI (Conc. Reinf. Steel Institute) Rating Services Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL) MOST COMMON PUBLISHES BOOK WITH ASSEMBLIES AND RATINGS UL LABEL ON A NUMBER OF PRODUCTS ( SHOW UL BOOK) Factory Mutual (FM) MORE FOR INSURANCE RATINGS TYP. REVIEW AND APPROVE SPRINKLER DWGS. LOOK AT HEAD SPACING, FLOW RATES , EQUIPMENT
  • ASTM Standards for Commonly used Materials Referred to by # - EX: ASTM C150 Frequently used in Specifications WHY? EASE OF REFERENCE SETS ACCEPTABLE MINIMUM STANDARDS RECOGNIZED IN THE INDUSTRY American National Standards Institute STANDARD FOR A # OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS US Bureau of Standards MOSTLY FOR WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Construction Trade & Professional Associations PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS (EX – ACI, APA, …) UNIFORM STANDARDS OF PRODUCTION CERTIFY PRODUCTION FACILITIES PUBLISH TECHNICAL LITERATURE PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ASME, ASCE

Transcript

  • 1. Making Buildings CODES, ZONING, and other REGULATIONS
  • 2. Architect Owner Contractor Contract Contract Bankers Tenants Consultants & Engineers Subcontractors & Suppliers WHAT ARE THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF EACH PARTICIPANT?
  • 3. Architectural Services per AIA Documents
    • Schematic Design
    • Design Development
    • Construction Documentation
    • Bidding & Negotiation
    • Construction Administration
    • Overall project (people) management
    • Code conformance (Egress and Safety)
    • Shape (design), traffic flow (plan)
    • Water tightness (not a structural engineer)
  • 4. Building Codes
    • “… establish minimum construction standards for the protection of life, health, and welfare of the public.”
    • Primary focus – protect against fire and means of Egress
  • 5. Zoning Ordinances
    • Generally Imposed by Local Authorities
    • Typically Govern:
      • Property Use, Types of Activities
      • Size, Setbacks, Appearance
      • Access, Parking
      • Construction Activities
    • Available @ Planning Dept. / Inspector
    • Who generally enforces compliance?
  • 6. Building Codes
    • Model Codes (standardized codes)
      • International Building Code (IBC)
        • First published in 2000
      • Earlier Model Codes
        • Uniform Building Code (UBC)
        • BOCA Building Code (BOCA)
        • Standard Building Code (SBC)
    • All Define
      • “ USE” Groups
      • Construction Type
      • Establish Minimum Building Standards
  • 7.
    • Occupancy Groups
    • IBC
    • Groups A-1 through A5
      • Assembly occupancies
        • (theaters, lecture halls, churches,
        • night clubs, restaurants, libraries,
        • museums, sports arenas, etc.)
    • Group B – Business Occupancy
    • Group E – Educational
    • Groups H-1 through H-5
      • High Hazard Occupancy
    • Groups I-1 through I-4
      • Institutional
        • Health car, geriatrics, prisons
    • Group M – Mercantile
      • Stores (retail)
    • Groups R-1 through R-4
      • Residential Occupancies
        • Homes, apartments, dorms, etc.
    • Group S-1 and S-1
      • Hazardous storage
    • Group U – Utility Buildings
  • 8. Building Type & Fire Resistance Ratings
  • 9. Fire Ratings Issued by:
    • Rating Services
      • Building Material Manufacturer’s
      • Construction Trade Organizations
      • Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL)
      • Factory Mutual (FM)
      • ASTM
      • American National Standards Institute
      • US Bureau of Standards
  • 10. Material Information Resources
    • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
    • Construction Trade & Professional Associations (Technical specifications often incorporated by ‘reference’)
  • 11. Underwriter’s Laboratory Note the level of ‘detail’
  • 12. CSI Divisions
    • Division 1 General Division 9 Finishes
    • Division 2 Site Work Division 10 Specialties
    • Division 3 Concrete Division 11 Equipment
    • Division 4 Masonry Division 12 Furnishings
    • Division 5 Metals Division 13 Special Construction
    • Division 6 Wood & Plastics Division 14 Conveying Systems
    • Division 7 Thermal & Moisture Protection Division 15 Mechanical
    • Division 8 Doors & Windows Division 16 Electrical
  • 13. LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    • A system for evaluation the sustainability of a building’s design.
    • Developed by: U.S. Green Building Council
  • 14. Code Conformance  Building Codes  Zoning Ordinances  Legal Constraints
  • 15. The Code Relationship Type of Occupancy Allowable Height & Area Fire-Resistance Rating of Construction
  • 16. Additional Codes
    • Plumbing Code
    • Electrical Code
    • Mechanical & Energy Code
    • Elevator Code
    • American with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • 17. Legal Constraints
    • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
      • Governed by the Department of Labor
      • Controls the design of workplaces to minimize the possible health and safety risks to workers
      • Most prominent in industrial buildings
      • Watchdog group for construction safety
  • 18. Building Code Regulations Two major factors that determine regulations: USE CONSTRUCTION TYPE
  • 19. Building Code Regulations
    • USE
      • Intended purpose of building
      • Some building are mixed use
      • These are broken down into “USE GROUPS”
    • CONSTRUCTION TYPE
      • What the building is made of
      • How the materials relate to each other
      • These are broken down into “TYPES”
  • 20. Building Codes Use Groups
    • Assembly
    • Business
    • Industry
    • High-Hazard Industry
    • Institutional
    • Mercantile buildings
    • Residential
    • Simple buildings (sheds, storage)
  • 21. Construction Types
    • Broken into 5 TYPES
    • Listed in range of fire-resistance & combustibility
    • These “TYPES” are used widely among the different building codes
    • They coincide with the Use Group definitions
  • 22. Construction Types
      • Section 402.0 TYPE 1 CONSTRUCTION
      • 402.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 1 construction are those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and the exits are constructed of approved non-combustible materials and protected to afford the fire resistance rating specified in Table 401. Buildings are Type 1 construction shall be further classified as Type 1A or 1B.
      • THIS TYPE DOES NOT BURN
  • 23. Construction Types
      • Section 403.0 TYPE 2 CONSTRUCTION
      • 403.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 2 construction are those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and the exits are constructed of approved non-combustible materials and protected to afford the fire resistance rating specified in Table 401. Buildings are Type 2 construction shall be further classified as Type 2A or 2B.
      • THIS TYPE DOES NOT BURN
  • 24. Construction Types
      • Section 404.0 TYPE 3 CONSTRUCTION
      • 404.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 3 construction are those in which the exterior, fire walls, and party walls are constructed of masonry or other approved non-combustible materials of the required fire resistance rating and structural properties; the floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly constructed of wood, metal, or other approved construction; …….
      • USES MASONRY ON OUTSIDE, BUT WOOD ON THE INSIDE
  • 25. Construction Types
      • Section 405.0 TYPE 4 CONSTRUCTION
      • 405.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 4 construction are those in which the exterior walls are constructed of non-combustible materials having a fire resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 401 and the interior structural members are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces.
      • THIS TYPE USES HEAVY TIMBER (BIG WOOD)
  • 26. Construction Types
      • Section 406.0 TYPE 5 CONSTRUCTION
      • 406.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 5 construction are those in which the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floors and roofs are constructed of any materials permitted by this code and in which the structural elements have the required fire resistance rating specified in Table 401. Buildings of Type 5 construction shall be further classified as Type 5A or 5B.
      • THIS TYPE USES LIGHT WOOD FRAMING (HOUSES)