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The Verbal It looks like a verb;it doesn’t act like a verb; it’s a VERBAL!!
Participles!• A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed.• However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns.• There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.
Participle- the adjective• The crying baby had a wet diaper. What word is crying modifying? Answer: Crying modifies the noun baby
Participles- modify…• Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.What words do smiling and panting modify? Answer: Smiling modifies she (subject) Panting modifies dog (noun- DO)
You try again. Name all of the parts of the sentence • Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise.Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise. Answer: Participle: Having Participial Phrase: Having been a gymnast Subject- Lynn Verb- knew Prepositional phrase- of exercise
Placement of a Participle• In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated. Misplaced modifier: Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. * . Corrected: Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.
Punctuation:• When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase: Dissect this sentence finding all parts: subject, verb, participle, prepositional phrase, and dependent clause: Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed. Answer: Arriving (at the store), I found that it was closed. participle prepositional phrase verb dependent clause subject
Points to Remember• A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.• A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).• Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.• A participial phrase is set off with commas when it:• a) comes at the beginning of a sentence• b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element• c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.
GerundsA gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.However, since a gerund functions as a noun,it occupies some positions in a sentence thata noun ordinarily would, for example:subject, direct object, subject complement,and object of preposition.
Gerund as subject: • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.Answer:Traveling- GerundMight satisfy- verbFor new experiences- prepositional phraseTraveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
Now you try: • Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what were trying to do.Answer:Finding (gerund)a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)Verb- would be easierthan what were trying to do (essential dependent clauseFinding a needle in a haystack would be easier thanwhat were trying to do.
Gerund as direct object:• They do not appreciate my singing.Answer:Subject- TheyVerb- do not appreciateD.O.- my singingThey do not appreciate my singing.
Now you try- Gerund as D.O. • I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity. Answer: Subject- I Verb- hope Essential dependent clause- that you appreciate Adjective- my Gerund- offering D.O.- this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.
Gerund as object of preposition:• The police arrested him for speeding. Answer: Subject- police Verb- arrested D.O.- him Prepositional phrase- for speeding Gerund- speeding [object of the prep. (noun)]The police arrested him for speeding.
Now you try- Object of the Prepositional Phrase • You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work. (malinger!) Answers: Subject- You Verb- might get Prepositional phrase- in trouble Prepositional phrase- for faking Infinitive- to avoid work (to avoid work infinitive phrase as adverb) Gerund- faking (object of preposition) D.O- an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.
Points to Remember- Gerund• A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.• A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).• Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation
Infinitives• An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.
Can you tell what function the infinitive takes? To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. Answer: Subject Everyone wanted to go. Answer: Direct ObjectHe lacked the strength to resist. Answer: adjective We must study to learn. Answer: adverb
Infinitive or Prepositional Phrase?• to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong• to him, to the committee, to my house,to the mountains, to us, to this address
The Finale!! Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives• What is the bold part of the sentence?• Stay away from running water.• The dog chased the fluttering moth.• Borrowing money is usually a mistake.• I nodded to show respect.• After closing on her house, Tanya decided to sell some of the furniture.• Dancing is my favorite hobby.