Definitions & History Mortar Brick Masonry Concrete Masonry Stone Masonry Brick Masonary That’s Masonry not Mason a ry….dummy! University of Virginia Library Thomas Jefferson – Architect Third President of the United States.
Very very very brief History Native field stones piled upon one another without mortar 1000 A.D. The Romans: perfected arch and vault, built forum buildings, theaters, baths, aqueducts & homes – temples like the Parthanon!
Gave a level building surface
Mortar Functions Provides for full bearing Seals between masonry units Adheres / bonds masonry units Affects the color and texture of masonry wall
Mortar specified in testing standard ASTM C-270
Type "M" (High): Strength (2500 psi) High lateral and compressive loads & below grade uses Type "S" (Medium-High): Strength (1800 psi) High flexural and normal compressive loads (most common) Type "N" (Medium): Strength (750 psi) General above grade uses (almost useless) Type "O" (Medium-Low): Strength (350 psi) Non-Load bearing walls (pretty useless) Type "K" (Low): Strength (75 psi)
Non-Load bearing where permitted (fairly useless)
Wythe: Continuous vertical section
Basic Brickwork Terminology Bed Joint Head Joint Course - horizontal layer of brick
Basic Brickwork Terminology Header - Bonds two wythes together Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel Rowlock - laid on face, end visible Stretcher - long dimension horizontal & face parallel to the wall
Corbel Shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of a wall
Quions Stone blocks used to form strong corners.
Considerations in Choosing Brick
pressed into fiberglass, wood or steel molds used to be by hand, now machines sand or water coated molds to release bricks
usually rougher surface and edges
EXTRUDED pushed through a dye & then cut by wire “kinda’ like square toothpaste” formed into a column and cut to size with wires However, most brick is……….
usually smoother surface and finer edges
Brick Masonry - Sizes and Shapes Normal coursing - 3 bricks h = 8” (including mortar joints so it aligns with 8” block (CMU) Larger sizes mostly for economy
Custom Shapes & Colors ($$$$$)
Brick Masonry Important Qualities
Weatherability: evaluates how the bricks will hold up to weather exposure (freeze/thaw, rain, etc.)
Facing Bricks: evaluates the uniformity of shape, dimension, texture & color
Wood Mold Extruded – Wire Cut Extruded – Smooth Extruded – Raked
Joint Color that “Blends” w/ Brick Color
Spanning Masonry Openings