Brick Masonry Fall 09
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Brick Masonry Fall 09

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  • Provides for “full” bearing MASONRY UNITS IRREGULAR “ CUSHIONS” FULL BEARING Seals between masonry units WATER WIND Adheres / bonds masonry units STRUCTURAL BOND Aesthetics USUALLY 20% OF SURFACE IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION GENERALY “ MOCKUP” ARCHITECT / OWNER APP’L PRIOR TO THE START OF MASONRY
  • Portland Cement SAME AS THE INGREDIANT IN CONCRETE BONDING AGENT Hydrated Lime ENHANCES WORKABLITY Sand CLEAN GRADED Water CLEAN (POTABLE) Admixtures (optional) WORKABILITY COMMON IN PRE-PACKAGED
  • REFER TO PAGE 269 Course HORIZONTAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS Head & Bed Joints Wythe VERTICAL LAYER OF UNITS - ONE UNIT THICK Stretcher FACE PARALLEL TO WALL LONG DIMENSION HORIZONTAL Header LAID TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER Soldier LAID ON ITS END FACE PARALLEL TO WALL USES- VISUAL EFFECT Rowlock LAID ON ITS FACE END VISIBLE USES - CAPS, SILLS SLIDE 4280-3
  • Molding process EXTRUSION PRESSED MOLDED (HAND OR MACHINE) Color BASED ON CLAY COMPOSITION ADDITIVES / CHEMICALS FIRING PROCESS Size APPEARANCE, COST TO INSTALL Grade RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING THREE GRADES Type BASED ON THE DEGREE OF UNIFORMITY OF SHAPE DIMENSION TEXTURE COLOR HIGH UNIFORMITY TO NON-UNIFORM
  • No “standard” size SOME “COMMON” BRICK SIZES “Normal” coursing - 3 bricks = 8” MATCH CMU COURSING Larger sizes MORE ECONOMICAL TO LAY HIGHER STRENGTH BUT - CHANGE WALL APPEARANCE Custom Shapes & Colors AVAILABLE - BUT LEAD TIME COST
  • Structural Bonds USE “HEADER” TO TIE WALL TOGETHER Cavity (Veneer) Walls BRICK DOES NOT PROVIDE STUCTURAL SUPPORT BRICK IS FOR Appearance & EXTERIOR Barrier DON’T NEED HEADERS - INFACT WOULD BE IN THE WAY OF CAVITY HEREFORE Commonly USE - Running bond Stacked bond
  • Layout & Leads ESTABLISH “LINE” & “ELEVATION” LEADS - ESTABLISH WALL PLANE & COURSE HEIGHT OFTEN - CORNERS Line LITERALLY - STRETCH A LINE & LAY BRICK / BLOCK TO IT Staging HEAVY MATERIAL Difficult to USE LADDERS - NEED STAGING ESTABLISHING A WORK PLATFORM” SCAFOLD BUILT IN PLACE, ADJUSTABLE SCAFOLD, AUTOMATED SCAFOLDING Cutting Masonry HAMMER, DIAMOND BLADE (H2O COOLED) EXPENSIVE, - DESIGN ATTEMPTS TO Minimize Cleaning Masonry BRUSHED & ACID CLEANED (PROTECTION OF OTHER SURFACES)
  • PURPOSE - PROVIDE SUPPORT AT OPENINGS Lintels Reinforced Concrete OFTEN PRECAST & SET IN PLACE Reinforced Brick RARELY USED Steel Angles ECONOMICAL ALMOST INVISIBLE MOST COMMON - SINGLE W/VENEER Arches BUILD OUT OF MASONRY NEEDS TEMPORARY SUPPORT MORE LABOR INTENSIVE (MORE $) ALSO - WINDOW/DOOR MORE EXPENSIVE ASTHETICS

Brick Masonry Fall 09 Brick Masonry Fall 09 Presentation Transcript

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  • Definitions & History Mortar Brick Masonry Concrete Masonry Stone Masonry Brick Masonary That’s Masonry not Mason a ry….dummy! University of Virginia Library Thomas Jefferson – Architect Third President of the United States.
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  • Very very very brief History
    • Native field stones piled upon one another without mortar
    • Sod or dried mud
    • Clay & silt
    • 1000 A.D. The Romans: perfected arch and vault, built forum buildings, theaters, baths, aqueducts & homes – temples like the Parthanon!
    • Mud joints
      • Kept out wind & rain
      • Gave a level building surface
  • Mortar Functions
    • Provides for full bearing
    • Seals between masonry units
    • Adheres / bonds masonry units
    • Aesthetics
    • 20%± of wall area
    • Affects the color and texture of masonry wall
    • Mortar specified in testing standard ASTM C-270
  • Mortar Ingredients
    • Portland Cement
    • Hydrated Lime
    • Sand
    • Water
    • Admixtures (optional)
    • TYPES OF MORTAR: “MSNOK”
    • Type "M" (High): Strength (2500 psi)
    • High lateral and compressive loads & below grade uses
    • Type "S" (Medium-High): Strength (1800 psi)
    • High flexural and normal compressive loads (most common)
    • Type "N" (Medium): Strength (750 psi)
    • General above grade uses (almost useless)
    • Type "O" (Medium-Low): Strength (350 psi)
    • Non-Load bearing walls (pretty useless)
    • Type "K" (Low): Strength (75 psi)
    • Non-Load bearing where permitted (fairly useless)
    • Brick Positions:
      • Stretcher
      • Header
      • Soldier
      • Shiner
      • Rowlock
      • Sailor
    • Course: Continuous layer
    • Wythe: Continuous vertical section
  • Basic Brickwork Terminology Bed Joint Head Joint Course - horizontal layer of brick
  • Basic Brickwork Terminology Header - Bonds two wythes together Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel Rowlock - laid on face, end visible Stretcher - long dimension horizontal & face parallel to the wall
    • Corbel Shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of a wall
    • Quions Stone blocks used to form strong corners.
  • Considerations in Choosing Brick
    • Molding process
    • Color
    • Size
    • Grade
    • Type
      • “ Molded” or “Handmade”
      • solid units
      • pressed into fiberglass, wood or steel molds
      • used to be by hand, now machines
      • sand or water coated molds to release bricks
      • usually rougher surface and edges
    • EXTRUDED pushed through a dye & then cut by wire “kinda’ like square toothpaste”
      • hollow core
      • formed into a column and cut to size with wires
      • usually smoother surface and finer edges
    However, most brick is……….
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    • Firing Process:
      • PERIODIC KILN
      • TUNNEL KILN
  • Brick Masonry - Sizes and Shapes
    • No standard size
    • Normal coursing - 3 bricks h = 8” (including mortar joints so it aligns with 8” block (CMU)
    • Larger sizes mostly for economy
    • Custom Shapes & Colors ($$$$$)
    • Sizes:
      • MODULAR 8”
      • STANDARD 7 5/8”
      • THREE-INCH
      • OVERSIZE
      • ROMAN
      • NORMAN
      • SIX-INCH JUMBO
      • JUMBO
  • Brick Masonry Important Qualities
    • Grade:
      • Weatherability: evaluates how the bricks will hold up to weather exposure (freeze/thaw, rain, etc.)
    • Grades:
      • Facing Bricks: evaluates the uniformity of shape, dimension, texture & color
  • Brick Bonds
      • Running bond
      • Stacked bond
    • Brick Joints
      • WEATHERED
      • CONCAVE
      • VEE
      • FLUSH
      • RAKED
      • STRIPPED
      • STRUCK
  • Wood Mold Extruded – Wire Cut Extruded – Smooth Extruded – Raked
  • Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
  • Concave Joints
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  • Flush Joints
  • Racked Joints
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    • Layout & Leads
    • Line
  • Stationary Scaffolding
  • Adjustable Scaffold
  • Tooling Joints
  • Spanning Masonry Openings
    • Lintels
      • Purpose
      • Materials
        • Reinforced Concrete
        • Reinforced Brick
        • Steel Angles
    • Arches
  • Cleaning Masonry
  • Steel Lintel
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